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Zihong He, Tuomo Rankinen, Arthur S Leon, James S Skinner, André Tchernof, Claude Bouchard
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Plasma steroid hormone levels vary between men and women, but their associations with BMI and adiposity are controversial. Furthermore, little is known about the role of exercise programs on the relationship between steroid hormones and adiposity. This report evaluates these relationships for plasma levels of adrenal, gonadal, and conjugated steroids with body composition and fat distribution in sedentary men and women, aged 17-65 years, and their responses to an exercise program...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Tania Acosta, Noël C Barengo, Astrid Arrieta, Carlos Ricaurte, Jaakko O Tuomilehto
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) imposes a heavy public health burden in both developed and developing countries. It is necessary to understand the effect of T2D in different settings and population groups. This report aimed to present baseline characteristics of study participants in the demonstration area for the "Type 2 Diabetes Prevention in Barranquilla and Juan Mina" (DEMOJUAN) project after randomization and to compare their fasting and 2-hour glucose levels according to lifestyle and T2D risk factor levels...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ceren Yarar-Fisher, Keith Fl Polston, Mualla Eraslan, Kathryn Y Henley, Gizem I Kinikli, C Scott Bickel, Samuel T Windham, Amie B McLain, Robert A Oster, Marcas M Bamman
This study compares the effects of an 8-week iso-caloric high protein (HP) diet versus a combination exercise (Comb-Ex) regimen on paralytic vastus lateralis (VL) and non-paralytic deltoid muscle in individuals with long-standing spinal cord injury (SCI). Fiber type distribution, cross-sectional area (CSA), levels of translation initiation signaling proteins (Erk-1/2, Akt, p70S6K1, 4EBP1, RPS6, and FAK), and lean thigh mass were analyzed at baseline and after the 8-week interventions. A total of 11 participants (C5-T12 levels, 21...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hansang Lee, Helen Hong, Junmo Kim, Dae Chul Jung
PURPOSE: To develop an automatic deep feature classification (DFC) method for distinguishing benign angiomyolipoma without visible fat (AMLwvf) from malignant clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from abdominal contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CE CT) images. METHODS: A dataset including 80 abdominal CT images of 39 AMLwvf and 41 ccRCC patients was used. We proposed a DFC method for differentiating the small renal masses (SRM) into AMLwvf and ccRCC using the combination of hand-crafted and deep features, and machine learning classifiers...
February 23, 2018: Medical Physics
Giuseppe F Giancotti, Andrea Fusco, Carlo Varalda, Laura Capranica, Cristina Cortis
Giancotti, GF, Fusco, A, Varalda, C, Capranica, L, and Cortis, C. Biomechanical analysis of suspension training push-up. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 602-609, 2018-The aims of this study were to evaluate the load distribution between upper and lower extremities during suspension training (ST) push-up at different lengths of ST device and to predict useful equations to estimate the training load. After giving informed consent for participation, 25 subjects (17 men and 8 women; age = 28.1 ± 5.2 years; body mass = 69...
March 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Kevin Ryan, Douglas George, James Liu, Patricia Mitchell, Kerrie Nelson, Ricky Kue
BACKGROUND: Mass casualty incident (MCI) triage and the use of triage tags to assign treatment priorities are not fully implemented despite emergency medical services (EMS) personnel training during drills and exercises. OBJECTIVES: To compare current field triage practices during both training and actual MCIs and identify any potential barriers to use. METHODS: During training sessions from November 2015 through March 2016, an anonymous survey was distributed to personnel in 3 distinct types of paid full-time EMS systems: Boston EMS (2-tiered, municipal third-service); Portland Fire Department (fire department-based ALS); and Stokes County EMS (county-based ALS) combined with Forsyth County EMS (county-based ALS)...
