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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140301/catalytic-oxidation-of-lignins-into-the-aromatic-aldehydes-general-process-trends-and-development-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Valery E Tarabanko, Nikolay Tarabanko
This review discusses principal patterns that govern the processes of lignins' catalytic oxidation into vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) and syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde). It examines the influence of lignin and oxidant nature, temperature, mass transfer, and of other factors on the yield of the aldehydes and the process selectivity. The review reveals that properly organized processes of catalytic oxidation of various lignins are only insignificantly (10-15%) inferior to oxidation by nitrobenzene in terms of yield and selectivity in vanillin and syringaldehyde...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138606/mortality-in-italian-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-evidence-for-a-low-mortality-rate-from-cancer-and-infections-in-patients-followed-up-at-a-tertiary-center
#2
Daniela Iacono, Serena Fasano, Virginia D'Abrosca, Ilenia Pantano, Gabriele Valentini
Objectives: Mortality in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has never been investigated in Italy. This study is devoted to investigating all the distinct causes of mortality in Italian RA patients. Methods: Clinical charts of patients consecutively admitted to an Italian tertiary center, from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2014, were reviewed. Mortality rates (incidence mortality rate [IMR] and standardized mortality rate [SMR]) and causes of death as assessed at December 31, 2015, were registered...
2017: Open Access Rheumatology: Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138604/sport-related-anxiety-current-insights
#3
REVIEW
Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow
To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety...
2017: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138457/functional-annotation-of-structural-ncrnas-within-enhancer-rnas-in-the-human-genome-implications-for-human-disease
#4
Chao Ren, Feng Liu, Zhangyi Ouyang, Gaole An, Chenghui Zhao, Jun Shuai, Shuhong Cai, Xiaochen Bo, Wenjie Shu
Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are a novel class of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecules transcribed from the DNA sequences of enhancer regions. Despite extensive efforts devoted to revealing the potential functions and underlying mechanisms of eRNAs, it remains an open question whether eRNAs are mere transcriptional noise or relevant biologically functional species. Here, we identified a catalogue of eRNAs in a broad range of human cell/tissue types and extended our understanding of eRNAs by demonstrating their multi-omic signatures...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133125/very-low-doses-of-muscimol-and-baclofen-ameliorate-cognitive-deficits-and-regulate-protein-expression-in-the-brain-of-a-rat-model-of-streptozocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Vladimirs Pilipenko, Karina Narbute, Ulrika Beitnere, Juris Rumaks, Jolanta Pupure, Baiba Jansone, Vija Klusa
Recent studies devoted to neuroprotection have focused on the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in regulating neuroinflammatory processes which play a key role in the neurodegenerative processes observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by inducing glial cell overactivation and impairing neurotransmission. Data on the efficacy of classical GABA-A and GABA-B receptor agonists (muscimol and baclofen, respectively) in animal models of AD are not available. Moreover, no published studies have examined the ability of optimal doses of these compounds to prevent neuroinflammation, the alterations in neurotransmission and cognitive deficits...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132413/germacranolide-type-sesquiterpene-lactones-from-smallanthus-sonchifolius-with-promising-activity-against-leishmania-mexicana-and-trypanosoma-cruzi
#6
Jerónimo L Ulloa, Renata Spina, Agustina Casasco, Patricia B Petray, Virginia Martino, Miguel A Sosa, Fernanda M Frank, Liliana V Muschietti
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease are life-threatening illnesses caused by the protozoan parasites Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, respectively. They are known as "neglected diseases" due to the lack of effective drug treatments and the scarcity of research work devoted to them. Therefore, the development of novel and effective drugs is an important and urgent need. Natural products are an important source of bioactive molecules for the development of new drugs. In this study, we evaluated the activity of enhydrin, uvedalin and polymatin B, three sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) isolated from Smallanthus sonchifolius, on Leishmania mexicana (MNYC/BZ/62/M) and Trypanosoma cruzi (Dm28c)...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131889/poisson-contraction-and-fiber-kinematics-in-tissue-insight-from-collagen-network-simulations
#7
Catalin Picu, Sai Deogekar, Mohammad Islam
Connective tissue mechanics is highly non-linear, exhibits a strong Poisson effect and is associated with significant collagen fiber re-arrangement. Although the general features of the stress-strain behavior in tension and compression and under uniaxial, biaxial and shear loading have been discussed extensively, especially from the macroscopic perspective, the Poisson effect and the kinematics of filaments have received less attention. In general, the relationship between the microscopic fiber network mechanics and the macroscopic experimental observations remains poorly defined...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129533/sounds-of-modified-flight-feathers-reliably-signal-danger-in-a-pigeon
#8
Trevor G Murray, Jochen Zeil, Robert D Magrath
In his book on sexual selection, Darwin [1] devoted equal space to non-vocal and vocal communication in birds. Since then, vocal communication has become a model for studies of neurobiology, learning, communication, evolution, and conservation [2, 3]. In contrast, non-vocal "instrumental music," as Darwin called it, has only recently become subject to sustained inquiry [4, 5]. In particular, outstanding work reveals how feathers, often highly modified, produce distinctive sounds [6-9], and suggests that these sounds have evolved at least 70 times, in many orders [10]...
