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Trauma plastics

S Kabatas, C S Demir, E Civelek, I Yilmaz, A Kircelli, C Yilmaz, Y Akyuva, E Karaoz
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to analyze the effect of human Dental Pulp-Neural Crest Stem Cells (hDP-NCSCs) delivery on lesion site after spinal cord injury (SCI), and to observe the functional recovery after transplantation. METHODS: Neural Crest Stem Cells (NCSCs) were isolated from human Dental Pulp (hDP). The experimental rat population was divided into four groups (n = 6/24). Their behavioral motility was scored regularly. After 4-weeks, rats were sacrificed, and their spinal cords were examined for Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled hDP-NCSCs by immunofluorescence (IF) staining...
2018: Bratislavské Lekárske Listy
Naomi B Fine, Michal Achituv, Amit Etkin, Ofer Merin, Arieh Y Shalev
Background : The immediate aftermath of traumatic events is a period of enhanced neural plasticity, following which some survivors remain with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) whereas others recover. Evidence points to impairments in emotional reactivity, emotion regulation, and broader executive functions as critically contributing to PTSD. Emerging evidence further suggests that the neural mechanisms underlying these functions remain plastic in adulthood and that targeted retraining of these systems may enhance their efficiency and could reduce the likelihood of developing PTSD...
2018: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Farhan Ahmed Eitezaz, Mamoon Rashid, Shumaila Yousaf, Ishtiaq -Ur-Rehman, Samia Fatima, Mehreen Masud, Aamna Sanober, Adeela Hussain Khan, Haroon Ur Rashid
BACKGROUND: Maxilla is perhaps the most essential and visible part of the mid-face. It is a threedimensional structure and when reconstructing maxillectomy defects the principles of aesthetics as well as the best functional outcomes are taken into account. The aim of this study is to compare the Anterolateral Thigh Flap (ALTF) to the standard option like the Rectus Abdominis Free Flap (RAMFF) for the reconstruction of complex maxillary defects. METHODS: This descriptive case series was conducted at the Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shifa International Hospital Islamabad, Pakistan from 2009 to 2016...
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Mark Krauthammer, Amir Shuster, Daphna Mezad-Koursh, Benjamin Shlomi, Chaim Stolovitch, Igal Leibovitch
Purpose: To demonstrate an unusual case of orbital trauma due to dental surgery complication. Observations: An elderly patient who underwent dental implantation to the zygomatic bone was hospitalized in the ophthalmology department with impaired abduction of her right eye, also evident on ocular examination. Head computed tomography demonstrated damage to the lateral rectus and to the inferior oblique muscles. Clinical assessment determined these muscles could not be repaired and reattached...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Sarah Scheirs, Willeke Langenhorst, Assumpció Malgosa, Marisa Ortega-Sánchez, Hannah McGlynn, Cristina Santos, Xavier Jordana, Alfonso Rodriguez-Baeza, Ignasi Galtés
Literature on timing of rib trauma is scarce but remains challenging during forensic cases. This study analysed the macroscopic fracture patterns of perimortem rib fractures and compared them to experimentally reproduced rib fractures on fresh and dry ribs. Six distinctive macroscopic traits were found in ribs that might provide information about the timing of trauma, fracture mechanism and/or trauma circumstances. These traits are peels, folds, differential fracture edges, incomplete fractures, plastic deformation and longitudinal lines...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hiroshi Mitoma, Mario Manto, Christiane S Hampe
The cerebellum characteristically has the capacity to compensate for and restore lost functions. These compensatory/restorative properties are explained by an abundant synaptic plasticity and the convergence of multimodal central and peripheral signals. In addition, extra-cerebellar structures contribute also to the recovery after a cerebellar injury. Clinically, some patients show remarkable improvement of severe ataxic symptoms associated with trauma, stroke, metabolism, or immune-mediated cerebellar ataxia (IMCA, e...
February 19, 2018: Cerebellum
Nathaniel McGregor, Nicole Thompson, Kevin Sean O'Connell, Robin Emsley, Lize van der Merwe, Louise Warnich
Antipsychotics remain the most effective, and wide used option for ameliorating the symptoms of schizophrenia. However, inter-individual differences in treatment outcome are vast and suggest a role for genetic and environmental factors in affording favourable outcomes. A notable epigenetic relationship which has gained considerable traction in recent literature is the way in which the severity of childhood trauma can modify associations seen between genetic variation and antipsychotic treatment response. A potential mechanism of action which may facilitate this relationship is synaptic plasticity...
February 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Devvrat Katechia, Abdulla Ibrahim
Hand trauma forms an important part of plastic surgery and orthopedic training curricula. Although numerous practical hand trauma courses exist, there is always difficulty in achieving the right balance between educational content and practical workshops. AOTrauma-Hand Fixation for Surgeons is a 2.5-day course for plastic surgery and orthopedic trainees that aims to instill the principles of hand fracture fixation and soft tissue coverage through self-directed learning, lectures, small group discussion, and dry bone practical workshops...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Clare C Rittschof, Kimberly A Hughes
Animal behavioural traits often covary with gene expression, pointing towards a genomic constraint on organismal responses to environmental cues. This pattern highlights a gap in our understanding of the time course of environmentally responsive gene expression, and moreover, how these dynamics are regulated. Advances in behavioural genomics explore how gene expression dynamics are correlated with behavioural traits that range from stable to highly labile. We consider the idea that certain genomic regulatory mechanisms may predict the timescale of an environmental effect on behaviour...
