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Trauma plastics

F Bonnaire, M Goepel, P Bula
The requirements of the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) for the new treatment procedure were presented on 1 January 2013 in a new catalogue. The implementation of the certification of hospitals for the very severe injury procedure (SAV) by the DGUV should have been completed by 2014. These requirements placed high demands on trauma-oriented hospitals because of the high structural and personnel prerequisites. The background to the new organization was the wish of the DGUV for quality improvement in patient treatment in hospitals for patients with very severe occupational and occupation-related trauma by placement in qualified centers with high case numbers...
October 17, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
Taewoon Yoon, Youngjoon Kim
PURPOSE: Nasal bone fracture is the most common type of facial bone fracture. There are 2 main reduction methods for treating nasal bone fractures: open reduction and closed reduction. A secondary operation was required when there was a deviation of shape after the operation, so there have been many studies conducted on patient satisfaction after reduction. However, there was few study on the satisfaction of nasal bone fracture patients with rhinoplasty depending on treatment modality...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Thomas Broggini, Lisa Schnell, Ali Ghoochani, José María Mateos, Michael Buchfelder, Kurt Wiendieck, Michael K Schäfer, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai E Savaskan
The Plasticity Related Gene family covers five, brain-specific, transmembrane proteins (PRG1-5, also termed LPPR1-5) that operate in neuronal plasticity during development, aging and brain trauma. Here we investigated the role of the PRG family on axonal and filopodia outgrowth. Comparative analysis revealed the strongest outgrowth induced by PRG3 (LPPR1). During development, PRG3 is ubiquitously located at the tip of neuronal processes and at the plasma membrane and declines with age. In utero electroporation of PRG3 induced dendritic protrusions and accelerated spine formations in cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 15, 2016: Aging
Stephen W Scheff, Kelly N Roberts
We have previously shown that pycnogenol (PYC) increases antioxidants, decreases oxidative stress, suppresses neuroinflammation and enhances synaptic plasticity following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we investigate the effects of PYC on cognitive function following a controlled cortical impact (CCI). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received a CCI injury followed by an intraperitoneal injection of PYC (50 or 100mg/kg). Seven days post trauma, subjects were evaluated in a Morris water maze (MWM) and evaluated for changes in lesion volume...
October 11, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Andrea Tedeschi, Sebastian Dupraz, Claudia J Laskowski, Jia Xue, Thomas Ulas, Marc Beyer, Joachim L Schultze, Frank Bradke
Injuries to the adult CNS often result in permanent disabilities because neurons lose the ability to regenerate their axon during development. Here, whole transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis followed by gain- and loss-of-function experiments identified Cacna2d2, the gene encoding the Alpha2delta2 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), as a developmental switch that limits axon growth and regeneration. Cacna2d2 gene deletion or silencing promoted axon growth in vitro. In vivo, Alpha2delta2 pharmacological blockade through Pregabalin (PGB) administration enhanced axon regeneration in adult mice after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
September 27, 2016: Neuron
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
Jennifer M Sabino, Julia Slater, Ian L Valerio
Scope and Significance: Reconstruction of traumatic injuries requiring tissue transfer begins with aggressive resuscitation and stabilization. Systematic advances in acute casualty care at the point of injury have improved survival and allowed for increasingly complex treatment before definitive reconstruction at tertiary medical facilities outside the combat zone. As a result, the complexity of the limb salvage algorithm has increased over 14 years of combat activities in Iraq and Afghanistan. Problem: Severe poly-extremity trauma in combat casualties has led to a large number of extremity salvage cases...
September 1, 2016: Advances in Wound Care
Fatih Doğan, Cemal Alper Kemaloğlu
BACKGROUND: Aqua regia, a highly corrosive mixture of concentrated nitric acid and hydrochloric acid, is used to dissolve various metals such as gold and platinum that are not soluble in other types of acids. For the first time in the literature, we report the adverse effects that were observed following the utilization of this strong acid solution in the treatment of various skin lesions. METHODS: Between 2010 and 2013, 43 patients (55.8 % female) with a mean age of 40...
2016: SpringerPlus
Lotta Fornander, Tom Brismar, Thomas Hansson, Heidi Wikström
We have previously shown age- and time-dependent effects on brain activity in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of patients with median nerve injury. Whereas fMRI measures the hemodynamic changes in response to increased neural activity, magnetoencephalography (MEG) offers a more concise way of examining the evoked response, with superior temporal resolution. We therefore wanted to combine these imaging techniques to gain additional knowledge of the plasticity processes in response to median nerve injury...
September 20, 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
Yoshiaki Sakamoto, Eric Arnaud
In cases of skull trauma, emergency surgery for cranial decompression typically involves the shortest approach, with the incision lying directly on or immediately near the bony defect. Subsequent reconstructive plastic surgery for the skull is difficult in such cases because incisions taken on the previous scar overlying the bony defect are prone to dehiscence and infection. Herein, we describe a technique for creating a well-vascularized delayed skin flap via multistaged operation before the actual skull reconstruction...
