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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823069/current-status-of-cattle-production-system-in-nyagatare-district-rwanda
#1
Eugene Mazimpaka, Francis Mbuza, Tukei Michael, Eugene N Gatari, E M Bukenya, Okwee-Acai James
A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53...
August 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822932/hydrochemistry-of-waters-in-snowpacks-lakes-and-streams-of-mt-dagu-eastern-of-tibet-plateau
#2
Guang Zhao, Wei Li, Feng Li, Fu Zhang, Gangcai Liu
There is little available information on hydrochemistry of waters from glacial source to downstream of glacierized catchments. Here we examine the water chemistry of the snowpacks, lakes and streams at eight sampling sites within glacial basin in Mt. Dagu, east Tibetan Plateau. An air mass trajectory model, correlation analysis, Gibbs model, Piper diagram and hydrograph separation analysis were utilized to investigate the characteristics and solutes sources of these waters. Generally, the TDS (Total dissolved solids; 7...
August 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822863/an-x-ray-absorption-fine-structure-spectroscopy-study-of-metal-sorption-to-graphene-oxide
#3
Allison R Showalter, Thomas A Duster, Jennifer E S Szymanowski, Chongzheng Na, Jeremy B Fein, Bruce A Bunker
Remediation and prevention of environmental contamination by toxic metals is an ongoing issue. Additionally, improving water filtration systems is necessary to prevent toxic metals from circulating through the water supply. Graphene oxide (GO) is a highly sorptive material for a variety of heavy metals under different ionic strength conditions over a wide pH range, making it a promising candidate for use in metal adsorption from contaminated sites or in filtration systems. We present X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy results investigating the binding environment of Cd (II), U(VI) and Pb(II) ions onto multi-layered graphene oxide (MLGO)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822488/sublethal-exposure-insecticide-resistance-and-community-stress
#4
REVIEW
Raul Narciso C Guedes, Spencer S Walse, James E Throne
Insecticides are an invaluable pest management tool and anthropogenic stressors of widespread environmental occurrence that are subject to biased perceptions based on the targeted application, market value of use, and regulatory requirements. As a result, short-term and simplistic efforts focusing on lethal effects toward individual species and populations prevail. Holistic and comprehensive studies exploring rather common sublethal insecticide exposures are rare, particularly considering their potential role in structuring populations and communities in diverse environmental settings and potentially interfering in a range of ecological interactions...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821185/phylogeography-and-ecological-niche-modeling-of-the-desert-iguana-dipsosaurus-dorsalis-baird-girard-1852-in-the-baja-california-peninsula
#5
Tania Valdivia-Carrillo, Francisco J García-De León, Ma Carmen Blázquez, Carina Gutiérrez-Flores, Patricia González Zamorano
Understanding the factors that explain the patterns of genetic structure or phylogeographic breaks at an intraspecific level is key to inferring the mechanisms of population differentiation in its early stages. These topics have been well studied in the Baja California region, with vicariance and the dispersal ability of individuals being the prevailing hypothesis for phylogeographic breaks. In this study, we evaluated the phylogeographic patterns in the desert iguana (Dipsosaurus dorsalis), a species with a recent history in the region and spatial variation in life history traits...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820903/prominent-facilitation-at-beta-and-gamma-frequency-range-revealed-with-physiological-calcium-concentration-in-adult-mouse-piriform-cortex-in-vitro
#6
Marie Gleizes, Simon P Perrier, Caroline Fonta, Lionel G Nowak
Neuronal activity is characterized by a diversity of oscillatory phenomena that are associated with multiple behavioral and cognitive processes, yet the functional consequences of these oscillations are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether and how these different oscillatory activities affect short-term synaptic plasticity (STP), using the olfactory system as a model. In response to odorant stimuli, the olfactory bulb displays a slow breathing rhythm as well as beta and gamma oscillations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820674/restoration-of-fmri-decodability-does-not-imply-latent-working-memory-states
#7
Sebastian Schneegans, Paul M Bays
Recent imaging studies have challenged the prevailing view that working memory is mediated by sustained neural activity. Using machine learning methods to reconstruct memory content, these studies found that previously diminished representations can be restored by retrospective cueing or other forms of stimulation. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for an activity-silent working memory state that can be reactivated dependent on task demands. Here, we test the validity of this conclusion by formulating a neural process model of working memory based on sustained activity and using this model to emulate a spatial recall task with retro-cueing...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820419/-the-state-of-fallopian-tubes-in-women-with-urogenital-chlamydia-and-infertility
#8
K Arustamyan, E Totoyan, A Karapetyan, A Gasparyan
The aim of this work was to assess the state of the fallopian tubes in women with urogenital chlamydia (UC) and infertility. 344 women 18-49 y.o with infertility have been investigated. UC was detected in 133 of them -38.7%, (main group), UC was absent in 211 (61.3%) patients (comparision group). In the main group prevailed the tubal or tubal peritoneal factor of infertility (51.9% versus 19.4% in the comparison group, p<0.001). UC in women in the main (62.4%) was in the form of mixed infection. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes and adhesions in the pelvic region were more often detected in patients of the main group (p<0...
