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Hsien-Liang Huang, Chien-An Yao, Wen-Yu Hu, Shao-Yi Cheng, Shinn-Jang Huang, Chih-Dao Chen, Wen-Yuan Lin, Yen-Chun Lin, Tai-Yuan Chiu
CONTEXT: Advance directive laws have influences on ethical dilemmas encountered by physicians caring for terminal cancer patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify the prevailing ethical dilemmas among terminal care physicians fifteen years after the Natural Death Act was enacted in Taiwan. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional survey from April 2014 to February 2015 using the clustering sampling method and a well-structured questionnaire. Targeted participants included physicians at oncology and related wards or palliative care units where terminal cancer care may be provided in Taiwan...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Fredrik Wallentin, Björn Wettermark, Thomas Kahan
The authors investigated antihypertensive drug treatment in Sweden using the Stockholm Regional Healthcare Data Warehouse, providing information on all healthcare consultations, diagnoses, hospitalizations, dispensed prescription drugs, sex, and age in 2.1 million persons. This cross-sectional analysis identified 292 428 individuals 20 years or older with hypertension (mean age 68 ± 13 years, 53% women). About half had no diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular comorbidity. The number of dispensed drugs was lower in women than in men (1...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
Andrew Wright Child, Barry C Moore, Jeffrey D Vervoort, Marc W Beutel
Heavy metal discharge from mining and smelting operations into aquatic ecosystems can cause long-term biological and ecological impacts. The upper Columbia River is highly contaminated with heavy metal wastes from nearby smelting operations in Trail, British Columbia, Canada, and to a lesser extent, Northport (Le Roi smelter), Washington, USA. Airborne emissions from the Trail operations were historically and are currently transported by prevailing winds down the Columbia River canyon, where particulate metals can be deposited into lakes and watersheds...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Marcos A S Leal, Ananda T Dias, Marcella L Porto, Bruna F Brun, Agata L Gava, Silvana S Meyrelles, José Gil-Longo, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Thiago M C Pereira, Elisardo C Vasquez
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mouse exhibits impaired vasodilation and enhanced vasoconstriction responsiveness. The objectives of this study were: a) to determine the relative contribution of cyclooxygenases (Cox-1 and Cox-2), thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) to enhancing vascular hyperresponsiveness in this model of atherosclerosis and b) to investigate the beneficial effects of the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil on this endothelial dysfunction...
December 7, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
E V Guzovskaya, S N Serebrennikova
DIC is a severe complication, often resulting in multi-organ failure and fatal outcome. As any syndrome, it is polyethiologic, while a big number of its causes logically leads to various mechanisms of its forming. Main manifestations of the disseminated intravascular blood coagulation syndrome are clottage and haemorrhage. A result of a massive clottage in microcirculatory bed of internal organs is development of dystrophic changes in them and organ failure. Haemorrhage in its turn, results in decreased volume of circulating blood, arterial hypotension and hemic hypoxia, in most severe cases leading to the fatal outcome...
April 2017: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
Ran Niu, Sabrina Heidt, Ramsia Sreij, Riande I Dekker, Maximilian Hofmann, Thomas Palberg
Colloidal glasses formed from hard spheres, nearly hard spheres, ellipsoids and platelets or their attractive variants, have been studied in great detail. Complementing and constraining theoretical approaches and simulations, the many different types of model systems have significantly advanced our understanding of the glass transition in general. Despite their early prediction, however, no experimental charged sphere glasses have been found at low density, where the competing process of crystallization prevails...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Florentina Villanueva, Araceli Tapia, Sonia Lara, Mariano Amo-Salas
Thirty two VOCs including alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes and carbonyl compounds together with NO2 were investigated in a kindergarten classroom, a primary classroom and the playground in 18 schools located in rural areas, an urban area (Ciudad Real) and an industrial area (Puertollano) in the province of Ciudad Real in central southern Spain. The most abundant pollutants at schools were the aldehydes formaldehyde and hexanal. After carbonyls, n-dodecane was the most abundant compound in the study areas...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Joana Falcao, Allison Zerbe, Maria Lahuerta, Rachel Baggaley, Laurence Ahoua, Pietro DiMattei, Fernando Morales, Isaias Ramiro, Wafaa M El-Sadr
Effective interventions tailored to specific types of behaviors and contexts are needed for women at risk for HIV acquisition. Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an efficacious HIV prevention intervention that uses antiretroviral drugs to reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection. In Mozambique, HIV remains a major public health concern, with a national prevalence of 13%. Studies have demonstrated that the migration of male miners between southern provinces of Mozambique and South Africa is contributing to the HIV epidemic in Mozambique...