February 9, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Keisuke Shiose, Yosuke Yamada, Keiko Motonaga, Hideyuki Takahashi
Although each gram of glycogen is well known to bind 2.7-4.0 g of water, no studies have been conducted on the effect of muscle glycogen depletion on body water distribution. We investigated changes in extracellular and intracellular water (ECW and ICW) distribution in each body segment in muscle glycogen-depletion and glycogen-recovery condition using segmental bioimpedance spectroscopy technique (BIS). Twelve male subjects consumed 7.0 body mass-1 of indigestible (glycogen-depleted group) or digestible (glycogen-recovered group) carbohydrate for 24 hours after a glycogen-depletion cycling exercise...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Agata Leońska-Duniec, Zbigniew Jastrzębski, Aleksandra Jażdżewska, Ficek Krzysztof, Paweł Cięszczyk
Leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes have been studied for their potential association with development of human obesity and its related complications.Therefore, we have decided to check if selected body mass, body composition, and metabolic variables observed in physically active participants will be modulated by the polymorphisms.The genotype distribution was examined in a group of 201 women measured for chosen traits before and after the completion of a 12-week aerobic training program.Our results revealed a significant interaction between training and LEP genotype for glucose level...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Jose Ignacio Priego Quesada, Zachary Y Kerr, William M Bertucci, Felipe P Carpes
Sampling bias is an issue for research involving cyclists. The heterogeneity of cyclist populations, on the basis of skill level and riding purpose, can generate incorrect inferences about one specific segment of the population of interest. In addition, a more accurate categorization would be helpful when physiological parameters are not available. This study proposes using self-reported data to categorize amateur cyclist types by varying skill levels and riding purposes, therefore improving sample selection in experimental studies...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Daniel B Bornstein, George L Grieve, Morgan N Clennin, Alexander C McLain, Laurie P Whitsel, Michael W Beets, Keith G Hauret, Bruce H Jones, Mark A Sarzynski
OBJECTIVE: Many states in the southern region of the United States are recognized for higher rates of obesity, physical inactivity, and chronic disease. These states are therefore recognized for their disproportionate public health burden. The purpose of this study was to investigate state-level distributions of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index (BMI), and injuries among US Army recruits in order to determine whether or not certain states may also pose disproportionate threats to military readiness and national security...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Zongtao Yu, Hankui Chen, Junmei Ai, Yong Zhu, Yan Li, Jeffrey A Borgia, Jin-Song Yang, Jicai Zhang, Bin Jiang, Wei Gu, Youping Deng
Purpose: Lipids play roles in membrane structure, energy storage, and signal transduction as well as in human cancers. Here we adopt lipidomics to identify plasma lipid markers for early screening and detection of lung cancer. Experimental Design: Using mass spectrometry, we profiled 390 individual lipids using training and validation strategy in a total of 346 plasma samples from 199 early NSCLC patients, including 113 adenocacinoma and 86 squamous cell cancers (SqCC), and from 147 healthy controls...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
Sandro Manuel Mueller, Saskia Maria Gehrig, Jens A Petersen, Sebastian Frese, Violeta Mihaylova, Maria Ligon-Auer, Natalia Khmara, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, André Schaller, Carsten Lundby, Marco Toigo, Hans H Jung
BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction may represent a pathogenic factor in Huntington disease (HD). Physical exercise leads to enhanced mitochondrial function in healthy participants. However, data on effects of physical exercise on HD skeletal muscle remains scarce. We aimed at investigating adaptations of the skeletal muscle mitochondria to endurance training in HD patients. METHODS: Thirteen HD patients and 11 healthy controls completed 26 weeks of endurance training...
December 19, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
S Tsuzuku, T Kajioka, H Sakakibara, K Shimaoka
To examine the effect of a 12-week slow movement resistance training using body weight as a load (SRT-BW) on muscle mass, strength, and fat distribution in healthy elderly people. Fifty-three men and 35 women aged 70 years old or older without experience in resistance training participated, and they were randomly assigned to a SRT-BW group or control group. The control group did not receive any intervention, but participants in this group underwent a repeat measurement 12 weeks later. The SRT-BW program consisted of three different exercises (squat, tabletop push-up, and sit-up), which were designed to stimulate anterior major muscles...
