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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352597/potential-drug-targets-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cytochrome-p450-system
#1
REVIEW
Paul R Ortiz de Montellano
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome encodes twenty cytochrome P450 enzymes, most or all of which appear to have specific physiological functions rather than being devoted to the removal of xenobiotics. However, in many cases their specific functions remain obscure. Considerable spectroscopic, biophysical, crystallographic, and catalytic information is available on nine of these cytochrome P450 enzymes, although gaps exist in our knowledge of even these enzymes. The available evidence indicates that at least three of the better-characterized enzymes are promising targets for antituberculosis drug discovery...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352529/measuring-and-improving-the-quality-of-mental-health-care-a-global-perspective
#2
Amy M Kilbourne, Kathryn Beck, Brigitta Spaeth-Rublee, Parashar Ramanuj, Robert W O'Brien, Naomi Tomoyasu, Harold Alan Pincus
Mental disorders are common worldwide, yet the quality of care for these disorders has not increased to the same extent as that for physical conditions. In this paper, we present a framework for promoting quality measurement as a tool for improving quality of mental health care. We identify key barriers to this effort, including lack of standardized information technology-based data sources, limited scientific evidence for mental health quality measures, lack of provider training and support, and cultural barriers to integrating mental health care within general health environments...
February 2018: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351332/impedance-spectroscopy-of-single-bacterial-nanofilament-reveals-water-mediated-charge-transfer
#3
Artem Grebenko, Vyacheslav Dremov, Petr Barzilovich, Anton Bubis, Konstantin Sidoruk, Tatiyana Voeikova, Zarina Gagkaeva, Timur Chernov, Evgeny Korostylev, Boris Gorshunov, Konstantin Motovilov
For decades respiratory chain and photosystems were the main firing field of the studies devoted to mechanisms of electron transfer in proteins. The concept of conjugated lateral electron and transverse proton transport during cellular respiration and photosynthesis, which was formulated in the beginning of 1960-s, has been confirmed by thousands of experiments. However, charge transfer in recently discovered bacterial nanofilaments produced by various electrogenic bacteria is regarded currently outside of electron and proton conjugation concept...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349609/caspase-1-mediated-pyroptosis-of-the-predominance-for-driving-cd4-formula-see-text-t-cells-death-a-nonlocal-spatial-mathematical-model
#4
Wei Wang, Tongqian Zhang
Caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis is the predominance for driving CD4[Formula: see text] T cells death. Dying infected CD4[Formula: see text] T cells can release inflammatory signals which attract more uninfected CD4[Formula: see text] T cells to die. This paper is devoted to developing a diffusive mathematical model which can make useful contributions to understanding caspase-1-mediated pyroptosis by inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text] released from infected cells in the within-host environment. The well-posedness of solutions, basic reproduction number, threshold dynamics are investigated for spatially heterogeneous infection...
January 18, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349357/comprehensive-cytotoxicity-studies-of-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#5
REVIEW
Rakesh M Patil, Nanasaheb D Thorat, Prajkta B Shete, Poonam A Bedge, Shambala Gavde, Meghnad G Joshi, Syed A M Tofail, Raghvendra A Bohara
Recently lots of efforts have been taken to develop superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for biomedical applications. So it is utmost necessary to have in depth knowledge of the toxicity occurred by this material. This article is designed in such way that it covers all the associated toxicity issues of SPIONs. It mainly emphasis on toxicity occurred at different levels including cellular alterations in the form of damage to nucleic acids due to oxidative stress and altered cellular response. In addition focus is been devoted for in vitro and in vivo toxicity of SPIONs, so that a better therapeutics can be designed...