December 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Katia Reis Souza, André Luis Oliveira Mendonça, Andrea Maria Santos Rodrigues, Eliana Guimarães Felix, Liliane Reis Teixeira, Maria Blandina Marques Santos, Marisa Moura
The main objective of this article is to analyze the new organization of labor of university teachers, seeking to investigate the potential relationship with the health status of these workers. It is based on the assumption that job instability in public universities has had repercussions on the health of higher education teachers. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted by means of bibliographic research in indexed databases. As a method of analysis, thematic analysis was used, focusing on four empirical categories, namely: job instability in the teaching profession; intensification of labor; aspects of the organization of teaching work in universities; and data on the health of university teachers...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Maximiliano Loiola Ponte de Souza, Ricardo Tadeu da Silva Onety
OBJECTIVE: to describe suicide characteristics and mortality rates among indigenous and non-indigenous people in Roraima, Brazil. METHODS: descriptive study using data from the Mortality Information System (SIM) about the suicides in individuals over 10 years old, recorded in the period from 2009 to 2013; suicide mortality rates were adjusted by sex and age. RESULTS: 170 suicide cases were reported, being 17.1% among indigenous people; median ages were 24 years among indigenous and 29 among non-indigenous people; four municipalities concentrated 25/29 of the suicides among indigenous people; the 141 suicides among non-indigenous people were distributed in 13/15 municipalities in the state; suicide mortality rates were 15...
October 2017: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Vikas Chauhan, Arthur C Reber, Shiv N Khanna
The role of carbon monoxide ligands on the magnetic moment of Co6Se8(CO)n clusters, n = 0-6 was investigated to better understand the interplay between the electronic structure of metal chalcogenide clusters and their ligands. We find that the addition of CO ligands to Co6Se8 results in the gradual demagnetization of the cluster. Generally, the addition of a CO ligand effectively adds two electrons to the cluster that occupy deeper states and further pushes up an antibonding orbital out of the valence manifold of cluster states...
December 6, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Xinchang Wang, Pixian Peng, Wei Xuan, Yu Wang, Yongbin Zhuang, Zhongqun Tian, Xiaoyu Cao
Narcissistic chiral self-sorting prevailed in the assembly of molecular face-rotating polyhedra from a C3h building block 5,5,10,10,15,15-hexabutyl-truxene-2,7,12-tricarbaldehyde and racemic mixtures of 1,2-diamines. Out of 124 possible stereoisomers, a pair of racemic polyhedra dominated, wherein (1R,2R)-diamines were segregated in AAAA polyhedra and (1S,2S)-diamines in CCCC polyhedra. This chiral self-sorting process is regulated by facial non-covalent interactions in the polyhedra. In contrast, D3h facial building blocks 1,3,5-tris-(4-formyl-phenyl)triazine and racemic mixtures of 1,2-diamines assembled into polyhedra without facial interactions, and their assembly process did not undergo apparent chiral self-sorting...
December 6, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Abhishek Khapre, Sunil Kumar, C Rajasekaran
Landfill gases are produced due to biodegradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW) when water comes into contact with buried wastes under prevailing anaerobic condition. To minimize the percolation of water in landfills, the conventional approach like clay capping is still practiced in India. Gas extraction system, for collection gases from landfills, is proven to be an expensive technique. Thus, "Phytocapping" to mitigate landfill gases and to minimize percolation of water into the landfill can be one of the attractive alternatives...