December 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Debra C Sellon, Katherine Martucci, John R Wenz, Denis J Marcellin-Little, Michelle Powers, Kimberley L Cullen
OBJECTIVE To identify potential risk factors for digit injuries in dogs training and competing in agility events. DESIGN Internet-based, retrospective, cross-sectional survey. ANIMALS 1,081 dogs training or competing in agility events. PROCEDURES Data were collected for eligible animals via retrospective surveys distributed electronically to handlers of dogs participating in agility-related activities. Variables evaluated included demographic (handlers) and signalment (dogs) information, physical characteristics of dogs, and injury characteristics...
January 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Iris Meerschman, Kristiane Van Lierde, Caro Van Puyvelde, Astrid Bostyn, Sofie Claeys, Evelien D'haeseleer
BACKGROUND: In contrast with most medical and pharmaceutical therapies, the optimal dosage for voice therapy or training is unknown. AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of a short-term intensive voice training (IVT) with a longer-term traditional voice training (TVT) on the vocal quality and vocal capacities of vocally healthy non-professional voice users. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A pre-/post-test randomized control group design with follow-up measurements was used...
March 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Fangyu Ding, Jingying Fu, Dong Jiang, Mengmeng Hao, Gang Lin
Mosquito-borne infectious diseases, such as Rift Valley fever, Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika, have caused mass human death with the transnational expansion fueled by economic globalization. Simulating the distribution of the disease vectors is of great importance in formulating public health planning and disease control strategies. In the present study, we simulated the global distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus at a 5×5km spatial resolution with high-dimensional multidisciplinary datasets and machine learning methods Three relatively popular and robust machine learning models, including support vector machine (SVM), gradient boosting machine (GBM) and random forest (RF), were used...
February 2018: Acta Tropica
Shaman Rajindrajith, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, Chamilka Jayasinghe, Dulani Kottahachchi, Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Shamila T de Silva, Madunil A Niriella, Anuradha S Dassanayake, Arjuna P de Silva, H Janaka de Silva
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common problem across the world. We aimed to determine the prevalence of NAFLD and its associations in Sri Lankan adolescents living in an urban Sri Lankan community. METHOD: The study population consisted of the birth cohort of the year 2000, residing in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health area. Socio-demographic and anthropometric data [anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and total body fat distribution] of these adolescents were collected by trained data collectors...
November 29, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
Amy J Hector, Stuart M Phillips
There exists a large body of scientific evidence to support protein intakes in excess of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) (0.8 g protein/kg/day) to promote the retention of skeletal muscle and loss of adipose tissue during dietary energy restriction. Diet-induced weight loss with as low as possible ratio of skeletal muscle to fat mass loss is a situation we refer to as high-quality weight loss. We propose that high-quality weight loss is often of importance to elite athletes in order to maintain their muscle (engine) and shed unwanted fat mass, potentially improving athletic performance...
February 19, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Dongqing Zhang, Antoine Prandota Trzcinski, Jinxue Luo, David C Stuckey, Soon Keat Tan
In this study, the production, composition, and characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in an anoxic-aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated. The average concentrations of proteins and carbohydrates in the MBR aerobic stage were 3.96 ± 0.28 and 8.36 ± 0.89 mg/L, respectively. After membrane filtration, these values decreased to 2.9 ± 0.2 and 2.8 ± 0.2 mg/L, respectively. High performance size exclusion chromatograph (HP-SEC) analysis indicated a bimodal molecular weight (MW) distribution of DOMs, and that the intensities of all the peaks were reduced in the MBR effluent compared to the influent...
February 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David F Little, Yu-Xuan Zhang, Beverly A Wright
Some forms of associative learning require only a single experience to create a lasting memory [1, 2]. In contrast, perceptual learning often requires extensive practice within a day for performance to improve across days [3, 4]. This suggests that the requisite practice for durable perceptual learning is integrated throughout each day. If the total amount of daily practice is the only important variable, then a practice break within a day should not disrupt across-day improvement. To test this idea, we trained human listeners on an auditory frequency-discrimination task over multiple days and compared the performance of those who engaged in a single continuous practice session each day [4] with those who were given a 30-min break halfway through each practice session...
December 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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