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Diet gene expression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637315/attenuated-effects-of-bile-acids-on-glucose-metabolism-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-a-male-mouse-model-of-prenatal-undernutrition
#1
Huijuan Ma, Vicencia M Sales, Ashley R Wolf, Sathish Subramanian, Tucker J Matthews, Michael Chen, Aparna Sharma, Walt Gall, Wim Kulik, David E Cohen, Yusuke Adachi, Nicholas W Griffin, Jeffrey I Gordon, Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Elvira Isganaitis
Prenatal undernutrition and low birth weight are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Prenatal caloric restriction results in low birth weight, glucose intolerance, obesity, and reduced plasma bile acids (BA) in offspring mice. Since BAs can regulate systemic metabolism and glucose homeostasis, we hypothesized that BA supplementation could prevent diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in this model of developmental programming. Pregnant dams were food restricted by 50% from gestational days 12...
June 15, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636949/cloning-expression-and-nutritional-regulation-of-the-glutamine-synthetase-gene-in-ctenopharyngodon-idellus
#2
Rong Hu, Fufa Qu, Jianzhou Tang, Qiong Zhao, Jinpeng Yan, Zhigang Zhou, Yi Zhou, Zhen Liu
Glutamine synthetase (GS) is considered a master enzyme that catalyses ATP-dependent biosynthesis of glutamine from glutamate. In the present study, the GS gene was cloned from the intestine of grass carp, (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). The full-length cDNA sequence of GS encodes a 371-amino-acid polypetide. Phylogenetic analysis of the C. idellus GS sequence reveals common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as its closest neighbor. GS mRNA was differentially expressed in different tissues, with high to low gradient expression the intestine, brain, muscle, heart, gill, liver, pituitary gland, and spleen...
June 18, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636628/effects-of-spirulina-on-the-functions-and-redox-status-of-auditory-system-in-senescence-accelerated-prone-8-mice
#3
Yin-Ching Chan, Juen-Haur Hwang
To our knowledge, the effects of Spirulina platensis water extract (SP) on hearing function have not yet been reported. This study investigated the effects of SP on the function and redox status of the auditory system. Auditory brainstem responses and redox status were compared between two groups of 3-month-old senescence-accelerated prone-8 (SAMP8) mice: the control group was fed a normal diet, and the experimental group was fed a normal diet with oral supplementation of SP for 6 weeks. Compared with the control group, the experimental group had significantly lower hearing thresholds according to auditory brainstem responses measured using click sounds and 8-kHz tone burst sound stimulation at the end of this study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635632/glucose-and-lipid-dysmetabolism-in-a-rat-model-of-prediabetes-induced-by-a-high-sucrose-diet
#4
Ana Burgeiro, Manuela G Cerqueira, Bárbara M Varela-Rodríguez, Sara Nunes, Paula Neto, Frederico C Pereira, Flávio Reis, Eugénia Carvalho
Glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity are key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus, but their molecular nature during the early stages of the disease remains to be elucidated. We aimed to characterize glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin-target organs (liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue) in a rat model treated with a high-sucrose (HSu) diet. Two groups of 16-week-old male Wistar rats underwent a 9-week protocol: HSu diet (n = 10)-received 35% of sucrose in drinking water; Control (n = 12)-received vehicle (water)...
June 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632197/toxic-age-tage-theory-for-the-pathophysiology-of-the-onset-progression-of-nafld-and-ald
#5
REVIEW
Masayoshi Takeuchi, Jun-Ichi Takino, Akiko Sakasai-Sakai, Takanobu Takata, Mikihiro Tsutsumi
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) are among the most common causes of chronic liver diseases in the westernized world. NAFLD and ALD are frequently accompanied by extrahepatic complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular diseases, which have a negative impact on patient survival. The chronic ingestion of an excessive daily diet containing sugar/high-fructose corn syrup increases the level of the fructose/glucose metabolite, glyceraldehyde (GA), while the chronic consumption of an excessive number of alcoholic beverages increases the level of the alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde (AA) in the liver...
