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distributed, massed, practice

V Soler, S Sourdet, L Balardy, G Abellan van Kan, D Brechemier, M E Rougé-Bugat, N Tavassoli, M Cassagne, F Malecaze, F Nourhashémi, B Vellas
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate visual performance and factors associated with abnormal vision in patients screened for frailty at the Geriatric Frailty Clinic (GFC) for Assessment of Frailty and Prevention of Disability at Toulouse University Hospital. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cross-sectional, single-centre study. SETTING: Institutional practice. PARTICIPANTS: Patients were screened for frailty during a single-day hospital stay between October 2011 and October 2014 (n = 1648)...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Jean Frantz Lemoine, Anne Marie Desormeaux, Franck Monestime, Carl Renad Fayette, Luccene Desir, Abdel Nasser Direny, Sarah Carciunoiu, Lior Miller, Alaine Knipes, Patrick Lammie, Penelope Smith, Melissa Stockton, Lily Trofimovich, Kalpana Bhandari, Richard Reithinger, Kathryn Crowley, Eric Ottesen, Margaret Baker
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) have been targeted since 2000 in Haiti, with a strong mass drug administration (MDA) program led by the Ministry of Public Health and Population and its collaborating international partners. By 2012, Haiti's neglected tropical disease (NTD) program had reached full national scale, and with such consistently good epidemiological coverage that it is now able to stop treatment for LF throughout almost all of the country. Essential to this success have been in the detail of how MDAs were implemented...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Michael J Barrington, Laura P Viero, Roman Kluger, Alexander L Clarke, Jason J Ivanusic, Daniel M Wong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the learning curve for capturing sonograms and identifying anatomical structures relevant to ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block and to determine if massed was superior to distributed practice for this core sonographic skill. METHODS: Ten University of Melbourne, third- or fourth-year Doctor of Medicine students were randomized to massed or distributed practice. Participants performed 15 supervised learning sessions comprising scanning followed by feedback...
September 28, 2016: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Mika Naganawa, Shu-Fei Lin, Keunpoong Lim, David Labaree, Jim Ropchan, Paul Harris, Yiyun Huang, Masanori Ichise, Richard E Carson, Gary W Cline
INTRODUCTION: (18)F-Fluoropropyl-(+)-dihydrotetrabenazine ((18)F-FP-(+)-DTBZ) is a vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT2) radiotracer for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to quantify human β-cell mass. Renal cortex and spleen have been suggested as reference regions, however, little is known about (18)F-FP-(+)-DTBZ binding in these regions including the fraction of radiometabolite. We compared the kinetics of (18)F-FP-(+)-DTBZ and its inactive enantiomer (18)F-FP-(-)-DTBZ in baboons, estimated the non-displaceable binding (VND) of the tracers, and used ex vivo studies to measure radiometabolite fractions...
September 2, 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Seongho Kim, Hyejeong Jang, Imhoi Koo, Joohyoung Lee, Xiang Zhang
Compared to other analytical platforms, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC×GC-MS) has much increased separation power for analysis of complex samples and thus is increasingly used in metabolomics for biomarker discovery. However, accurate peak detection remains a bottleneck for wide applications of GC×GC-MS. Therefore, the normal-exponential-Bernoulli (NEB) model is generalized by gamma distribution and a new peak detection algorithm using the normal-gamma-Bernoulli (NGB) model is developed...
January 2017: Computational Statistics & Data Analysis
Dominique Ingato, Jong Uk Lee, Sang Jun Sim, Young Jik Kwon
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) hold great promise as potential therapeutic carriers. EVs are biologically active, intrinsically transporting cargo between cells. Moreover, they can be loaded with specific cargo for distribution and/or engineered to achieve enhanced uptake. Although studies have already demonstrated therapeutic delivery using EVs, various challenges must be overcome before EV technology is ready for the clinic. Since the properties of EVs are dependent upon their cell of origin and the conditions of their formation, establishing clear characterization practices is essential to ensuring reproducibility and safety...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Kelly R Klein, Frederick M Burkle, Raymond Swienton, Richard V King, Thomas Lehman, Carol S North
INTRODUCTION: After all large-scale disasters multiple papers are published describing the shortcomings of the triage methods utilized. This paper uses medical provider input to help describe attributes and patient characteristics that impact triage decisions. METHODS: A survey distributed electronically to medical providers with and without disaster experience. Questions asked included what disaster experiences they had, and to rank six attributes in order of importance regarding triage...
