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Shan Zhu, Renliang Huang, Hnin Pwint Wai, Hongliang Xiong, Xianhua Shen, Haohua He, Song Yan
High temperature stress is a major obstacle in rice productivity. Considerable progress has been made on studying heat tolerance (HT) at different stages. However, the genetic basis of HT at the booting stage is poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed the morphological features of a heat-sensitive japonica cultivar Sasanishiki under natural high temperature stress at the booting stage. The anthers became smaller and the number, and fertility, of pollen grains were decreased significantly. As a result, there was a dramatic reduction in spikelet fertility...
October 2017: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
R W Humphry, J Evans, C Webster, S C Tongue, G T Innocent, G J Gunn
Antimicrobial resistance is primarily a problem in human medicine but there are unquantified links of transmission in both directions between animal and human populations. Quantitative assessment of the costs and benefits of reduced antimicrobial usage in livestock requires robust quantification of transmission of resistance between animals, the environment and the human population. This in turn requires appropriate measurement of resistance. To tackle this we selected two different methods for determining whether a sample is resistant - one based on screening a sample, the other on testing individual isolates...
November 10, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Matthew J Silk, Nicola Weber, Lucy C Steward, Richard J Delahay, Darren P Croft, David J Hodgson, Mike Boots, Robbie A McDonald
Social interactions among hosts influence the persistence and spread of infectious pathogens. Daily and seasonal variation in the frequency and type of social interactions will play an important role in disease epidemiology and, alongside other factors, may have an influence on wider disease dynamics by causing seasonal forcing of infection, especially if the seasonal variation experienced by a population is considerable. We explored temporal variation in within-group contacts in a high-density population of European badgers Meles meles naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis (the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Yerlan Turuspekov, Aida Baibulatova, Kanat Yermekbayev, Laura Tokhetova, Vladimir Chudinov, Grigoriy Sereda, Martin Ganal, Simon Griffiths, Saule Abugalieva
BACKGROUND: Spring wheat is the largest agricultural crop grown in Kazakhstan with an annual sowing area of 12 million hectares in 2016. Annually, the country harvests around 15 million tons of high quality grain. Despite environmental stress factors it is predicted that the use of new technologies may lead to increases in productivity from current levels of 1.5 to up to 3 tons per hectare. One way of improving wheat productivity is by the application of new genomic oriented approaches in plant breeding projects...
November 14, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Xiaoming Huang, Ceylanpinar Atay, Jiadong Zhu, Sanne W L Palstra, Tamás I Korányi, Michael D Boot, Emiel J M Hensen
The one-step ethanolysis approach to upgrade lignin to monomeric aromatics using a CuMgAl mixed oxide catalyst is studied in detail. The influence of reaction temperature (200-420 °C) on the product distribution is investigated. At low temperature (200-250 °C), recondensation is dominant, while char-forming reactions become significant at high reaction temperature (>380 °C). At preferred intermediate temperatures (300-340 °C), char-forming reactions are effectively suppressed by alkylation and Guerbet and esterification reactions...
November 6, 2017: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Xin Zhao, Fadong Li, Zhipin Ai, Jing Li, Congke Gu
Better managing agricultural water resources, which are increasingly stressed by climate change and anthropogenic activities, is difficult, particularly because of variations in water uptake patterns associated with crop type and growth stage. Thus, the stable isotopes δ(18)O and δ(2)H were employed to investigate the water uptake patterns of a summer maize (Zea mays L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) rotation system in the North China Plain. Based on the soil water content, soil layers were divided into four groups (0-20cm, 20-40cm, 40-120cm, and 120-200cm) using a hierarchical cluster analysis...