June 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630491/chronic-high-fat-feeding-restricts-islet-mrna-translation-initiation-independently-of-er-stress-via-dna-damage-and-p53-activation
#6
Masayuki Hatanaka, Emily Anderson-Baucum, Alexander Lakhter, Tatsuyoshi Kono, Bernhard Maier, Sarah A Tersey, Yukio Tanizawa, Carmella Evans-Molina, Raghavendra G Mirmira, Emily K Sims
Under conditions of high fat diet (HFD) consumption, glucose dyshomeostasis develops when β-cells are unable to adapt to peripheral insulin demands. Few studies have interrogated the molecular mechanisms of β-cell dysfunction at the level of mRNA translation under such conditions. We sought to address this issue through polyribosome profile analysis of islets from mice fed 16-weeks of 42% HFD. HFD-islet analysis revealed clear trends toward global reductions in mRNA translation with a significant reduction in the polyribosome/monoribosome ratio for Pdx1 mRNA...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630260/cholesterol-auxotrophy-and-intolerance-to-ezetimibe-in-mice-with-srebp-2-deficiency-in-the-intestine
#7
Shunxing Rong, Jeffrey McDonald, Luke Engelking
Sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (SREBP-2) activates transcription of all genes needed for cholesterol biosynthesis. To study SREBP-2 function in intestine, we generated a mouse model (Vil-BP2(-/-) ) in which Cre recombinase ablates SREBP-2 in intestinal epithelia. Intestines of Vil-BP2(-/-) mice had reduced expression of genes required for sterol synthesis, in vivo sterol synthesis rates, and epithelial cholesterol contents. On a cholesterol-free diet, they displayed chronic enteropathy with histological abnormalities of both villi and crypts, growth restriction, and reduced survival that was prevented by supplementation of cholesterol in the diet...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629148/involvement-of-cd36-in-modulating-the-decrease-of-npy-and-agrp-induced-by-acute-palmitic-acid-stimulation-in-n1e-115-cells
#8
Yan Ma, Xiaoyi Wang, Hongying Yang, Xu Zhang, Nianhong Yang
Central nervous system (CNS) fatty acid sensing plays an important role in the regulation of food intake, and palmitic acid (PA) is the most important long chain fatty acid (LCFA) in the mammalian diet. To explore the effect of PA on central neuropeptide expression and the role of the cluster of the differentiation of 36 (CD36) in the process, N1E-115 cells were cultured with PA in the presence or absence of sulfosuccinimidyl-oleate (SSO), a CD36 inhibitor. Results showed that 10 μmol/L PA significantly reduced NPY and AgRP mRNA expression after 20 min of exposure, while the expression of CD36 was upregulated...
June 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628909/nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-impairs-the-cytochrome-p-450-dependent-metabolism-of-%C3%AE-tocopherol-vitamin-e
#9
Desirée Bartolini, Pierangelo Torquato, Carolina Barola, Angelo Russo, Chiara Rychlicki, Danilo Giusepponi, Guido Bellezza, Angelo Sidoni, Roberta Galarini, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Francesco Galli
This study aims to investigate in in vivo and in vitro models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the enzymatic metabolism of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) and its relationship to vitamin E-responsive genes with key role in the lipid metabolism and detoxification of the liver. The experimental models included mice fed a high-fat diet combined or not with fructose (HFD+F) and HepG2 human hepatocarcinoma cells treated with the lipogenic agents palmitate, oleate or fructose. CYP4F2 protein, a cytochrome P-450 isoform with proposed α-tocopherol ω-hydroxylase activity, decreased in HFD and even more in HFD+F mice liver; this finding was associated with increased hepatic levels of α-tocopherol and decreased formation of the corresponding long-chain metabolites α-13-hydroxy and α-13-carboxy chromanols...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628674/hepatic-microvascular-dysfunction-and-increased-advanced-glycation-end-products-are-components-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
Evelyn Nunes Goulart da Silva Pereira, Raquel Rangel Silvares, Edgar Eduardo Ilaquita Flores, Karine Lino Rodrigues, Isalira Peroba Ramos, Igor José da Silva, Marcelo Pelajo Machado, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Carmen Cabanelas Pazos-Moura, Cassiano F Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Hugo Caire de Castro Faria-Neto, Eduardo Tibiriça, Anissa Daliry
