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Dekel Abeles, Roy Amit, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg
BACKGROUND: During visual exploration or free-view, gaze positioning is largely determined by the tendency to maximize visual saliency: more salient locations are more likely to be fixated. However, when visual input is completely irrelevant for performance, such as with non-visual tasks, this saliency maximization strategy may be less advantageous and potentially even disruptive for task-performance. Here, we examined whether visual saliency remains a strong driving force in determining gaze positions even in non-visual tasks...
2018: PloS One
Ancor Sanz-Garcia, Thorsten Rings, Klaus Lehnertz
Objective and Approach: Investigating properties of evolving functional brain networks has become a valuable tool to characterize the complex dynamics of the epileptic brain. 
 Such networks are usually derived from electroencephalograms (EEG) recorded with sensors implanted chronically into deeper structures of the brain and/or placed onto the cortex.
 It is still unclear, however, whether the use of different sensors for an identification of network nodes affects properties
 of functional brain networks...
June 22, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Arlen Mabel Lastre-Acosta, Bruna Barberato, Marcela Prado Silva Parizi, Antonio Carlos Silva Costa Teixeira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the aqueous phase photochemical behavior of enoxacin (ENO), an antibiotic selected as a model pollutant of emerging concern. The second-order reaction rate constants of ENO with hydroxyl radicals (HO● ) and singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) were determined at pH 3, 7, and 9. Also, the rate constants of the electron transfer reaction between ENO and triplet states of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (3 CDOM*) are reported for the first time, based on anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQ2S) as CDOM proxy...
June 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Margarita Lopez-Fernandez, Elias Broman, Stephanie Turner, Xiaofen Wu, Stefan Bertilsson, Mark Dopson
The deep biosphere is the largest 'bioreactor' on earth and microbes inhabiting this biome profoundly influence global nutrient and energy cycles. An important question for deep biosphere microbiology is whether or not specific populations are viable. To address this, we used quantitative PCR and high throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of total and viable cells (i.e. with an intact cellular membrane) from three groundwaters with different ages and chemical constituents. There were no statistically significant differences in 16S rRNA gene abundances and microbial diversity between total and viable communities...
June 19, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Francisco Dini-Andreote, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Han Olff, Joana Falcão Salles
Ancestor microbes started colonizing inland habitats approximately 2.7 to 3.5 billion years ago. With some exceptions, the key physiological adaptations of microbiomes associated with marine-to-land transitions have remained elusive. This is essentially caused by the lack of suitable systems that depict changes in microbiomes across sufficiently large time scales. Here, we investigate the adaptive routes taken by microbiomes along a contemporary gradient of land formation. Using functional trait-based metagenomics, we show that a switch from a microbial 'dispersal' to a 'competition' response modus best characterizes the microbial trait changes during this eco-evolutionary trajectory...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Feliciano Villar, Rodrigo Serrat, Montserrat Celdrán, Josep Fabà, M Teresa Martínez
This study aims at exploring staff perceptions of common and best practices toward a situation in which an older resident discloses their non-heterosexual sexual identity, differentiating between gay men, lesbians and bisexuals. A total of 2,254 staff members from 96 Spanish long-term care facilities took part in the study. They were asked about what do they think most of their workmates would do and what they think should be done in a situation in which an older resident discloses his/her non-heterosexual sexual orientation...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Homosexuality
Matthias Börger, Martin Genz, Jochen Ruß
A variety of literature addresses the question of how the age distribution of deaths changes over time as life expectancy increases. However, corresponding terms such as extension, compression, or rectangularization are sometimes defined only vaguely, and statistics used to detect certain scenarios can be misleading. The matter is further complicated because mixed scenarios can prevail, and the considered age range can have an impact on observed mortality patterns. In this article, we establish a unique classification framework for realized mortality scenarios that allows for the detection of both pure and mixed scenarios...
June 20, 2018: Demography
Alexandra Schulz, Benedikt Ribitsch, Paul Christian Fuchs, Alexandra Lipensky, Jennifer Lynn Schiefer
OBJECTIVE: Because genital burns are rare, only limited information on treatment guidelines is available in the literature. Vital tissue should be preserved to promote spontaneous healing because reconstruction does not always lead to satisfying results. The aim of this report is to present a general overview of current, prevailing treatment for genital burns and compare this to study authors' experiences. In addition, the article describes an entirely new approach of tissue-preserving bromelain-based enzymatic debridement of genital burn wounds...
July 2018: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Inbar Horin, Tal Adiri, Yossi Zafrani, Yoram Cohen
Bis-resorcin[4]arene 2 connected by its lower rims was synthesized via click chemistry and found, by diffusion NMR, to self-assemble quantitatively, despite the different alternatives, into hexameric capsules reminiscent of the well-characterized hexameric capsule of resorcin[4]arene 1. The hexameric capsules of the flexible bis-resorcin[4]arene 2 prevail in apolar organic solvents and can, as expected, encapsulate quite well ammonium salts, demonstrating that spontaneous self-assembly into hexameric capsules is a general characteristic of such systems...
June 20, 2018: Organic Letters
Filippo Lechthaler, Mahamat Fayiz Abakar, Esther Schelling, Jan Hattendorf, Boukari Ouedrago, Daugla Doumagoum Moto, Jakob Zinsstag
OBJECTIVE: To assess antenatal care (ANC) coverage and analyse constraining factors for service delivery to rural settled and mobile populations in two districts in Chad. METHOD: Data from cross-sectional household and health facility surveys in the two Chadian rural health districts were analysed. First, contact coverage of ANC services in the study area was estimated from household data as the proportion of women who visited health facilities to obtain ANC during their last pregnancy...