2016: PLoS Currents
J Cornish, R L Harries, D Bosanquet, B Rees, J Ansell, N Frewer, P K Dhruva Rao, C Parry, R Ellis-Owen, S M Phillips, C Morris, J Horwood, M L Davies, M M Davies, R Hargest, Z Davies, J Hilton, D Harris, A Ben-Sassi, R Rajagopal, D Hanratty, S Islam, A Watkins, N Bashir, S Jones, I R Russell, J Torkington
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernias are common complications of midline closure following abdominal surgery and cause significant morbidity, impaired quality of life and increased health care costs. The 'Hughes Repair' combines a standard mass closure with a series of horizontal and two vertical mattress sutures within a single suture. This theoretically distributes the load along the incision length as well as across it. There is evidence to suggest that this technique is as effective as mesh repair for the operative management of incisional hernias; however, no trials have compared the Hughes Repair with standard mass closure for the prevention of incisional hernia formation following a midline incision...
September 15, 2016: Trials
Chikara Takahashi, Amelia Au-Yeung, Franklin Fuh, Teresa Ramirez-Montagut, Chris Bolen, William Mathews, William E O'Gorman
Mass cytometry is capable of measuring more than 40 distinct proteins on individual cells making it a promising technology for innovating biomarker discovery. However, in order for this potential to be fully realized, best practices in panel design need to be further defined in order to achieve consistency and reproducibility in data analysis. Of particular importance are controls that reveal, and panel design principles that mitigate the effects of signal interference or overlap. We observed a disparity between the staining profiles of two noncompeting anti- integrin β7 mAbs and hypothesized that signal interference was responsible...
September 15, 2016: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
J Martínez-Padilla, D López-Idiáquez, J J López-Perea, R Mateo, A Paz, J Viñuela
BACKGROUND: Vole outbreaks have been extensively described along with their impacts on humans, particularly in agricultural areas. The use of rodenticides is a common legal practice to minimise crop damage induced by high vole density for biocidal use. However, rodenticides can have negative direct and indirect impacts on non-target species that feed on voles. We studied whether the use of a second generation anticoagulant rodenticide, bromadiolone, can be detected in the blood of fledglings of wild common kestrels Falco tinnunculus in two areas of central Spain, exploring its possible indirect effects...
September 12, 2016: Pest Management Science
R S Pirie, B C McGorum, C Owen, O Carr, H Oakley, G McLachlan
Despite frequent use of metered dose inhalers (MDIs) and spacers in equine practice, limited information exists on the efficiency of aerosol delivery using such devices. We determined the particle size distribution within an MDI-generated salbutamol aerosol delivered via an equine spacer using 'best practice' delivery technique and assessed the effect of variations in MDI use technique (shaking prior to each actuation, rapid repetitive actuations, and MDI angulation) on aerosol delivery efficiency. Under optimal conditions, only 53(±18) μg salbutamol per 100 μg actuation was delivered beyond the spacer...
September 4, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mingzhe Chen, Zhe Hu, Zhenguo Wu, Weibo Hua, Kiyoshi Ozawa, Qinfen Gu, Yong-Mook Kang, Xiaodong Guo, Shu-Lei Chou, Shi-Xue Dou
High voltage (5-V class) spinel LiCr0.2Ni0.4Mn1.4O4 is one of the most promising cathode materials to meet the energy requirements of lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. For the mass production of this material (1 kg or higher), different synthesis routes will lead to different electrochemical performances, even with similar morphology and similar crystal structure obtained from laboratory X-ray diffraction, and the reason for this issue is still not clear. Herein, we have investigated the reasons for the different electrochemical performances resulting from three common synthesis routes (spray pyrolysis, coprecipitation, and sol-gel)...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Elsa Leger, Joanne P Webster
Hybridization of parasites is an emerging public health concern in our changing world. Hybridization and introgression in parasites and pathogens can have major impacts on the host and the epidemiology and evolution of disease. Schistosomiasis is a Neglected Tropical Disease of profound medical and veterinary importance across many parts of the world, with the greatest human burden within sub-Saharan Africa. Here we review how early phenotypic identification and recent confirmation through molecular studies on naturally occurring infections, combined with experimental manipulations, have revealed evidence of viable hybridization and introgressions within and between human and animal schistosome species...