December 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
Kamila Czarnecka, Małgorzata Girek, Karolina Maciejewska, Robert Skibiński, Jakub Jończyk, Marek Bajda, Jacek Kabziński, Przemysław Sołowiej, Ireneusz Majsterek, Paweł Szymański
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of brain neurodegeneration and the most prevailing cause of dementia. Unfortunately, the aetiology of AD is not completely studied but different factors are associated with the development of AD such as among others low level of acetylcholine, aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ), hyperphosphorylated tau protein, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The study encompass organic syntheses of 2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinoline with 5,6-dichloronicotinic acid and suitable linkers derivatives as multifunctional agents for AD treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
David K Cole, Anna Fuller, Garry Dolton, Efthalia Zervoudi, Mateusz Legut, Kim Miles, Lori Blanchfield, Florian Madura, Christopher J Holland, Anna M Bulek, John S Bridgeman, John J Miles, Andrea J A Schauenburg, Konrad Beck, Brian D Evavold, Pierre J Rizkallah, Andrew K Sewell
Serial accumulation of mutations to fixation in the SLYNTVATL (SL9) immunodominant, HIV p17 Gag-derived, HLA A2-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope produce the SLFNTIAVL triple mutant "ultimate" escape variant. These mutations in solvent-exposed residues are believed to interfere with TCR recognition, although confirmation has awaited structural verification. Here, we solved a TCR co-complex structure with SL9 and the triple escape mutant to determine the mechanism of immune escape in this eminent system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Anthony Stigliani, Brianna Jeska, Kalanit Grill-Spector
How is temporal information processed in human visual cortex? Visual input is relayed to V1 through segregated transient and sustained channels in the retina and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). However, there is intense debate as to how sustained and transient temporal channels contribute to visual processing beyond V1. The prevailing view associates transient processing predominately with motion-sensitive regions and sustained processing with ventral stream regions, while the opposing view suggests that both temporal channels contribute to neural processing beyond V1...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Ali Nozari, Shabnam Ajami, Azade Rafiei, Elmira Niazi
Introduction: Dental caries is still prevailing worldwide, although different anti caries products have been introduced. Each remineralizing agent has its own shortcomings. Therefore, looking for new agents to have benefits of previous ones with lesser side effects is worthwhile. Aim: To determine the remineralization ability of NaF varnish, nano-Hydroxyapatite Serum (n-HAP) and Nano Silver Fluoride (NSF) on enamel of primary anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: Incipient caries were induced in primary sound anterior teeth by storing each specimen in demineralization solution for 72 hours...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Guyu Peng, Pei Xu, Bangshang Zhu, Mengyu Bai, Daoji Li
Microplastics, which are plastic debris with a particle diameter of less than 5 mm, have attracted growing attention in recent years. Its widespread distributions in a variety of habitats have urged scientists to understand deeper regarding their potential impact on the marine living resources. Most studies on microplastics hitherto are focused on the marine environment, and research on risk assessment methodology is still limited. To understand the distribution of microplastics in urban rivers, this study investigated river sediments in Shanghai, the largest urban area in China...
December 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Christian Kuss, Ngoc Duc Trinh, Stefan Andjelic, Mathieu Saulnier, Eric M Dufresne, Guoxian Liang, Steen B Schougaard
The prolific lithium battery electrode material lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) stores and releases lithium ions by undergoing a crystallographic phase change. Nevertheless, it performs unexpectedly well at high rate and exhibits good cycling stability. We investigate here the ultrafast charging reaction to resolve the underlying mechanism, while avoiding the limitations of prevailing electrochemical methods by using a gaseous oxidant to deintercalate lithium from the LiFePO4 structure. Oxidizing LiFePO4 with nitrogen dioxide gas reveals structural changes through in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and electronic changes through in situ UV/Vis reflectance spectroscopy...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Ángel González de Pablo
After World War II came to an end, General Franco's regime attempted to step aside from the defeated fascist states by emphasizing its Catholic character. The change of image culminated in 1947 with the establishment of Spain as a Catholic State by means of the Law of Succession. This process generated the national catholic ideology, which became, during the first decades of the dictatorship, the hegemonic instrument for the transformation of Spanish society in an anti-modernizing way. Scientific activity was not excluded from these changes, and a Catholic science conveying universal values and in harmony with the faith was strongly encouraged...
2017: Dynamis
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