November 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Christien Rondaan, Kornelis S M van der Geest, Elisabeth Eelsing, Annemieke M H Boots, Nicolaas A Bos, Johanna Westra, Elisabeth Brouwer
Introduction: Herpes zoster, which can have a major impact on quality of life, results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection. We hypothesized that giant cell arteritis (GCA) patients are at increased risk of herpes zoster because of treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids and advanced age. Aim of the study, therefore, was to determine cell-mediated and humoral immunity to VZV in patients with GCA, patients with closely related disease polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR; treated with lower doses of glucocorticoids) and healthy controls (HCs)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Mingwei Zhang, Hui Wang, Yuan Yi, Jinfeng Ding, Min Zhu, Chunyan Li, Wenshan Guo, Chaonian Feng, Xinkai Zhu
Lodging is one of the constraints that limit wheat yields and quality due to the unexpected bending or breaking stems on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production worldwide. In addition to choosing lodging resistance varieties, husbandry practices also have a significant effect on lodging. Nitrogen management is one of the most common and efficient methods. A field experiment with Yangmai 20 as research material (a widely-used variety) was conducted to study the effects of different nitrogen levels and ratios on culm morphological, anatomical characters and chemical components and to explore the nitrogen application techniques for lodging tolerance and high yield...
2017: PloS One
Yang Liu, Jieyu Zhang, Ying Li, Yemin Hu, Wenxian Li, Mingyuan Zhu, Pengfei Hu, Shulei Chou, Guoxiu Wang
To overcome the low lithium ion diffusion and slow electron transfer, a hollow micro sphere LiFePO₄/C cathode material with a porous interior structure was synthesized via a solvothermal method by using ethylene glycol (EG) as the solvent medium and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as the surfactant. In this strategy, the EG solvent inhibits the growth of the crystals and the CTAB surfactant boots the self-assembly of the primary nanoparticles to form hollow spheres. The resultant carbon-coat LiFePO₄/C hollow micro-spheres have a ~300 nm thick shell/wall consisting of aggregated nanoparticles and a porous interior...
November 3, 2017: Nanomaterials
Toshihiro Hasegawa, Tao Li, Xinyou Yin, Yan Zhu, Kenneth Boote, Jeffrey Baker, Simone Bregaglio, Samuel Buis, Roberto Confalonieri, Job Fugice, Tamon Fumoto, Donald Gaydon, Soora Naresh Kumar, Tanguy Lafarge, Manuel Marcaida Iii, Yuji Masutomi, Hiroshi Nakagawa, Philippe Oriol, Françoise Ruget, Upendra Singh, Liang Tang, Fulu Tao, Hitomi Wakatsuki, Daniel Wallach, Yulong Wang, Lloyd Ted Wilson, Lianxin Yang, Yubin Yang, Hiroe Yoshida, Zhao Zhang, Jianguo Zhu
The CO2 fertilization effect is a major source of uncertainty in crop models for future yield forecasts, but coordinated efforts to determine the mechanisms of this uncertainty have been lacking. Here, we studied causes of uncertainty among 16 crop models in predicting rice yield in response to elevated [CO2] (E-[CO2]) by comparison to free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) and chamber experiments. The model ensemble reproduced the experimental results well. However, yield prediction in response to E-[CO2] varied significantly among the rice models...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alex Best, Ben Ashby, Andy White, Roger Bowers, Angus Buckling, Britt Koskella, Mike Boots
Fluctuating selection driven by coevolution between hosts and parasites is important for the generation of host and parasite diversity across space and time. Theory has focused primarily on infection genetics, with highly specific 'matching-allele' frameworks more likely to generate fluctuating selection dynamics (FSD) than 'gene-for-gene' (generalist-specialist) frameworks. However, the environment, ecological feedbacks and life-history characteristics may all play a role in determining when FSD occurs. Here, we develop eco-evolutionary models with explicit ecological dynamics to explore the ecological, epidemiological and host life-history drivers of FSD...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Gozie Offiah, Eva Doherty
BACKGROUND: The transition from medical student to doctor is an important milestone. The discovery that their time is no longer their own and that the demands of their job are greater than the time they have available is extremely challenging. METHODS: At a recent surgical boot camp training programme, 60 first-year surgical trainees who had just completed their internship were invited to reflect on the lessons learnt regarding effective time management and to recommend tips for their newly qualified colleagues...
October 26, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
Fangqin Zeng, Bill Biligetu, Bruce Coulman, Michael P Schellenberg, Yong-Bi Fu
Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L.) breeding programs aim to develop later maturing cultivars for extending early spring grazing in Western Canada. Plant maturity is a complex genetic trait, and little is known about genes associated with late maturity in this species. An attempt was made using RNA-Seq to profile the transcriptome of crested wheatgrass maturity and to analyze differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between early and late maturing lines. Three cDNA libraries for each line were generated by sampling leaves at the stem elongation stage, spikes at the boot and anthesis stages...
