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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129793/the-interval-between-vns-tone-pairings-determines-the-extent-of-cortical-map-plasticity
#1
Michael S Borland, Crystal T Engineer, William A Vrana, Nicole A Moreno, Navzer D Engineer, Sven Vanneste, Pryanka Sharma, Meghan C Pantalia, Mark C Lane, Robert L Rennaker, Michael P Kilgard
Repeatedly pairing vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) with a tone or movement drives highly-specific and long-lasting plasticity in auditory or motor cortex, respectively. Based on this robust enhancement of plasticity, VNS paired with rehabilitative training has emerged as a potential therapy to improve recovery, even when delivered long after the neurological insult. Development of VNS delivery paradigms that reduce therapy duration and maximize efficacy would facilitate clinical translation. The goal of the current study was to determine whether primary auditory cortex (A1) plasticity can be generated more quickly by shortening the interval between VNS-tone pairing events or by delivering fewer VNS-tone pairing events...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126650/plasticity-in-the-auditory-system
#2
REVIEW
Dexter R F Irvine
Over the last 30 years a wide range of manipulations of auditory input and experience have been shown to result in plasticity in auditory cortical and subcortical structures. The time course of plasticity ranges from very rapid stimulus-specific adaptation to longer-term changes associated with, for example, partial hearing loss or perceptual learning. Evidence for plasticity as a consequence of these and a range of other manipulations of auditory input and/or its significance is reviewed, with an emphasis on plasticity in adults and in the auditory cortex...
October 31, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118550/-horrendoplasty-a-case-of-total-perineal-destruction-by-agricultural-implement
#3
Pedro Simoes de Oliveira, Tiago Ribeiro de Oliveira, David Martinho, Francisco Martins
Although posterior urethral injury occurs almost always in association with pelvic fracture, it may result from severe trauma to the perineum with its associated potential lethality and severe morbidity. Early primary endoscopic realignment over a urethral catheter can be attempted, although an immediate suprapubic tube placement remains the standard of care. Definitive treatment consists of elective open posterior anastomotic urethroplasty through a perineal approach. The authors present a 53-year-old man who sustained total, massive perineal destruction resulting from work accident with an agricultural implement...
October 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108856/etiology-of-pediatric-acquired-blepharoptosis
#4
Sulakshan Rasiah, Thomas G Hardy, James E Elder, Cheng Yi Ng, Alan McNab
PURPOSE: To describe the etiology of acquired pediatric blepharoptosis in a large clinical series and to elucidate the causes of the disease. METHODS: The medical records of all patients presenting with acquired blepharoptosis at two specialist ocular plastics practices and a pediatric ophthalmology practice during a period of up to 25 years were reviewed retrospectively and classified according to their diagnosis. Patients were grouped into children (<18 years), younger adults (18-40 years), and older adults (>40 years)...
November 3, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104801/childhood-adversities-are-not-a-predictors-of-sstr4met-in-alcoholics
#5
Dominika Berent, Michał Pogórski, Dominika Kulczycka-Wojdala, Ewa Kusideł, Marian Macander, Zofia Pawłowska
Background: Genome methylation may modulate synaptic plasticity, being a potential background for mental disorder. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), known to be frequently reported by patients with alcohol dependence (AD), have been proposed as one of environmental inequities influencing DNA methylation. The study is aiming 1.To assess a promoter region methylation in gene for somatostatin receptor subtype-4 (SSTR4), a receptor for somatostatin, a neurotransmitter engaged in neuroplasticity and memory formation, in patients with AD; 2...
2017: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104125/a-review-of-illicit-psychoactive-drug-use-in-elective-surgery-patients-detection-effects-and-policy
#6
REVIEW
Gennaro Selvaggi, Antonio G Spagnolo, Anna Elander
Limited information is present in literature regarding detection of illicit drug users visiting physicians when planning elective surgery; also, there is no update manuscript that is illustrating the effects of illicit drugs use that require reconstructive surgery interventions. Aims of this manuscript are: 1) to summarize existing knowledge, and give surgeons information how to detect patients who might possible use illicit drugs; 2) to review the effects of illicit drug use that specifically require reconstructive surgery interventions; 3) to assess on existing policies on asymptomatic illicit drug users when planning elective surgery...
November 2, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100662/management-of-partial-fingertip-amputation-in-adults-operative-and-non-operative-treatment
#7
REVIEW
Kunal Sindhu, Steven F DeFroda, Andrew P Harris, Joseph A Gil
BACKGROUND: Hand and finger injuries account for approximately 4.8 million visits to emergency departments each year. These injuries can cause a great deal of distress for both patients and providers and are often initially encountered in urgent care clinics, community hospitals, and level one trauma centers. Tip amputation injuries vary widely in mechanism, ranging from sharp lacerations to crush injuries that present with varying degrees of contamination. The severity of damage to soft tissue, bone, arteries and nerves is dependent upon the mechanism and guides treatment decision-making...
