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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908782/adaptive-responses-of-neuronal-mitochondria-to-bioenergetic-challenges-roles-in-neuroplasticity-and-disease-resistance
#1
REVIEW
Sophia M Raefsky, Mark P Mattson
An important concept in neurobiology is "neurons that fire together, wire together" which means that the formation and maintenance of synapses is promoted by activation of those synapses. Very similar to the effects of the stress of exercise on muscle cells, emerging findings suggest that neurons respond to activity by activating signaling pathways (e.g., Ca(2+), CREB, PGC-1α, NF-κB) that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and cellular stress resistance. These pathways are also activated by aerobic exercise and food deprivation, two bioenergetic challenges of fundamental importance in the evolution of the brains of all mammals, including humans...
November 29, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907236/suicide-by-intentional-air-embolism
#2
Gábor Simon, Evelin Rácz, Mátyás Mayer, Veronika Heckmann, Dénes Tóth, Zsolt Kozma
Venous air embolism occurs when air enters the venous system. The main causes of venous air embolism include medical procedures, neck and head trauma, and injuries of the genitals. Self-induced suicidal (and intentional) air embolism is extremely rare. The authors report a rare case of a suicidal air embolism committed using a self-made tool composed of a plastic bottle and an infusion set, injecting nearly 2000 mL of air into the cubital vein. The toxicological analysis suggested that midazolam, together with air, was also injected into the circulation using the same bottle and infusion set...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905540/the-effects-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-an-animal-model-of-tinnitus
#3
Wilhelmina H A M Mulders, Vanessa Vooys, Kalina Makowiecki, Alex D Tang, Jennifer Rodger
Tinnitus (phantom auditory perception associated with hearing loss) can seriously affect wellbeing. Its neural substrate is unknown however it has been linked with abnormal activity in auditory pathways. Though no cure currently exists, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to reduce tinnitus in some patients, possibly via induction of cortical plasticity involving brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). We examined whether low intensity rTMS (LI-rTMS) alleviates signs of tinnitus in a guinea pig model and whether this involves changes in BDNF expression and hyperactivity in inferior colliculus...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900183/severity-and-pattern-of-injuries-caused-by-the-traditional-swiss-team-sport-hornussen-first-retrospective-study-at-a-level-i-trauma-centre-in-switzerland
#4
Volkmar Waterkamp, Meret Ricklin, Benoît Schaller, Konstantinos Katsoulis, Aristomenis Exadaktylos
BACKGROUND: This article addresses typical injury patterns related to the traditional Swiss team sport of Hornussen. A small plastic disk is struck with a special elastic racket and then intercepted in the field. Severe injuries have occasionally been reported. We present a systematic review of all cases of Hornussen injuries treated in the University Hospital of Bern from 2000 to 2014. METHODS: To assess the frequency, type and outcome of Hornussen injuries, we performed a database search of all inpatient and outpatient cases related to Hornussen and that were admitted to and/or treated in Bern University Hospital from 2000 to 2014...
2016: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893559/personalized-reconstruction-of-traumatic-orbital-defects-based-on-precise-three-dimensional-orientation-and-measurements-of-the-globe
#5
Li Huang, Lisong Lin, Zhihong Wang, Bin Shi, Xiaofeng Zhu, Yu Qiu, Yue Huang, Xueyuan Yu, Yunyang Liao
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to precisely assess the severity of traumatic orbital defects and techniques for personalized orbital reconstruction. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in 97 patients with traumatic orbital defects who were treated in our hospital between July 2003 and June 2012. Pre- and postoperative spiral computed tomography scans were performed in all patients. A spatial orientation technique was used to measure the three-dimensional position of the globe and calculate the changes in the orbital volume...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893542/safety-and-suitability-of-finger-replantations-as-a-residency-training-procedure-a-retrospective-cohort-study-with-analysis-of-the-initial-postoperative-outcomes
#6
Dimitra Kotsougiani, Felicitas Ringwald, Caroline A Hundepool, Florian Neubrech, Thomas Kremer, Berthold Bickert, Ulrich Kneser, Christoph Hirche
Finger replantations demand technical excellence in microsurgery and hand trauma care. The objective of this study was to determine whether finger replantations constitute an appropriate and safe procedure for residency training. Additionally, the prognostic risk factors for the need to take a replanted finger back to the operation room and replant failure were analyzed.All patients who underwent finger replantation after complete amputation between 2007 and 2015 were included in a retrospective comparative study...
