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distributed AND massed AND practice

Thierry N J Fouquet, Robert B Cody, Yuka Ozeki, Shinya Kitagawa, Hajime Ohtani, Hiroaki Sato
The Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analysis of multiply charged polymeric distributions has recently revealed a surprising isotopic split in their KMD plots-namely a 1/z difference between KMDs of isotopes of an oligomer at charge state z. Relying on the KMD analysis of actual and simulated distributions of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO), the isotopic split is mathematically accounted for and found to go with an isotopic misalignment in certain cases. It is demonstrated that the divisibility (resp. indivisibility) of the nominal mass of the repeating unit (R) by z is the condition for homolog ions to line up horizontally (resp...
May 11, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Mélanie Roué, Hélène Taiana Darius, André Ung, Jérôme Viallon, Manoella Sibat, Philipp Hess, Zouher Amzil, Mireille Chinain
Ciguatera is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of seafood contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). Ciguatera-like poisoning events involving giant clams ( Tridacna maxima ) are reported occasionally from Pacific islands communities. The present study aimed at providing insights into CTXs tissue distribution and detoxification rate in giant clams exposed to toxic cells of Gambierdiscus polynesiensis , in the framework of seafood safety assessment. In a first experiment, three groups of tissue (viscera, flesh and mantle) were dissected from exposed individuals, and analyzed for their toxicity using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses...
May 10, 2018: Toxins
James P R Schofield, Dominic Burg, Joost Brandsma, Doroteya Staykova, Caterina Folisi, Aruna Bansal, Ben Nicholas, Yang Xian, Anthony Rowe, Julie Corfield, Susan Wilson, Jonathan Ward, Rene Lutter, Louise Fleming, Dominick E Shaw, Per S Bakke, Massimo Caruso, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Stephen J Fowler, Simone Hashimoto, Ildiko Horvath, Peter Howarth, Norbert Krug, Paolo Montuschi, Marek Sanak, Thomas Sandstrom, Florian Singer, Kai Sun, Ioannis Pandis, Charles Auffray, Ana R Sousa, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung, Peter J Sterk, Ratko Djukanovic, Paul J Skipp
Analysis of induced sputum supernatant is a minimally invasive approach to study the epithelial lining fluid and, thereby, provide insight into normal lung biology and the pathobiology of lung diseases. We present here a novel proteomics approach to sputum analysis developed within the U-BIOPRED (Unbiased BIOmarkers Predictive of REspiratory Disease outcomes) international project. We present practical and analytical techniques to optimise the detection of robust biomarkers in proteomic studies. The normal sputum proteome was derived using data-independent HDMSE applied to 40 healthy non-smoking participants, which provides an essential baseline from which to compare modulation of protein expression in respiratory diseases...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Xianhe Huang, Qingsong Bai, Wei Pan, Jianguo Hu
The non-uniformity of QCMs' mass sensitivity distribution is a disadvantage to practical applications. Through theoretical calculations, we found that common ring electrode QCMs could obtain approximately uniformly sensitivity distribution by carefully selecting the inner and outer diameters and mass loading factor of the electrode. A series of experiments were carried out using 10 MHz ring electrode QCMs with an inner diameter of 2 mm, an outer diameter of 5 mm and a loading factor R of 0.0044. The experimental results proved that its mass sensitivity distribution is approximate uniformly...
May 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jing Sun, Huixia Huo, Yuelin Song, Jiao Zheng, Yunfang Zhao, Wenzhe Huang, Yonghua Wang, Jingbo Zhu, Pengfei Tu, Jun Li
Although wide applications towards ischemic stroke in clinic, the therapeutic materials of Longxuetongluo Capsule (LTC) that is composed of total phenolic extract of Chinese dragon's blood, are still largely unclear. Exposure pattern characterization of those drug-derived components in vivo, notably in circulation system has been recommended as a viable approach to disclose the effective components of a given herbal medicine. Herein, we aimed to develop a robust method being capable of multi-component quantification in either rat plasma or tissues following oral administration of LTC, and to clarify the kinetic profiles of 11 primary drug-derived phenolic derivatives...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Dominika Luptakova, Ladislav Baciak, Tomas Pluhacek, Anton Skriba, Blanka Sediva, Vladimir Havlicek, Ivo Juranek
Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) encephalopathy is among the most serious complications in neonatology. In the present study, we studied the immediate (0 hour), subacute (36 hours) and late (144 hours) responses of the neonatal brain to experimental HI insult in laboratory rats. At the striatal level, the mass spectrometry imaging revealed an aberrant plasma membrane distribution of Na+ /K+ ions in the oedema-affected areas. The failure of the Na+ /K+ gradients was also apparent in the magnetic resonance imaging measurements, demonstrating intracellular water accumulation during the acute phase of the HI insult...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jing Guo, Minmin Li, Yongguo Liu, Fengzhong Wang, Zhiqiang Kong, Yufeng Sun, Jia Lu, Nuo Jin, Yatao Huang, Jiameng Liu, Frédéric Francis, Bei Fan
Ultra-performance convergence chromatography is an environmentally-friendly analytical method that uses dramatically reduced amounts of organic solvents. In addition, a robust and highly sensitive chiral separation method was developed for the novel chiral acaricide cyflumetofen by using ultra-performance convergence chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, which shows that stereoisomer recoveries determined for various apple parts ranged from 78.3% to 119.9%, with the relative standard deviations being lower than 14...