February 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Chris P Stephenson, Ian J Baguley
Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder (FND) is a relatively common neurological condition, accounting for approximately 3-6% of neurologist referrals. FND is considered a transient disorder of neuronal function, sometimes linked to physical trauma and psychological stress. Despite this, chronic disability is common, for example, around 40% of adults with motor FND have permanent disability. Building on current theoretical models, this paper proposes that microglial dysfunction could perpetuate functional changes within acute motor FND, thus providing a pathophysiological mechanism underlying the chronic stage of the motor FND phenotypes seen clinically...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Andrew D Linkugel, Elizabeth B Odom, Rebecca A Bavolek, Alison K Snyder-Warwick, Kamlesh B Patel
Mandible fractures are the most common result of facial trauma. The proximity of oral flora to the site of both the injury and resulting surgical instrumentation makes managing infection a unique challenge. The benefit of antibiotic prophylaxis at the time of surgical treatment of mandible fractures is well established. However, the routine use of antibiotics between the time of injury and surgery is of unclear benefit. We aim to define the role of antibiotics in the preoperative period: from the time of injury to surgical intervention...
March 2018: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
Kamal Seyed-Forootan, Hamid Karimi, Nazilla-Sadat Seyed-Forootan
BACKGROUND: Plastic surgeons have used several methods for the construction of neo-vaginas, including the utilization of penile skin, free skin grafts, small bowel or recto-sigmoid grafts, an amnion graft, and cultured cells. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to compare the results of amnion grafts with amnion seeded with autograft fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over 8 years, we compared the results of 24 male-to-female transsexual patients retrospectively based on their complications and levels of satisfaction...
January 30, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Georgette Oni, Whitney Chow, Venkat Ramakrishnan, Matthew Griffiths
BACKGROUND: Portable high-frequency ultrasound is a useful adjunct to a plastic surgeon's practice. With a short learning curve, this patient-friendly imaging modality has a variety of uses that aid patient management/treatment plans. The authors describe clinical cases and review the literature regarding ultrasound performed by the surgeon. METHODS: The Sonosite S-Nerve machine with the L25X transducer was used (depth, 4.3 cm). Clinical cases that ordinarily would have been referred to the radiology department were taken from the day-to-day practice of the senior author (M...
February 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Agc Hay-David, T Stacey, I Pallister
Introduction We aimed to identify population demographics of motorcyclists and pillion passengers with isolated open lower-limb fractures, to ascertain the impact of the revised 2009 British Orthopaedic Association/British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons joint standards for the management of open fractures of the lower limb (BOAST 4), in terms of time to skeletal stabilisation and soft-tissue coverage, and to observe any impact on patient movement. Methods Retrospective cohort data was collected by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN)...
January 24, 2018: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
Yuliya S Nikolova, Keith A Misquitta, Brad R Rocco, Thomas D Prevot, Annchen R Knodt, Jacob Ellegood, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jason P Lerch, Ahmad R Hariri, Etienne Sibille, Mounira Banasr
Parallel clinical and preclinical research have begun to illuminate the biological basis of stress-related disorders, including major depression, but translational bridges informing discrete mechanistic targets for intervention are missing. To address this critical need, we used structural MRI in a mouse model and in a large human sample to examine stress effects on brain structure that may be conserved across species. Specifically, we focused on a previously unexplored approach, whole-brain structural covariance, as it reflects synchronized changes in neuroanatomy, potentially due to mutual trophic influences or shared plasticity across regions...
January 22, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Sung Ho Yoon, Jin Hoon Lee
Background: Lower eyelid incisions are widely used for the orbital approach in periorbital trauma and aesthetic surgery. In general, the subciliary approach is known to cause disposition of the lower eyelid by scarring the anterior lamella in some cases. On the other hand, many surgeons believe that a transconjunctival approach usually does not result in such complications and is a reliable method. We measured positional changes in the lower eyelid in blowout fracture repair since entropion is one of the most serious complications of the transconjunctival orbital approach...
December 2017: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
Paul O Phelps, Edward J Wladis, Dale R Meyer
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between upper eyelid position relative to the corneal light reflex (MRD1) and to delineate an association between eyelid height and involutional lower eyelid entropion. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients presenting for entropion repair to an academic ophthalmic plastic surgery service. A total of 111 patients were included in the study; 95 had unilateral involutional lower eyelid entropion, and 16 had bilateral lower eyelid entropion...
January 16, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Timothy Doyle, Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti, Emanuela Esposito, Susan Farr, Daniela Salvemini
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) provokes secondary pathological mechanisms, including ischemic and inflammatory processes. The new research in sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators has opened the door for an effective mechanism of reducing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory lesion activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the immunomodulatory effect of the functional S1PR1 antagonist siponimod in Phase III clinical trials for autoimmune disorders and of the competitive S1PR1 antagonist TASP0277308 in preclinical development in an in vivo model of TBI in mice...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Hervé Monka Lekuya, Rose Alenyo, Isaac Kajja, Alexander Bangirana, Ronald Mbiine, Ater Ngoth Deng, Moses Galukande
BACKGROUND: Degloving injuries are surgical conditions in which an extensive portion of skin and subcutaneous tissue is detached from the underlying fasciae, muscles, or bone surface. Frequently, there is an association of fracture underlying the degloved area. We aimed to compare the short-term outcomes of degloving injuries with and without underlying fracture. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted. We recruited patients with degloving injuries, and followed them up for 30 days to assess the outcomes...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
E Ali, M Raghuvanshi
OBJECTIVE: Open upper limb injuries requiring soft reconstruction can pose a dilemma for trauma surgeons when considering the treatment options. The British Orthopaedic Association and British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Standard for Trauma (BOAST) have addressed the management of severe open lower limb fractures with the creation of the BOAST 4 guidelines. However, no such gold standard exists for the treatment of open injuries of the upper limb. Furthermore, treatment of these injuries is often more difficult and requires complicated strategies...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
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