November 23, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889267/attribution-2-0-whose-complication-is-it
#7
Greg Hambright, Theresa Jackson, Vaidehi Agrawal, Antonio Arazosa, Benjamin Newman, Michael S Truitt
BACKGROUND: Payment models aimed at improving quality and curbing costs are being deployed, and hospitals are evaluating complications more closely. To decrease complications, hospitals must first "attribute" them to a responsible party. Our study uses a rigorous approach to attribution in the trauma population. METHODS: Twelve months of complications were reviewed by a multidisciplinary panel. Physicians, patients, nursing, and the hospital were all incorporated into the model...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878492/collagen-1-membrane-for-replacing-the-bladder-wall
#8
V I Kirpatovskii, A Yu Efimenko, V Yu Sysoeva, I S Mudraya, D M Kamalov, Zh A Akopyan, A A Kamalov
We studied the possibility of using membrane fabricated from type 1 collagen isolated from cattle tissues (group 1) or porcine tissues (group 2) for replacement of the resected bladder wall defect in rabbits in order to retain functional volume of the organ. Satisfactory take of both types of collagen membranes with formation of competent anastomosis was observed. Histological studies revealed inflammatory process in the bladder wall at the site of contact with the implanted membrane (more pronounced in case of membranes from cattle tissues) that decreased by day 21 of the experiment...
November 23, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825354/gross-and-histopathological-evaluation-of-human-inflicted-bruises-in-danish-slaughter-pigs
#9
Kristiane Barington, Jens Frederik Gramstrup Agger, Søren Saxmose Nielsen, Kristine Dich-Jørgensen, Henrik Elvang Jensen
BACKGROUND: Human inflicted bruises in slaughter pigs are hampering animal welfare, are an infringement of the animal protection act, and are a focus of public attention. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gross appearance of human inflicted bruises in slaughter pigs and to compare the inflammatory changes in two lesions as a basis for estimating the age of lesions in the same pig. Pigs with human inflicted bruises slaughtered at two major slaughterhouses in Denmark from November 2013 to May 2014 were evaluated...
November 8, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825047/assessment-of-compressive-failure-process-of-cortical-bone-materials-using-damage-based-model
#10
Theng Pin Ng, S S R Koloor, J R P Djuansjah, M R Abdul Kadir
The main failure factors of cortical bone are aging or osteoporosis, accident and high energy trauma or physiological activities. However, the mechanism of damage evolution coupled with yield criterion is considered as one of the unclear subjects in failure analysis of cortical bone materials. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the structural response and progressive failure process of cortical bone using a brittle damaged plasticity model. For this reason, several compressive tests are performed on cortical bone specimens made of bovine femur, in order to obtain the structural response and mechanical properties of the material...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819030/the-contribution-of-spatial-and-temporal-molecular-networks-in-the-induction-of-long-term-memory-and-its-underlying-synaptic-plasticity
#11
Anastasios A Mirisis, Anamaria Alexandrescu, Thomas J Carew, Ashley M Kopec
The ability to form long-lasting memories is critical to survival and thus is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. By virtue of its complexity, this same ability is vulnerable to disruption by a wide variety of neuronal traumas and pathologies. To identify effective therapies with which to treat memory disorders, it is critical to have a clear understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms which subserve normal learning and memory. A significant challenge to achieving this level of understanding is posed by the wide range of distinct temporal and spatial profiles of molecular signaling induced by learning-related stimuli...
2016: AIMS Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795859/atp-induces-disruption-of-tight-junction-proteins-via-il-1-beta-dependent-mmp-9-activation-of-human-blood-brain-barrier-in-vitro
#12
Fuxing Yang, Kai Zhao, Xiufeng Zhang, Jun Zhang, Bainan Xu
Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) follows brain trauma or central nervous system (CNS) stress. However, the mechanisms leading to this process or the underlying neural plasticity are not clearly known. We hypothesized that ATP/P2X7R signaling regulates the integrity of BBB. Activation of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) by ATP induces the release of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), which in turn enhances the activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Degradation of tight junction proteins (TJPs) such as ZO-1 and occludin occurs, which finally contributes to disruption of BBB...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778039/variation-in-practice-preferences-in-management-of-open-injuries-of-extremities-an-international-survey-by-sicot-research-academy
#13
Arun Kamal, Raja Bhaskara Kanakeshwar, Ashok Shyam, Dheenadayalan Jayaramaraju, Devendra Agraharam, Ramesh Perumal, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
PURPOSE: Open fractures are challenging injuries and there is a lot of variation in practice preferences which may reflect the wide variations in outcome in different units across the world. A survey was done amongst the international community of SICOT membership to document the practice preferences and variations. METHODS: An online questionnaire containing 23 questions which were sub-divided into three sections covering the various aspects of open injury management was sent by email to orthopaedic trauma surgeons across the world...
October 24, 2016: International Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777549/burn-injuries-and-soft-tissue-traumas-complicated-by-mucormycosis-infection-a-report-of-six-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
E J Kyriopoulos, A Kyriakopoulos, A Karonidis, A Gravvanis, I Gamatsi, C Tsironis, D Tsoutsos
Mucor fungus infection is a rare opportunistic infection, rapidly progressive and often fatal in immunocompromised patients, or in patients with chronic debilitating diseases. We report six cases of trauma patients with mucormycosis. Three had severe thermal burns, one of them with a medical history of diabetes mellitus. The other three patients suffered from severe soft tissue injuries caused by traffic accidents. In all cases there had been spontaneous exposure and contact of the wounds with soil. During hospitalization, fungi cultures and/or biopsies of all wounds were performed and all resulted positive...