May 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ignacio de la Torre, Rafael Mora
Technological strategies of early humans are discussed in the light of a recently excavated stone tool assemblage from EF-HR, an archaeological site older than 1.33 Ma at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Renewed fieldwork at EF-HR has unearthed a lithic collection containing over 2300 artefacts (including a hundred handaxes in stratigraphic position), which represents one of the largest assemblages for the early Acheulean in East Africa. Our technological study shows co-occurrence of two distinctive reduction sequences in the same assemblage, one aimed at obtaining small flakes and the other focused on the production of large, thick, heavy flakes that were then used as blanks for handaxe shaping...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
F Martijn Verhoeven, Karl M Newell
In this article, we elaborate from a multiple time scales model of motor learning to examine the independent and integrated effects of massed and distributed practice schedules within- and between-sessions on the persistent (learning) and transient (warm-up, fatigue) processes of performance change. The timescales framework reveals the influence of practice distribution on four learning-related processes: the persistent processes of learning and forgetting, and the transient processes of warm-up decrement and fatigue...
April 20, 2018: Human Movement Science
Ting Ting Low, Siew Pang Chan, Shin Hnin Wai, Zhou Ang, Kyu Kyu, Kim Yee Lee, Anne Ching, Sarah Comer, Naomi Qiu Pin Tan, Elizabeth Grace Hui En Thong, Tracy Nang, Mohan Dutta, Carolyn S P Lam
BACKGROUND: There is increasing knowledge of sex-specific differences in cardiovascular disease and recognition of sex disparities in management. In our study, we investigated whether a cardiovascular programme tailored to the specific needs of women could lead to improved outcomes. METHODS: We randomised 100 female patients to receive cardiology follow-up with the conventional sex-neutral cardiac programme (control), or the sex-tailored Women's Heart Health Programme (intervention)...
April 16, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Simon J Griffin, M Angelyn Bethel, Rury R Holman, Kamlesh Khunti, Nicholas Wareham, Gwen Brierley, Melanie Davies, Andrew Dymond, Rose Eichenberger, Philip Evans, Alastair Gray, Colin Greaves, Kyla Harrington, Graham Hitman, Greg Irving, Sarah Lessels, Ann Millward, John R Petrie, Martin Rutter, Mike Sampson, Naveed Sattar, Stephen Sharp
BACKGROUND: The treatment of people with diabetes with metformin can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may reduce the risk of cancer. However, it is unknown whether or not metformin can reduce the risk of these outcomes in people with elevated blood glucose levels below the threshold for diabetes [i.e. non-diabetic hyperglycaemia (NDH)]. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility of the Glucose Lowering In Non-diabetic hyperglycaemia Trial (GLINT) and to estimate the key parameters to inform the design of the full trial...
April 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Yingying Zhang, Xiang Wang, Dandan Hu, Chaozhuang Xue, Wei Wang, Huajun Yang, Dongsheng Li, Tao Wu
The highly efficient and cheap non-Pt-based electrocatalysts such as transition-based catalysts prepared via facile methods for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are desirable for large-scale practical industry applications in energy conversion and storage systems. Herein, we report a straightforward top-down synthesis of monodisperse ultrasmall manganese-doped multimetallic (ZnGe) oxysulfide nanoparticles (NPs) as an efficient ORR electrocatalyst by simple ultrasonic treatment of the Mn-doped Zn-Ge-S chalcogenidometalate crystal precursors in H2 O/EtOH for only 1 h at room temperature...