March 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347351/kinetics-of-doublet-formation-in-bicomponent-magnetic-suspensions-the-role-of-the-magnetic-permeability-anisotropy
#6
M T Lopez-Lopez, F Nogueras-Lara, L Rodriguez-Arco, N Guigo, N Sbirrazzuoli, A Yu Zubarev, S Lacis, P Kuzhir
Micron-sized particles (microbeads) dispersed in a suspension of magnetic nanoparticles, i.e., ferrofluids, can be assembled into different types of structures upon application of an external magnetic field. This paper is devoted to theoretical modeling of a relative motion of a pair of microbeads (either soft ferromagnetic or diamagnetic) in the ferrofluid under the action of applied uniform magnetic field which induces magnetic moments in the microbeads making them attracting to each other. The model is based on a point-dipole approximation for the magnetic interactions between microbeads mediated by the ferrofluid; however, the ferrofluid is considered to possess an anisotropic magnetic permeability thanks to field-induced structuring of its nanoparticles...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347296/temperature-dependence-of-the-nonlinear-optical-response-of-smectic-liquid-crystals-containing-gold-nanorods
#7
R S Silva, P B de Melo, L Omena, A M Nunes, M G A da Silva, M R Meneghetti, I N de Oliveira
The present study is devoted to the investigation of the nonlinear optical properties of a smectic liquid crystal doped with gold nanorods. Using the Z-scan technique, we investigate the changes in the optical birefringence of a homeotropic sample upon laser exposure, considering the configurations of normal and oblique incidence. Our results reveal that the birefringence variations may be governed by distinct physical mechanisms, depending on the relative angle between the far-field director and the wave vector of the excitation laser beam...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347126/requisite-ingredients-for-thermal-rectification
#8
Emmanuel Pereira
The present work is devoted to an analytical investigation of the thermal rectification mechanism. More specifically, we attempt to find the requisite ingredients for such a phenomenon to occur. Starting from the linearization of the time evolution equations of anharmonic chains of oscillators, we propose some effective harmonic toy models with a potential that is dependent on temperature, and we investigate their steady heat currents. This unusual temperature-dependent potential is the footprint of nonlinearity in the final effective linear model...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346729/electronic-interactions-in-iminophosphorane-superbase-complexes-with-carbon-dioxide
#9
Francesca Ingrosso, Manuel F Ruiz-Lopez
Iminophosphoranes or phosphazenes are an important class of compounds with increasing use in synthetic organic chemistry as neutral organic superbases exhibiting low nucleophilicity. Their electronic structure and therefore their properties strongly depend on substitution but there have been very few theoretical studies devoted to this topic, and more specifically to the formation of electron donor-acceptor complexes of iminophosphoranes with electrophiles. In this work, we have investigated the interaction with carbon dioxide at different ab initio levels...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346699/teaching-chronic-pain-in-the-family-medicine-residency
#10
Kimberly Zoberi, Kelly M Everard
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain is a significant condition affecting many Americans. Primary care physicians play an important role in chronic pain management, but many residents and physicians feel poorly prepared to manage it. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the 2016 Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance (CERA) Program Director Survey, which was sent electronically to 484 program directors in the United States. The authors sought to determine whether residency directors' attitudes about treating chronic pain were associated with the amount of time devoted to teaching family medicine residents about chronic pain assessment, therapy (use of opioids, use adjuvant pain medications, use of other nonopioids, use of nonpharmacological treatments), and risk management (risk assessment, use of pain management contracts, informed consent when prescribing opioids, and urine drug monitoring)...
January 2018: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345976/synthetic-biology-immunotherapy-by-design
#11
Matthew J Brenner, Jang Hwan Cho, Nicole M L Wong, Wilson W Wong
Cellular immunotherapy holds great promise for the treatment of human disease. Clinical evidence suggests that T cell immunotherapies have the potential to combat cancers that evade traditional immunotherapy. Despite promising results, adverse effects leading to fatalities have left scientists seeking tighter control over these therapies, which is reflected in the growing body of synthetic biology literature focused on developing tightly controlled, context-independent parts. In addition, researchers are adapting these tools for other uses, such as for the treatment of autoimmune disease, HIV infection, and fungal interactions...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343159/celebrating-40-years-of-medical-teacher-as-the-last-man-standing-i-look-back-to-help-us-look-forward
#12
Hilliard Jason
INTRODUCTION: In this reflective, descriptive, analytical, first-person piece, I offer recollections, data, and literature to help elucidate the emergence of medical education as a scholarly field, as part of celebrating Medical Teacher's 40-year anniversary. I emphasize the impressive growth of the professional literature in medical education, and recognize that much remains to be done. FINDINGS: Medical education as a domain for research and development has transitioned from being largely ignored during the first 20 of the past 60 years, through a slow growth phase, to rapid acceleration during the last 2 decades...
January 18, 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342396/cross-domain-metric-and-multiple-kernel-learning-based-on-information-theory
#13
Wei Wang, Hao Wang, Chen Zhang, Yang Gao
Learning an appropriate distance metric plays a substantial role in the success of many learning machines. Conventional metric learning algorithms have limited utility when the training and test samples are drawn from related but different domains (i.e., source domain and target domain). In this letter, we propose two novel metric learning algorithms for domain adaptation in an information-theoretic setting, allowing for discriminating power transfer and standard learning machine propagation across two domains...