July 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819272/rapid-peat-accumulation-favours-the-occurrence-of-both-fen-and-bog-microbial-communities-within-a-mediterranean-free-floating-peat-island
#9
Giuseppe Concheri, Piergiorgio Stevanato, Claudio Zaccone, William Shotyk, Valeria D'Orazio, Teodoro Miano, Pietro Piffanelli, Valeria Rizzi, Chiara Ferrandi, Andrea Squartini
The unique environment of a 4m-thick, free-floating peat island within the Posta Fibreno lake (Central Italy) was analyzed using DNA-based techniques to assess bacterial and fungal community members identity and abundance. Two depths were sampled at 41 and 279 cm from the surface, the former corresponding to an emerged portion of Sphagnum residues accumulated less than 30 yrs ago, and the latter mainly consisting of silty peat belonging to the deeply submerged part of the island, dating back to 1520-1660 AD...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819268/heterogenous-oceanic-redox-conditions-through-the-ediacaran-cambrian-boundary-limited-the-metazoan-zonation
#10
Junpeng Zhang, Tailiang Fan, Yuandong Zhang, Gary G Lash, Yifan Li, Yue Wu
Recent studies have enhanced our understanding of the linkage of oxygenation and metazoan evolution in Early Cambrian time. However, little of this work has addressed the apparent lag of animal diversification and atmospheric oxygenation during this critical period of Earth history. This study utilizes the geochemical proxy and N isotope record of the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary preserved in intra-shelf basin, slope, and slope basin deposits of the Yangtze Sea to assess the ocean redox state during the Early Cambrian metazoan radiation...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819259/dendritic-calcium-spikes-are-clearly-detectable-at-the-cortical-surface
#11
Mototaka Suzuki, Matthew E Larkum
Cortical surface recording techniques such as EEG and ECoG are widely used for measuring brain activity. The prevailing assumption is that surface potentials primarily reflect synaptic activity, although non-synaptic events may also contribute. Here we show that dendritic calcium spikes occurring in pyramidal neurons (that we showed previously are cognitively relevant) are clearly detectable in cortical surface potentials. To show this we developed an optogenetic, non-synaptic approach to evoke dendritic calcium spikes in vivo...
August 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819142/development-and-inter-laboratory-assessment-of-droplet-digital-pcr-assays-for-multiplex-quantification-of-15-genetically-modified-soybean-lines
#12
Alexandra Bogožalec Košir, Bjørn Spilsberg, Arne Holst-Jensen, Jana Žel, David Dobnik
Quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in food and feed products is often required for their labelling or for tolerance thresholds. Standard-curve-based simplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the prevailing technology, which is often combined with screening analysis. With the rapidly growing number of GMOs on the world market, qPCR analysis becomes laborious and expensive. Innovative cost-effective approaches are therefore urgently needed. Here, we report the development and inter-laboratory assessment of multiplex assays to quantify GMO soybean using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818644/radioecological-assessment-and-radiometric-dating-of-sediment-cores-from-dynamic-sedimentary-systems-of-pra-and-volta-estuaries-ghana-along-the-equatorial-atlantic
#13
E Klubi, J M Abril, E Nyarko, A Laissaoui, M Benmansour
The Volta and Pra estuaries (Ghana, West Africa) are dynamical sedimentary systems whose natural equilibrium is being affected by anthropogenic activities. This paper reports depth-distributions of (210)Pb, (226)Ra, (234)Th, (40)K, (228)Ra and (137)Cs for two sediment cores from these estuaries. Bulk densities were not steady-state and well correlated with (40)K (p < 0.00005). Unsupported (210)Pb profiles were incomplete, non-monotonic and showed large fluctuations. The assumptions involved in the common (210)Pb-based dating models were not meet in these dynamical scenarios, and the use of (137)Cs as a time-marker is difficult in Equatorial and South-Hemisphere countries due to its low fallout rates...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817973/the-agma1-polyamidoamine-mediates-the-efficient-delivery-of-sirna
#14
Roberta Cavalli, Luca Primo, Roberto Sessa, Giulia Chiaverina, Laura di Blasio, Jenny Alongi, Amedea Manfredi, Elisabetta Ranucci, Paolo Ferruti
AGMA1, a prevailingly cationic, guanidine-bearing, linear, amphoteric polyamidoamine is an effective siRNA condensing agent. Here two AGMA1 samples of different molecular weight, i.e. AGMA1-5 and AGMA1-10 were evaluated as siRNA condensing agents and transfection promoters. AGMA1-10 formed stable polyplexes with a size lower than 50 nm and positive zeta potential. AGMA1-5 polyplexes were larger, about 100 nm in size. AGMA1-10 polyplexes, but not AGMA1-5 proved to be an effective intracellular siRNA carrier, able to trigger gene silencing in Hela and PC3 cell lines without eliciting cytotoxic effects...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817189/from-preparedness-to-risk-from-the-singular-risk-of-nuclear-war-to-the-plurality-of-all-hazards
#15
Joe Deville, Michael Guggenheim
Debates on risk have largely assumed risk to be the outcome of calculative practices. There is a related assumption that risk objects come only in one form, and that the reason not everything can be transformed into a risk is because of the difficulties in calculating and creating universal quantitative comparisons. In this article, building on recent studies of preparedness that have broadened understandings of risk, we provide an analysis of how preparedness measures might themselves produce risk, in particular through risk's durable instantiation, or what we call 'concretization'...