April 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Alexander Valerevich Kryukov, Dmitry Alekseevich Sychev, Denis Anatolevich Andreev, Kristina Anatolievna Ryzhikova, Elena Anatolievna Grishina, Anastasia Vladislavovna Ryabova, Mark Alekseevich Loskutnikov, Valeriy Valerevich Smirnov, Olga Dmitrievna Konova, Irina Andreevna Matsneva, Pavel Olegovich Bochkov
Introduction: Difficulties in non-vitamin K anticoagulant (NOAC) administration in acute stroke can be associated with changes in pharmacokinetic parameters of NOAC such as biotransformation, distribution, and excretion. Therefore, obtaining data on pharmacokinetics of NOAC and factors that affect it may help develop algorithms for personalized use of this drug class in patients with acute cardioembolic stroke. Patients and methods: Pharmacokinetics of apixaban in patients with acute stroke was studied earlier by Kryukov et al...
2018: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
Tashi Parsons-Davis, Kim Knight, Marc Fitzgerald, Gary Stone, Lee Caldeira, Christina Ramon, Michael Kristo
Modern autoradiography techniques based on phosphorimaging technology using image plates (IPs) and digital scanning can identify heterogeneities in activity distributions and reveal material properties, serving to inform subsequent analyses. Here, we have adopted these advantages for applications in nuclear forensics, the technical analysis of radioactive or nuclear materials found outside of legal control to provide data related to provenance, production history, and trafficking route for the materials. IP autoradiography is a relatively simple, non-destructive method for sample characterization that records an image reflecting the relative intensity of alpha and beta emissions from a two-dimensional surface...
March 20, 2018: Forensic Science International
J S Smith, J F Coetzee, I W G Fisher, D J Borts, J P Mochel
This study describes the pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered (i.v.) fentanyl citrate, and its primary metabolite norfentanyl in Holstein calves. Eight calves (58.6 ± 2.2 kg), aged 3-4 weeks, were administered fentanyl citrate at a single dose of 5.0 μg/kg i.v. Blood samples were collected from 0 to 24 hr. Plasma (nor)fentanyl concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and a lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.03 ng/ml. To explore the effect of analytical performance on fentanyl parameter estimation, the noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was then repeated with a hypothetical LLOQ value of 0...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ian J Neeland, Paul Poirier, Jean-Pierre Després
The prevalence of obesity has increased globally over the last 2 decades. Although the body mass index has been a convenient and simple index of obesity at the population level, studies have shown that obesity defined by body mass index alone is a remarkably heterogeneous condition with varying cardiovascular and metabolic manifestations across individuals. Adipose tissue is an exquisitely active metabolic organ engaged in cross-talk between various systems; perturbation of adipose tissue results in a pathological response to positive caloric balance in susceptible individuals that directly and indirectly contributes to cardiovascular and metabolic disease...
March 27, 2018: Circulation
Bin Chen, Yimeng Song, Tingting Jiang, Ziyue Chen, Bo Huang, Bing Xu
Extremely high fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) concentration has been a topic of special concern in recent years because of its important and sensitive relation with health risks. However, many previous PM2.5 exposure assessments have practical limitations, due to the assumption that population distribution or air pollution levels are spatially stationary and temporally constant and people move within regions of generally the same air quality throughout a day or other time periods. To deal with this challenge, we propose a novel method to achieve the real-time estimation of population exposure to PM2...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sarah Landis, Robert Suruki, Joe Maskell, Kerina Bonar, Emma Hilton, Chris Compton
Blood eosinophil count may be a useful biomarker for predicting response to inhaled corticosteroids and exacerbation risk in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. The optimal cut point for categorizing blood eosinophil counts in these contexts remains unclear. We aimed to determine the distribution of blood eosinophil count in COPD patients and matched non-COPD controls, and to describe demographic and clinical characteristics at different cut points. We identified COPD patients within the UK Clinical Practice Research Database aged ≥40 years with a FEV1 /FVC <0...
March 20, 2018: COPD
Erdem Varol, Aristeidis Sotiras, Christos Davatzikos
Statistical parametric maps formed via voxel-wise mass-univariate tests, such as the general linear model, are commonly used to test hypotheses about regionally specific effects in neuroimaging cross-sectional studies where each subject is represented by a single image. Despite being informative, these techniques remain limited as they ignore multivariate relationships in the data. Most importantly, the commonly employed local Gaussian smoothing, which is important for accounting for registration errors and making the data follow Gaussian distributions, is usually chosen in an ad hoc fashion...
July 1, 2018: NeuroImage
Chuan Wei Duan, Lin Xu
BACKGROUND: Most of the androgen replacement therapies were based on serum testosterone and without measurements of total androgen activities. Whether those with low testosterone also have low levels of androgen activity is largely unknown. We hence examined the association between testosterone and androstanediol glucuronide (AG), a reliable measure of androgen activity, in a nationally representative sample of US men. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis was based on 1493 men from the Third National Health and Nutrition examination Survey (NHANES III) conducted from 1988 to 1991...
March 9, 2018: BMC Public Health
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