August 30, 2016: Parasitology
Peilin Zhou, Haibo Yu, Jialin Shi, Niandong Jiao, Zhidong Wang, Yuechao Wang, Lianqing Liu
The atomic force microscope (AFM) is one of the most powerful tools for high-resolution imaging and high-precision positioning for nanomanipulation. The selection of the scanning area of the AFM depends on the use of the optical microscope. However, the resolution of an optical microscope is generally no larger than 200 nm owing to wavelength limitations of visible light. Taking into consideration the two determinants of relocation-relative angular rotation and positional offset between the AFM probe and nano target-it is therefore extremely challenging to precisely relocate the AFM probe to the initial scan/manipulation area for the same nano target after the AFM probe has been replaced, or after the sample has been moved...
September 30, 2016: Nanotechnology
Ying-Xiu Zhang, Zhao-Xia Wang, Zun-Hua Chu, Jin-Shan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) is proposed as a simple, valid and convenient measure of abdominal obesity and health risks in practice. The present study examined the distribution of nutritional status among children and adolescents categorized by WHtR cut-offs. METHODS: A total of 30,459 students (15,249 boys and 15,210 girls) aged 7-18years participated in the study. Height, weight and waist circumference (WC) of all subjects were measured, body mass index (BMI) and WHtR were calculated...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Monique E Johnson, Antonio R Montoro Bustos, Michael R Winchester
Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) is shown to be a practical technique to study the efficacy of rate-zonal sucrose density gradient centrifugation (SDGC) separations of mixtures of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in liquid suspension. spICP-MS enabled measurements of AuNP size distributions and particle number concentrations along the gradient, allowing unambiguous evaluations of the effectiveness of the separation. Importantly, these studies were conducted using AuNP concentrations that are directly relevant to environmental studies (sub ng mL(-1))...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Steven Arild Wuyts Andersen
Virtual reality (VR) simulation-based training is increasingly used in surgical technical skills training including in temporal bone surgery. The potential of VR simulation in enabling high-quality surgical training is great and VR simulation allows high-stakes and complex procedures such as mastoidectomy to be trained repeatedly, independent of patients and surgical tutors, outside traditional learning environments such as the OR or the temporal bone lab, and with fewer of the constraints of traditional training...
August 2016: Danish Medical Journal
Junwang Guo, Jierui Zou, Guofu Dong, Lei Ma, Jianbo Cong, Kai Fan, Guoshan Yang, Ke Wu
In vivo electron paramagnetic resonance tooth dosimetry could be a practical and ideal tool for quick mass triage of victims in the rescue following a disaster event involving irradiation radiation. Magnetic field modulation is an important issue to improve the sensitivity of X-band in vivo tooth dosimetry. We designed a couple of trapezoidal modulation coil sets fixed on the magnet poles that could be used to apply sufficient magnet field modulation into the detection aperture of the resonant cavity. Measurements of irradiated teeth with such coil sets demonstrated significant radiation-induced signals...
July 29, 2016: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Kaustuvmani Patowary, Rupshikha Patowary, Mohan C Kalita, Suresh Deka
The intrinsic biodegradability of hydrocarbons and the distribution of proficient degrading microorganisms in the environment are very crucial for the implementation of bioremediation practices. Among others, one of the most favorable methods that can enhance the effectiveness of bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environment is the application of biosurfactant producing microbes. In the present study, the biodegradation capacities of native bacterial consortia toward total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with special emphasis to poly aromatic hydrocarbons were determined...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
J D Bergiannaki, P Kostaras
The gender based or gender sensitive pharmacology is a new research area. Differences among sexes are observed in several parameters of their pharmacokinetic which may relate to alteration of their pharmacodynamic as well. Most psychotropics are given per os, and the greater part of their absorption takes place in the small intestine. Premenopausal women have slower gastric emptying times and lower gastrointestinal blood flow which probably reduces the extent of drug absorption. The distribution of drugs is influenced by the relative lower body mass index, the lower blood volume and flow and the greater percentage of body fat of women...
April 2016: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
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