August 17, 2017: British Journal of Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816323/indirect-dynamics-in-sn2-n-insight-into-the-influence-of-central-atoms
#16
Xu Liu, Chenyang Zhao, Li Yang, Jiaxu Zhang, Rui Sun
Central atoms have a significant influence on the reaction kinetics and dynamics of nucleophilic substitution (SN2). Herein, atomistic dynamics of a prototype SN2@N reaction F(-) + NH2Cl is uncovered employing direct dynamics simulations that show strikingly distinct features from those determined for a SN2@C congener F(-) + CH3Cl. Indirect scattering is found to prevail, which proceeds predominantly through a hydrogen-bonded F(-)-HNHCl complex in the reactant entrance channel. This unexpected finding of a pronounced contribution of indirect reaction dynamics, even at a high collision energy, is in strong contrast to a general evolution from indirect to direct dynamics with enhanced energy that characterizes SN2@C...
August 17, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815874/white-matter-alterations-associate-with-onset-symptom-dimension-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Irene Bollettini, Mario Gennaro Mazza, Laura Muzzarelli, Sara Dallaspezia, Sara Poletti, Benedetta Vai, Enrico Smeraldi, Francesco Benedetti
AIM: The high heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder is best described by a multidimensional model involving symptom dimensions. Our study aimed at investigating white matter alterations associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on the impact of long lasting effect of symptom dimensions assessed at onset of the illness. Furthermore, we investigate white matter alterations associated with this disorder controlling for the impact of medications and for the prevailing current symptom dimension...
August 16, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814811/the-3-d-structure-of-the-somma-vesuvius-volcanic-complex-italy-inferred-from-new-and-historic-gravimetric-data
#18
Niklas Linde, Tullio Ricci, Ludovic Baron, Alexis Shakas, Giovanna Berrino
Existing 3-D density models of the Somma-Vesuvius volcanic complex (SVVC), Italy, largely disagree. Despite the scientific and socioeconomic importance of Vesuvius, there is no reliable 3-D density model of the SVVC. A considerable uncertainty prevails concerning the presence (or absence) of a dense body underlying the Vesuvius crater (1944 eruption) that is implied from extensive seismic investigations. We have acquired relative gravity measurements at 297 stations, including measurements in difficult-to-access areas (e...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814665/fatty-acid-oxidation-by-the-osteoblast-is-required-for-normal-bone-acquisition-in-a-sex-and-diet-dependent-manner
#19
Soohyun P Kim, Zhu Li, Meredith L Zoch, Julie L Frey, Caitlyn E Bowman, Priyanka Kushwaha, Kathleen A Ryan, Brian C Goh, Susanna Scafidi, Julie E Pickett, Marie-Claude Faugere, Erin E Kershaw, Daniel L J Thorek, Thomas L Clemens, Michael J Wolfgang, Ryan C Riddle
Postnatal bone formation is influenced by nutritional status and compromised by disturbances in metabolism. The oxidation of dietary lipids represents a critical source of ATP for many cells but has been poorly studied in the skeleton, where the prevailing view is that glucose is the primary energy source. Here, we examined fatty acid uptake by bone and probed the requirement for fatty acid catabolism during bone formation by specifically disrupting the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2), an obligate enzyme in fatty acid oxidation, in osteoblasts and osteocytes...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814465/the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-a-model-of-traumatic-stress-fear-inhibition-or-contextual-processing
#20
Zachary T Pennington, Austin S Anderson, Michael S Fanselow
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has consistently appeared altered in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although the vmPFC is thought to support the extinction of learned fear responses, several findings support a broader role for this structure in the regulation of fear. To further characterize the relationship between vmPFC dysfunction and responses to traumatic stress, we examined the effects of pretraining vmPFC lesions on trauma reactivity and enhanced fear learning in a rodent model of PTSD...
September 2017: Learning & Memory
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