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the pathophysiology of hepatic microcirculatory dysfunction in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: In Wistar rats, NAFLD model was induced by 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Rolling and adhesion of leukocytes and tissue perfusion in hepatic microcirculation were examined using in vivo microscopic and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), respectively. Oxidative stress and inflamatory parameters were analysed by TBARs, catalase enzyme activity, RT-PCR and ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628658/effects-of-obesogenic-diet-and-estradiol-on-dorsal-raphe-gene-expression-in-old-female-macaques
#11
Cynthia L Bethea, Kevin Mueller, Arubala P Reddy, Steven G Kohama, Henryk F Urbanski
The beneficial effects of bioidentical ovarian steroid hormone therapy (HT) during the perimenopause are gaining recognition. However, the positive effects of estrogen (E) plus or minus progesterone (P) administration to ovariectomized (Ovx) lab animals were recognized in multiple systems for years before clinical trials could adequately duplicate the results. Moreover, very large numbers of women are often needed to find statistically significant results in clinical trials of HT; and there are still opposing results being published, especially in neural and cardiovascular systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628040/lipogenic-transcription-factor-chrebp-mediates-fructose-induced-metabolic-adaptations-to-prevent-hepatotoxicity
#12
Deqiang Q Zhang, Xin Tong, Kyle VanDommelen, Neil Gupta, Kenneth Stamper, Graham F Brady, Zhuoxian Meng, Jiandie D Lin, Liangyou Y Rui, M Bishr Omary, Lei Yin
Epidemiologic and animal studies implicate overconsumption of fructose in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying fructose-induced chronic liver diseases remain largely unknown. Here, we have presented evidence supporting the essential function of the lipogenic transcription factor carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP) in mediating adaptive responses to fructose and protecting against fructose-induced hepatotoxicity. In WT mice, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) activated hepatic lipogenesis in a ChREBP-dependent manner; however, in Chrebp-KO mice, a HFrD induced steatohepatitis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627641/osteopontin-deficiency-protects-mice-from-cholesterol-gallstone-formation-by-reducing-expression-of-intestinal-npc1l1
#13
Jing Lin, Wei-Qing Shao, Qing-Zhi Chen, Wen-Wei Zhu, Lu Lu, Hu-Liang Jia, Jin-Hong Chen
Homeostasis of cholesterol is regulated by absorption in the intestine and synthesis in the liver. The authors previously demonstrated that OPN (osteopontin) exhibits the ability to alter hepatic cholesterol metabolism, thus affecting cholesterol gallstone formation in mice. The present study investigated the role of OPN in cholesterol gallstone formation, focusing on its effect on intestinal absorption of cholesterol. OPN gene knockout (OPN‑/‑) mice and wild‑type mice were respectively fed with a chow or lithogenic diet (LD) for 8 weeks...
June 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627418/alterations-in-neuronal-control-of-body-weight-and-anxiety-behavior-by-glutathione-peroxidase-4-deficiency
#14
Sonja C Schriever, Annemarie Zimprich, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Peter Baumann, Florian Giesert, Valentina Klaus, Dhiraj G Kabra, Ulrich Hafen, Artem Romanov, Matthias H Tschöp, Wolfgang Wurst, Marcus Conrad, Sabine M Hölter, Daniela Vogt Weisenhorn, Paul T Pfluger
Elevated levels of oxidative stress and neuronal inflammation in the hypothalamus or ventral midbrain, respectively, represent common denominators for obesity and Parkinson's Disease (PD). However, little is known about defense mechanisms that protect neurons in these regions from oxidative damage. Here, we aimed to assess whether murine Gpx4, a crucial antioxidant enzyme that protects neurons from membrane damage and ferroptosis, is critical for the protection from neuronal inflammation in two distinct pathophysiologic diseases, namely metabolic dysfunction in diet-induced obesity or PD...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625910/a-high-fat-diet-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-chick-adipose-tissue-to-the-effects-of-centrally-injected-neuropeptide-y-on-gene-expression-of-adipogenesis-associated-factors
#15
Guoqing Wang, Carli A Williams, Betty R McConn, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later...