January 17, 2018: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341592/application-of-decafluorobiphenyl-dfbp-moiety-as-a-linker-in-bioconjugation
#14
Fernando Albericio, Saba Alapour, Beatriz G de la Torre, Deresh Ramjugernath, Neil Anthony Koorbanally
Considerable attention has been devoted to fluorinated compounds due to their unique and interesting properties. Many modern pharmaceuticals contain fluorinated substituents, which are commonly synthesized using selective fluorinating reagents. Decafluorobiphenyl (DFBP) as a fluorinated linker is susceptible to nucleophilic attack. This nucleophilic reaction has been widely studied using various nucleophiles. Sulfur and nitrogen containing nucleophiles have been of particular interest, especially in bioconjugated reactions...
January 17, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341330/real-time-and-high-resolution-bioimaging-with-bright-aggregation-induced-emission-dots-in-short-wave-infrared-region
#15
Ji Qi, Chaowei Sun, Abudureheman Zebibula, Hequn Zhang, Ryan T K Kwok, Xinyuan Zhao, Wang Xi, Jacky W Y Lam, Jun Qian, Ben Zhong Tang
Fluorescence imaging in the spectral region beyond the conventional near-infrared biological window (700-900 nm) can theoretically afford high resolution and deep tissue penetration. Although some efforts have been devoted to developing a short-wave infrared (SWIR; 900-1700 nm) imaging modality in the past decade, long-wavelength biomedical imaging is still suboptimal owing to the unsatisfactory materials properties of SWIR fluorophores. Taking advantage of organic dots based on an aggregation-induced emission luminogen (AIEgen), herein microscopic vasculature imaging of brain and tumor is reported in living mice in the SWIR spectral region...
January 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340519/evaluating-the-current-state-of-the-art-of-huntington-disease-research-a-scientometric-analysis
#16
L A Barboza, N C Ghisi
Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a dominant mutation on the 4th chromosome. We aim to present a scientometric analysis of the extant scientific undertakings devoted to better understanding HD. Therefore, a quantitative study was performed to examine the current state-of-the-art approaches that foster researchers' understandings of the current knowledge, research trends, and research gaps regarding this disorder. We performed literature searches of articles that were published up to September 2016 in the "ISI Web of Science™" (http://apps...
January 11, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337870/glioblastoma-under-siege-an-overview-of-current-therapeutic-strategies
#17
REVIEW
Mayra Paolillo, Cinzia Boselli, Sergio Schinelli
Glioblastoma is known to be one of the most lethal and untreatable human tumors. Surgery and radiotherapy in combination with classical alkylating agents such as temozolomide offer little hope to escape a poor prognosis. For these reasons, enormous efforts are currently devoted to refine in vivo and in vitro models with the specific goal of finding new molecular aberrant pathways, suitable to be targeted by a variety of therapeutic approaches, including novel pharmaceutical formulations and immunotherapy strategies...
January 16, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335137/-nutritional-status-of-residents-of-a-nursing-home-and-optimisation-of-the-working-time-of-caregivers
#18
Suzanne Falesse, Philippe Barat, Christel Castelli, Valéry Antoine, Sihame Chkair, Sophie Bouvet, Valérie Pouysségur
The lack of time to devote to care is a frequent complaint of nurses and nursing assistants. The results of a study show that an improvement in the nutritional status of nursing home residents could help to improve their quality of life and to optimise the working time of the nursing teams, thanks to the reduction of pressure ulcers, diarrhoea, falls, fractures and infections.
January 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334859/bayesian-analysis-of-semi-parametric-cox-models-with-latent-variables
#19
Jingheng Cai, Chenyi Liang
Respiratory cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers as well as the leading cause of cancer death. Numerous efforts have been devoted to reducing the death rate of respiratory cancer. In this article, we propose a semi-parametric Cox model with latent variables to assess the effects of observed and latent risk factors on survival time of respiratory cancer. The characteristics of latent risk factors are characterized via multiple observed indicators by a confirmatory factor analysis model. We develop a Bayesian estimation procedure to obtain the estimates of parameters...
January 1, 2018: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334043/a-tribute-to-james-parkinson
#20
André Parent
Exactly 200 years ago, the London surgeon-apothecary James Parkinson (1755-1824) published a 66-page-long booklet entitled An Essay on the Shaking Palsy, which contains the first clear clinical description of the shaking palsy or paralysis agitans, which we now refer to as Parkinson's disease. However, the value of this essay was not fully recognized during Parkinson's lifetime, which spanned the American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Wars. James Parkinson was one of the most singular figures of his time and place...
January 2018: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
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