October 31, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077998/a-pilot-study-of-reduced-olfactory-bulb-volume-as-a-marker-of-ptsd-in-childhood-trauma-exposed-adult-hiv-infected-patients
#8
Evaristus A Nwulia, Narayan Rai, Kamyar Sartip, Maria Mananita S Hipolito, Charlee K McLean, Kyla Flanagan, Flora Hamilton, Sharon Lambert, Huynh-Nhu Le, John VanMeter, Suad Kapetanovic
Evidence suggests that olfactory bulb (OB), a key structure in odor processing, may also be involved in mechanisms of traumatic stress. In animals, chronic stress reduces OB plasticity, and olfactory bulbectomy results in stress-enhanced startle reflex and autonomic dysregulation. However, OB morphometry has not been adequately studied in the development of stress disorders following childhood trauma in humans. The researchers conducted a pilot study evaluating the relationships between OB volume, childhood trauma, and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a sample of 16 HIV-positive individuals, 13 of whom were exposed to childhood trauma of 9 developed PTSD...
October 2017: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066663/spontaneous-painful-subungual-thumb-haematoma
#9
Nihull Jakharia-Shah, Priyanka Chadha, Mahendra Kulkarni
We present the case of a 56-year-old man who presented to our accident and emergency department 15 years after a work-based injury to his left thumb.In January 2017, the patient was woken up acutely with excruciating pain in his left thumb with no preceding trauma. On clinical examination, only a subungual haematoma was noted. Radiographs of the effected thumb demonstrated a round, lytic lesion with an accompanying hairline fracture on the distal phalanx of the left thumb. The radiologist suggested a differential diagnosis of enchondroma should be considered...
October 24, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059669/clinical-investigation-of-the-nucleus-slim-modiolar-electrode
#10
Antje Aschendorff, Robert Briggs, Goetz Brademann, Silke Helbig, Joachim Hornung, Thomas Lenarz, Mathieu Marx, Angel Ramos, Timo Stöver, Bernard Escudé, Chris J James
AIMS: The Nucleus CI532 cochlear implant incorporates a new precurved electrode array, i.e., the Slim Modiolar electrode (SME), which is designed to bring electrode contacts close to the medial wall of the cochlea while avoiding trauma due to scalar dislocation or contact with the lateral wall during insertion. The primary aim of this prospective study was to determine the final position of the electrode array in clinical cases as evaluated using flat-panel volume computed tomography...
2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059111/pedicled-rotational-medial-and-lateral-gastrocnemius-flaps-surgical-technique
#11
Zeke Walton, Milton Armstrong, Sophia Traven, Lee Leddy
Gastrocnemius flaps have been used for decades to reconstruct defects of the proximal tibia and knee. They have proven to be useful in the soft-tissue reconstruction of defects caused by trauma, tumors, and infections about the knee, and the reconstruction of extensor mechanism discontinuity with and without total joint arthroplasty. The flaps have low failure rates and a distinct proximally based blood supply that allows them to be elevated and rotated up to 15 cm above the level of the knee joint. The vascular anatomy is reproducible because rotational flaps do not require microvascular anastomosis...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053520/plastic-surgery-management-of-victims-of-terrorist-violence-in-ankara-turkey
#12
Murat İğde, Ahmet Kaplan
Terror attacks have been progressively increasing worldwide through the present era. The management of the consequences of terrorism events is under debate in almost every scientific area. The organization and advancement of health services constitute important components of the crisis management. Similar to other specialty areas in medicine, the medical management of terrorist attacks is becoming important in terms of plastic and reconstructive surgery.Ankara, the capital of Turkey, has been subject to 2 terrorist events in public places within a year...
December 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019572/epidemiological-profile-and-treatment-of-substance-losses-by-trauma-to-the-lower-limbs
#13
Ricardo Barros Martins Rezende, Jefferson Lessa Soares de Macedo, Simone Corrêa Rosa, Fernando Soares Galli
OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the epidemiological profile, the surgical treatment and the postoperative results of patients with complex traumatic injuries to the lower limbs. METHODS: we conducted a retrospective study of patients with traumatic complex injuries treated by the Plastic Surgery Service of a regional hospital in Brasília. We analyzed clinical-epidemiological data, type of surgical procedure and functional recovery of the limb after six months of treatment...
September 2017: Revista do Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972191/effects-of-acute-intermittent-hypoxia-on-hand-use-after-spinal-cord-trauma-a-preliminary-study
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Randy D Trumbower, Heather B Hayes, Gordon S Mitchell, Steven L Wolf, Victoria A Stahl
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that daily acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) combined with hand opening practice improves hand dexterity, function, and maximum hand opening in persons with chronic, motor-incomplete, cervical spinal cord injury. METHODS: Six participants completed the double-blind, crossover study. Participants received daily (5 consecutive days) AIH (15 episodes per day: 1.5 minutes of fraction of inspired oxygen [FIo2] = 0.09, 1-minute normoxic intervals) followed by 20 repetitions of hand opening practice and normoxia (sham, FIo2 = 0...