August 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Roger W Byard, Maria Bellis, Neil Ei Langlois
Careful examination of the skin and soft tissues is a routine part of the forensic autopsy to identify and characterise traumatic lesions. Three cases are reported where benign vascular lesions presented as bruises. In case 1, a 44-year-old man with a history of epilepsy was found dead on the floor. Dissection of the neck revealed a haemorrhagic area 15 mm × 1.5 mm, deep to the left thyrohyoid muscle. In case 2, an 87-year-old man was found dead with a plastic bag over his head attached to an opened cylinder of nitrogen gas...
September 10, 2016: Medicine, Science, and the Law
J Keiko McCreary, Zachary T Erickson, Gerlinde A S Metz
BACKGROUND: An adverse fetal environment in utero has been associated with long-term alterations in brain structure and function, and a higher risk of neurological disorders in later life. A common consequence of early adverse experience is impaired motor system function. A causal relationship for stress-associated impairments and a suitable therapy, however, have not been determined yet. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of ancestral stress on corticospinal tract (CST) morphology and fine motor performance in rats, and to determine if adverse programming by ancestral stress can be mitigated by environmental enrichment therapy in rats...
October 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
J Ushiba, S R Soekadar
Noninvasive brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are typically associated with neuroprosthetic applications or communication aids developed to assist in daily life after loss of motor function, eg, in severe paralysis. However, BMI technology has recently been found to be a powerful tool to promote neural plasticity facilitating motor recovery after brain damage, eg, due to stroke or trauma. In such BMI paradigms, motor cortical output and input are simultaneously activated, for instance by translating motor cortical activity associated with the attempt to move the paralyzed fingers into actual exoskeleton-driven finger movements, resulting in contingent visual and somatosensory feedback...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Seyed Nejat Hosseini, Ali Alizadeh, Afshin Zahedi
Osteomas are the most common benign tumors of the paranasal sinuses. They are usually localized in the frontal sinus. Giant osteomas of the frontal sinuses are very rare but readily extend into the intraorbital or intracranial cavity, causing serious complications. This is a report of a 14 year-old boy with a bulging in frontal area and asymptomatic giant osteoma of the frontal sinuses. He had a history of minor trauma that had a bulging after 3 months. However, he referred to a plastic surgeon after 15 months...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Ali Ebrahimi, Nasrin Nejadsarvari, Hamid Reza Rasouli, Azin Ebrahimi
BACKGROUND: Anterior cranial bone defects secondary to global war cranial defects pose a unique reconstructive challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of alloplastic reconstructions of cranial bone with titanium mesh and fat graft after warfare-related cranial trauma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients at the plastic and reconstructive surgery ward of our hospital underwent anterior cranioplasty with titanium mesh with or without fat grafts from lower abdominal wall...
January 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
Bridget Harrison, Ibrahim Khansa, Jeffrey E Janis
Reconstructive plastic surgery is vital in assisting patients with reintegration into society after events such as tumor extirpation, trauma, or infection have left them with a deficit of normal tissue. Apart from performing a technically sound operation, the plastic surgeon must stack the odds in the favor of the patient by optimizing them before and after surgery. The surgeon must look beyond the wound, at the entire patient, and apply fundamental principles of patient optimization. This article reviews the evidence behind the principles of patient optimization that are commonly used in reconstructive surgery patients...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Mihail Climov, Lauren R Bayer, Andrea V Moscoso, Hajime Matsumine, Dennis P Orgill
BACKGROUND: Dermal matrices are used to improve healing in both acute and chronic wounds including diabetic and lower extremity wounds, burns, trauma, and surgical reconstruction. The use of dermal matrices for the closure of inflammatory ulcerations is less frequent but growing. Currently available products include decellularized dermis and semisynthetic matrices. METHODS: A review of the published literature was performed to identify reports that use acellular dermal matrices in diabetic and inflammatory wounds...
September 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Samiul Muquit, Ahmad Abdelhai Moussa, Surajit Basu
Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this 'Pseudofailure', as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming...
May 2016: British Journal of Pain
Eduardo Rodrigues-Pinto, Todd H Baron
INTRODUCTION: Endoscopic ultrasound guided translumenal drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) has been widely practiced for over a decade, using conventional plastic and self-expandable metal stents. The use of such stents for transmural drainage is off-label and limited by the lack of lumen-to-lumen anchorage, which can lead to leakage, migration and tissue trauma. AREAS COVERED: Novel stent designs dedicated to applications of translumenal drainage have recently emerged and promise to make transmural drainage quicker, safer, and more effective...
September 2016: Expert Review of Medical Devices
Pallavi A Kumbla, Nathan Lee, Mary K Kimbrough
Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection in immunocompetent patients. It is not commonly seen in trauma patients who sustain multisystem injuries and are often exposed to numerous infectious sources. A multidisciplinary approach between medical and surgical specialties is crucial to ensuring timely diagnosis and treatment as morbidity and mortality can be high once acquired. In addition to antifungal therapy, radical debridement and reconstruction by plastic surgery is often necessary. Review of the literature shows that there is no definitive reconstructive technique for mucormycosis of the forehead and sinuses because the amount of tissue destruction may be varied in location and depth, therefore requiring varying extents of debridement...
July 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
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