June 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623466/increases-in-circulating-amino-acids-with-in-feed-antibiotics-correlated-with-gene-expression-of-intestinal-amino-acid-transporters-in-piglets
#16
Miao Yu, Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Chuanjian Zhang, Yong Su, Zan Huang, Kaifan Yu, Weiyun Zhu
In-feed antibiotics have been commonly used to promote the growth performance of piglets. The antibiotics can increase protein utilization, but the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. The present study investigated the effects of in-feed antibiotics on intestinal AA transporters and receptors to test the hypothesis that the alteration of circulating AA profiles may be concomitant with the change of intestinal AA transporters and receptors. Sixteen litters of piglets at day 7 started to receive creep feed with (Antibiotic) or without (Control) antibiotic...
June 16, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623160/basic-concepts-in-molecular-biology-related-to-genetics-and-epigenetics
#17
Dolores Corella, Jose M Ordovas
The observation that "one size does not fit all" for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease, among other diseases, has driven the concept of precision medicine. The goal of precision medicine is to provide the best-targeted interventions tailored to an individual's genome. The human genome is composed of billions of sequence arrangements containing a code that controls how genes are expressed. This code depends on other nonstatic regulators that surround the DNA and constitute the epigenome...
June 13, 2017: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623141/sirtuin-7-dependent-deacetylation-of-ddb1-regulates-the-expression-of-nuclear-receptor-tr4
#18
Md Fazlul Karim, Tatsuya Yoshizawa, Shihab U Sobuz, Yoshifumi Sato, Kazuya Yamagata
Sirtuin 7 (SIRT7) is an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase/deacylase, but only a limited number of SIRT7 substrates have been identified. Recently, we found that Sirt7 knockout mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced fatty liver, and that SIRT7 positively regulates the protein level of TR4, a nuclear receptor involved in lipid metabolism, by inhibiting the CUL4B/DDB1/DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. However, the mechanism by which SIRT7 inhibits the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex was not identified. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT7 binds directly to DDB1 and deacetylates DDB1 at Lys1121...
June 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622294/hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1b-is-a-novel-negative-regulator-of-white-adipocyte-differentiation
#19
Xin Wang, Hao Wu, Weihua Yu, Jiangzheng Liu, Jie Peng, Nai Liao, Jieling Zhang, Xiaodi Zhang, Chunxu Hai
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1b (HNF1b) is a transcription factor belonging to the HNF family. We aimed to investigate the role of HNF1b in white adipocyte differentiation. The expression of HNF1b was reduced in white adipose tissue (WAT) of both diet-induced and genetic obese mice and decreased during the process of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Downregulation of HNF1b enhanced 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and upregulation of HNF1b inhibited this process. Upregulation of HNF1b inhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and its target gene expression, while downregulation of HNF1b increased those genes expression...
June 16, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622065/leptin-gene-transfer-improves-symptoms-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-by-regulating-leptin-signaling-pathway-and-insulin-resistance-of-peripheral-tissues
#20
Lan Xiang, Jing Li, Qian Wang, Ruiqi Tang, Jianhua Qi
The leptin gene was transferred into the liver of streptozocin- and high fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice by hydrodynamic-based gene delivery. The food intake, water consumption, glucose concentration, and triglyceride, total cholesterol levels of T2D mice were significantly decreased. Meanwhile, plasma leptin was remarkably increased after gene transfer for 2, 3, 5, and 7 days, while plasma adiponectin was also significantly increased at day 2. To understand the mechanism of action of leptin on T2D mice, gene expressions related to glycometabolism and energy metabolism in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, hypothalamus, and muscle were measured...
June 16, 2017: Human Gene Therapy
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