October 25, 2017: Genes
Krista L Lanctôt, Joan Amatniek, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Steven E Arnold, Clive Ballard, Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Zahinoor Ismail, Constantine Lyketsos, David S Miller, Erik Musiek, Ricardo S Osorio, Paul B Rosenberg, Andrew Satlin, David Steffens, Pierre Tariot, Lisa J Bain, Maria C Carrillo, James A Hendrix, Heidi Jurgens, Brendon Boot
Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPSs) are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), causing substantial distress for both people with dementia and their caregivers, and contributing to early institutionalization. They are among the earliest signs and symptoms of neurocognitive disorders and incipient cognitive decline, yet are under-recognized and often challenging to treat. With this in mind, the Alzheimer's Association convened a Research Roundtable in May 2016, bringing together experts from academia, industry, and regulatory agencies to discuss the latest understanding of NPSs and review the development of therapeutics and biomarkers of NPSs in AD...
September 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
Edward O Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
Willem Corver, Joris Demmers, Jan Oosting, Shima Sahraeian, Arnoud Boot, Dina Ruano, Ton Van Wezel, Hans Morreau
A near-homozygous genome (NHG) is especially seen in a subset of follicular thyroid of the oncocytic type (FTC-OV). A NHG was also observed in the metabolically relatively quiescent cell lines XTC.UC1, a model for FTC-OV, and in FTC-133, -236 and -238, the latter three derived from one single patient with follicular thyroid cancer. FTC-236 subclones showed subtle whole-chromosome differences indicative of sustained reciprocal mitotic missegregations. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger experiments reduced the number of chromosomal missegregations in XTC...
October 24, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
Jessica A Dobson, Diane L Riddiford-Harland, Alison F Bell, Julie R Steele
Mining work boots provide an interface between the foot and the ground, protecting and supportingminers' feet during lengthy coal mining shifts. Although underground coal miners report the fit of their work boots as reasonable to good, theyfrequently rate their boots as uncomfortable, suggesting that there is a mismatch between the shape of their feet and their boots. This study aimed toidentify whether dimensions derived from the three-dimensional scans of 208 underground coal miner's feet (age 38.3 ± 9.8 years)differed from the internal dimensions of their work boots...
October 25, 2017: Ergonomics
Ranu Sewdas, Allard J van der Beek, Astrid de Wind, Lennart G L van der Zwaan, Cécile R L Boot
AIM: The ageing society and recent policy changes may lead to an increase of older workers with chronic diseases in the workforce. To date, it is unclear whether workers with chronic diseases have specific needs while employed. The aim of this study is to explore the differences in determinants of working until retirement compared to a reference group who have transitioned to early retirement among workers with and without chronic diseases. METHODS: Dutch workers aged 57-62 years ( n = 2445) were selected from an existing prospective cohort study, 'STREAM'...
October 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Hannah A Dineen, Timothy D Murphy, Sabrina Mangat, Eric Z Lukosius, Feng-Chang Lin, Brett J Pettett, Stephen J Peoples, Shepard R Hurwitz
Fractures of the proximal fifth metatarsal are relatively common and can be treated with a variety of treatment modalities. The goals of the current study were to answer the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in functional outcomes with different nonoperative treatment modalities for avulsion and Jones fractures? (2) What is the long-term functional impairment? This study included 53 patients who were treated for proximal fifth metatarsal fracture at 1 university health care system between 2004 and 2013...
November 1, 2017: Orthopedics
Zhenhua Zhao, Liling Xia, Xin Jiang, Yanzheng Gao
The effects of different water-saving modes on PAHs residue and risk, field environment conditions and enzyme activities in paddy field were investigated in a field experiment plot in Laoyaba, Nanjing, China. Results showed that (1) water-saving treatment affected greatly the ΣPAHs in water and soil. The order of ΣPAHs residue in surface water and groundwater in farmland is as follows: dry fields<water-saving paddy field<flooding irrigation paddy field. The ΣPAHs in water during rice tillering stage were obviously higher than that in rice booting stage and milky stage, and the percentage of high-ring PAHs gradually reduced in water...
October 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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