October 31, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966633/transcriptional-inhibition-in-schwann-cell-development-and-nerve-regeneration
#15
REVIEW
Susanne Quintes, Bastian G Brinkmann
Schwann cells, the myelinating glial cells of the peripheral nervous system are remarkably plastic after nerve trauma. Their transdifferentiation into specialized repair cells after injury shares some features with their development from the neural crest. Both processes are governed by a tightly regulated balance between activators and inhibitors to ensure timely lineage progression and allow re-maturation after nerve injury. Functional recovery after injury is very successful in rodents, however, in humans, lack of regeneration after nerve trauma and loss of function as the result of peripheral neuropathies represents a significant problem...
August 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958117/-does-the-hand-solely-belong-in-the-hands-of-a-qualified-hand-surgeon
#16
Asim Güven, Kerstin Kols, Klaus Fischer, Michael Schönberger, Sixtus Allert
Background In Germany, Hand Surgery is an additional qualification that can only be obtained by a three-year training after a completed residency in General Surgery, Plastic Surgery or Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery. Nevertheless, injuries and diseases of the hand are also treated by physicians without this particular qualification. It is questionable whether these treatments more often lead to medical malpractice. Material and Methods 376 charges of medical malpractice in surgical treatments of the hand and forearm that were closed in 2014 and 2015 were collected by the Arbitration Board for Medical Liability Issues of the Medical Association of North Germany...
September 2017: Handchirurgie, Mikrochirurgie, Plastische Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953797/the-therapeutic-model-of-group-analytic-psychotherapy-in-brain-s-plasticity-modification-and-expression-in-patients-with-cognitive-and-psychiatric-disorders-a-hypothesis-of-neuron-immune-analysis-and-neuron-immune-modulation
#17
Catherine Mela
BACKGROUND: Dementia-like situations and depressive symptoms can be caused by a specific neuron circuit blockage, related with remote organic causes that are not cited in the CNS. Excessive cytokine secretion during stress situations is one of these causes which can be related with onset of cognitive symptoms including or accompanied by depressive ones, sometimes in an overlapping way. In both cases, chronic inflammation is a common hidden mechanism causing a vicious circle with mechanisms of somatic chronic stress and vice-versa while the serotonin pathway seems not to get seriously involved...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952139/randomized-comparison-of-the-effectiveness-of-nasal-intubation-using-a-glidescope-video-laryngoscope-with-magill-forceps-versus-vascular-forceps-in-patients-with-a-normal-airway
#18
Jong H Yeom, Mi K Oh, Woo J Shin, Dae W Ahn, Woo J Jeon, Sang Y Cho
PURPOSE: The GlideScope(®) video laryngoscope (GVL) is widely used for nasotracheal intubation in dental and facial plastic surgery. The angle of the Magill forceps is different from that of the GVL blade, which suggests that the Magill forceps are not the ideal forceps for use with the GVL. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the Magill forceps vs vascular forceps for nasotracheal intubation using the GVL. METHODS: This study included 60 patients scheduled to undergo elective surgery requiring nasotracheal intubation...
September 26, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941504/trauma-in-facial-plastic-surgery-frontal-sinus-fractures
#19
REVIEW
Irene A Kim, Kofi D Boahene, Patrick J Byrne
The optimal management of frontal sinus fractures remains controversial. Fortunately, the severity of these injuries has diminished with more stringent auto-safety regulations, changing the treatment paradigms used to repair these injuries. Appropriate patient selection and close follow-up may allow for conservative management strategies when dealing with frontal sinus fractures, largely replacing the more morbid and invasive techniques that have been the mainstay for years. Because acute and delayed sequelae can arise after the initial injury, patients should be thoroughly counseled about the importance of follow-up and the need to seek medical care if they develop any concerning signs or symptoms...
November 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938364/the-role-of-tranexamic-acid-in-plastic-surgery-review-and-technical-considerations
#20
Rod J Rohrich, Min-Jeong Cho
Minimizing blood loss during surgery is critical, and many modalities have been used to decrease unwanted surgical bleeding. Among many methods, use of pharmacological agents such as anti-fibrinolytic drugs have been shown to significantly reduce blood loss and the rates of postoperative blood transfusion in many literatures. Tranexamic acid is an anti-fibrinolytic agent that has been widely used in other surgical specialties, especially in cardiac, orthopedic, and trauma surgery . Despite its known benefits, the use of tranexamic acid in plastic surgery is extremely limited, primarily because most plastic surgery procedures do not involve the extent of blood loss that can lead to anemia and the need for blood transfusion, as is common in major orthopedic and cardiac surgery procedures...
September 15, 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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