December 31, 2015: Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752725/-the-new-treatment-procedure-of-the-german-statutory-accident-insurance-from-the-perspective-of-a-community-hospital
#15
F Bonnaire, M Goepel, P Bula
The requirements of the German statutory accident insurance (DGUV) for the new treatment procedure were presented on 1 January 2013 in a new catalogue. The implementation of the certification of hospitals for the very severe injury procedure (SAV) by the DGUV should have been completed by 2014. These requirements placed high demands on trauma-oriented hospitals because of the high structural and personnel prerequisites. The background to the new organization was the wish of the DGUV for quality improvement in patient treatment in hospitals for patients with very severe occupational and occupation-related trauma by placement in qualified centers with high case numbers...
October 17, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748725/postoperative-satisfaction-in-nasal-bone-fracture-patients-who-had-rhinoplasty
#16
Taewoon Yoon, Youngjoon Kim
PURPOSE: Nasal bone fracture is the most common type of facial bone fracture. There are 2 main reduction methods for treating nasal bone fractures: open reduction and closed reduction. A secondary operation was required when there was a deviation of shape after the operation, so there have been many studies conducted on patient satisfaction after reduction. However, there was few study on the satisfaction of nasal bone fracture patients with rhinoplasty depending on treatment modality...
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744421/plasticity-related-gene-3-prg3-overcomes-myelin-associated-growth-inhibition-and-promotes-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Thomas Broggini, Lisa Schnell, Ali Ghoochani, José María Mateos, Michael Buchfelder, Kurt Wiendieck, Michael K Schäfer, Ilker Y Eyupoglu, Nicolai E Savaskan
The Plasticity Related Gene family covers five, brain-specific, transmembrane proteins (PRG1-5, also termed LPPR1-5) that operate in neuronal plasticity during development, aging and brain trauma. Here we investigated the role of the PRG family on axonal and filopodia outgrowth. Comparative analysis revealed the strongest outgrowth induced by PRG3 (LPPR1). During development, PRG3 is ubiquitously located at the tip of neuronal processes and at the plasma membrane and declines with age. In utero electroporation of PRG3 induced dendritic protrusions and accelerated spine formations in cortical pyramidal neurons...
October 15, 2016: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737807/cognitive-assessment-of-pycnogenol-therapy-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Stephen W Scheff, Kelly N Roberts
We have previously shown that pycnogenol (PYC) increases antioxidants, decreases oxidative stress, suppresses neuroinflammation and enhances synaptic plasticity following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here, we investigate the effects of PYC on cognitive function following a controlled cortical impact (CCI). Adult Sprague-Dawley rats received a CCI injury followed by an intraperitoneal injection of PYC (50 or 100mg/kg). Seven days post trauma, subjects were evaluated in a Morris water maze (MWM) and evaluated for changes in lesion volume...
November 10, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720483/the-calcium-channel-subunit-alpha2delta2-suppresses-axon-regeneration-in-the-adult-cns
#19
Andrea Tedeschi, Sebastian Dupraz, Claudia J Laskowski, Jia Xue, Thomas Ulas, Marc Beyer, Joachim L Schultze, Frank Bradke
Injuries to the adult CNS often result in permanent disabilities because neurons lose the ability to regenerate their axon during development. Here, whole transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis followed by gain- and loss-of-function experiments identified Cacna2d2, the gene encoding the Alpha2delta2 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs), as a developmental switch that limits axon growth and regeneration. Cacna2d2 gene deletion or silencing promoted axon growth in vitro. In vivo, Alpha2delta2 pharmacological blockade through Pregabalin (PGB) administration enhanced axon regeneration in adult mice after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 19, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702572/acute-high-intensity-noise-induces-rapid-arc-protein-expression-but-fails-to-rapidly-change-gad-expression-in-amygdala-and-hippocampus-of-rats-effects-of-treatment-with-d-cycloserine
#20
M R Kapolowicz, L T Thompson
Tinnitus is a devastating auditory disorder impacting a growing number of people each year. The aims of the current experiment were to assess neuronal mechanisms involved in the initial plasticity after traumatic noise exposure that could contribute to the emergence of tinnitus and to test a potential pharmacological treatment to alter this early neural plasticity. Specifically, this study addressed rapid effects of acute noise trauma on amygdalo-hippocampal circuitry, characterizing biomarkers of both excitation and inhibition in these limbic regions, and compared them to expression of these same markers in primary auditory cortex shortly after acute noise trauma...
October 1, 2016: Hearing Research
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