June 20, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Kiran Chawla, Ajay Kumar, Vishnu Prasad Shenoy, Devendra Singh Chauhan, Pragya Sharma
Background & objectives: Despite high occurrence of tuberculosis in India very little information is available about the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates prevailing in coastal Karnataka, India. Thus, the present study was undertaken to explore the genetic biodiversity of M. tuberculosis isolates prevailing in south coastal region of Karnataka (Udupi District), India. Methods: A total of 111 Mycobacterial isolates were cultured in Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) medium and after obtaining growth, DNA was extracted and spoligotyping was performed...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
G V Kovrov, T B Merkulova, S I Posokhov, Zh V Garakh
Changes in the frequency characteristics of EEG alpha rhythm in during falling asleep were studied in three healthy individuals under conditions of long-term isolation (MARS-500 project). Falling asleep was preceded by enhanced alpha rhythm frequency. An inverse correlation between the duration of falling asleep and prevailing alpha rhythm frequency during active and relaxed wakefulness was revealed in the left hemisphere. These results demonstrate the principal possibility of predicting the duration of falling asleep by using alpha rhythm spectral analysis...
June 19, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Kyoung-Jin Chung, Marina Nati, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Antonios Chatzigeorgiou
Immune cells are present in the adipose tissue (AT) and regulate its function. Under lean conditions, immune cells predominantly of type 2 immunity, including eosinophils, M2-like anti-inflammatory macrophages and innate lymphoid cells 2, contribute to the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis within the AT. In the course of obesity, pro-inflammatory immune cells, such as M1-like macrophages, prevail in the AT. Inflammation in the obese AT is associated with the development of metabolic complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
June 19, 2018: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
Mikhail A Lebedev, Alexey Pimashkin, Alexei Ossadtchi
According to the currently prevailing theory, hippocampal formation constructs and maintains cognitive spatial maps. Most of the experimental evidence for this theory comes from the studies on navigation in laboratory rats and mice, typically male animals. While these animals exhibit a rich repertoire of behaviors associated with navigation, including locomotion, head movements, whisking, sniffing, raring and scent marking, the contribution of these behavioral patterns to the hippocampal spatially-selective activity has not been sufficiently studied...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
David Faeh, Marco Kaufmann, Sarah R Haile, Matthias Bopp
Background: Besides smoking, low or high body mass index (BMI) is associated with chronic lung disease (CLD). It is unclear how CLD is associated with BMI, whether smoking interacts with this association, and how the associations differ from the patterns known for lung cancer. Population and Methods: Our population comprised 35,212 individuals aged 14-99, who participated in population-based surveys conducted in 1977-1993 in Switzerland (mortality follow-up until 2014)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Marcin Krupka, Marta Sobrinos-Sanguino, Mercedes Jiménez, Germán Rivas, William Margolin
ZipA is an essential cell division protein in Escherichia coli Together with FtsA, ZipA tethers dynamic polymers of FtsZ to the cytoplasmic membrane, and these polymers are required to guide synthesis of the cell division septum. This dynamic behavior of FtsZ has been reconstituted on planar lipid surfaces in vitro , visible as GTP-dependent chiral vortices several hundred nanometers in diameter, when anchored by FtsA or when fused to an artificial membrane binding domain. However, these dynamics largely vanish when ZipA is used to tether FtsZ polymers to lipids at high surface densities...
June 19, 2018: MBio
Lars Ursin, Maria Stuifbergen
Respecting people's consent choices for use of their material and data is a cornerstone of biobank ethics. Participation in biobanks is characteristically based on broad consent that presupposes an ongoing possibility of informing and interacting with participants over time. The death of a participant means the end of any interaction, but usually not the end of participation. Research on causes of death makes biobank material from deceased participants extremely valuable. But as new research questions and methods develop over time, the question arises whether stored biobank material from deceased persons still can be used on the basis of their broad consent...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Irene Caprara, Elsie Premereur, Maria C Romero, Pedro Faria, Peter Janssen
The primate dorsal visual stream processes object shape to guide actions involving an object, but the transmission of shape information beyond posterior parietal cortex remains largely unknown. To clarify the information flow between parietal and frontal cortex, we applied electrical microstimulation during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in a shape-selective patch in the posterior part of the Anterior Intraparietal area (pAIP) to chart its connectivity. Subsequently, we recorded single-unit responses to images of objects in the fMRI activation in prefrontal cortex, corresponding to area 45B, elicited by pAIP microstimulation...
June 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Ayesha Zafar, Muhammad Imran, Sarmad Zahoor, Zaheer Hussain Shah, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Sohail Afzal
In Pakistan, around 11 million people are infected with, at least, six circulating genotypes and subtypes of hepatitis C virus (HCV). The viral burden is still on rise. HCV genotype determination is necessary to devise appropriate antiviral therapy. Previous reports highlight the prevalence circulating untypable (in diagnostic perspectives) HCV subtype in local Pakistani patients. Present study was designed to investigate the epidemiological distribution of genotypes in different districts of Punjab, Pakistan and focuses on prevalence of diagnostically untypable subtype and its possible antiviral therapy...
June 19, 2018: Viral Immunology
Etienne A Hodille, Yves Ferro, Zachary Piazza, Cédric Pardanaud
The behavior of hydrogen in perfect wurtzite beryllium oxide is herein investigated by means of electronic structure calculations based on Density functional theory. The formation energies of the following set of states of hydrogen (H0, H+, H-, H2, H2+, H2-) are computed and their solubility is established as a function of temperature and pressure with emphasis given to conditions relevant for hydrogen-implanted materials. It is found that all magnetic states H0, H2+, H2- are unstable, while the relative stability of the non-magnetic states depends on the thermodynamic conditions: H2 prevails above temperatures around 900K at standard pressure, which is the lowest temperature in experiments measuring the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in wurtzite beryllium oxide...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
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