November 4, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129483/pharmacological-evaluation-of-new-bioavailable-small-molecules-targeting-eph-ephrin-interaction
#9
Carmine Giorgio, Matteo Incerti, Miriam Corrado, Marco Rusnati, Paola Chiodelli, Simonetta Russo, Donatella Callegari, Francesca Ferlenghi, Vigilio Ballabeni, Elisabetta Barocelli, Alessio Lodola, Massimiliano Tognolini
Eph/ephrin system is an emerging target for cancer therapy but the lack of potent, stable and orally bioavailable compounds is impairing the development of the field. Since 2009 our research group has been devoted to the discovery and development of small molecules targeting Eph/ephrin system and our research culminated with the synthesis of UniPR129, a potent but problematic Eph/ephrin antagonist. Herein, we describe the in vitro pharmacological properties of two derivatives (UniPR139 and UniPR502) stemmed from structure of UniPR129...
November 9, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129433/nanoparticulate-specific-effects-of-silver-on-teleost-cardiac-contractility
#10
Neal Ingraham Callaghan, Kenneth Javier Williams, J Craig Bennett, Tyson James MacCormack
Silver nanoparticles (nAg), due to their biocidal properties, are common in medical applications and are used in more consumer products than any other engineered nanomaterial. This growing abundance, combined with their ability to translocate across the epithelium and bioaccumulate, suggests that internalized nAg may present a risk of toxicity to many organisms in the future. However, little experimentation has been devoted to cardiac responses to acute nAg exposure, even though nAg is known to disrupt ion channels even when ionic Ag(+) does not...
November 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129014/causal-factors-of-corruption-in-construction-project-management-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
Emmanuel Kingsford Owusu, Albert P C Chan, Ming Shan
The development of efficient and strategic anti-corruption measures can be better achieved if a deeper understanding and identification of the causes of corruption are established. Over the past years, many studies have been devoted to the research of corruption in construction management (CM). This has resulted in a significant increase in the body of knowledge on the subject matter, including the causative factors triggering these corrupt practices. However, an apropos systematic assessment of both past and current studies on the subject matter which is needful for the future endeavor is lacking...
November 11, 2017: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125564/carbon-based-nanomaterials-in-biomass-based-fuel-fed-fuel-cells
#12
REVIEW
Le Quynh Hoa, Mun'delanji C Vestergaard, Eiichi Tamiya
Environmental and sustainable economical concerns are generating a growing interest in biofuels predominantly produced from biomass. It would be ideal if an energy conversion device could directly extract energy from a sustainable energy resource such as biomass. Unfortunately, up to now, such a direct conversion device produces insufficient power to meet the demand of practical applications. To realize the future of biofuel-fed fuel cells as a green energy conversion device, efforts have been devoted to the development of carbon-based nanomaterials with tunable electronic and surface characteristics to act as efficient metal-free electrocatalysts and/or as supporting matrix for metal-based electrocatalysts...
November 10, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125510/regenerative-medicine-and-spina-bifida-recent-developments-in-induced-fetal-regeneration
#13
Dario O Fauza
Regenerative medicine as it applies to spina bifida is a multi-pronged endeavor involving spinal cord repair, tissue engineering and fetal regeneration, all of which can mutually overlap to variable extents. The efforts involving spinal cord repair, whether they be cell-based or not, are virtually indistinguishable from the enormous body of work related to spinal cord recovery after traumatic injury. Tissue engineering, on the other hand, can involve a variety of structures besides constructs used for covering the spina bifida defect, for example the urinary bladder, bone, muscle and skin...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125159/development-of-luminescent-sensors-based-on-transition-metal-complexes-for-the-detection-of-nitroexplosives
#14
Veerasamy Sathish, Arumugam Ramdass, Murugesan Velayudham, Kuang-Lieh Lu, Pounraj Thanasekaran, Seenivasan Rajagopal
The detection of chemical explosives is a major area of research interest and is essential for the military as well as homeland security to counter the catastrophic effects of global terrorism. In recent years, tremendous effort has been devoted to the development of luminescent materials for the detection of explosives in the vapor, solution, and solid states with a high degree of selectivity and sensitivity and a rapid response time. Apart from the wide range of organic fluorescent chemosensors, transition metal complexes play a prominent role in the sensing of nitroaromatic explosives owing to their rich photophysical characteristics...
November 10, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122515/xer1-independent-mechanisms-of-vpma-phase-variation-in-mycoplasma-agalactiae-are-triggered-by-vpma-specific-antibodies
#15
Stefan Czurda, Shivanand Manjunath Hegde, Renate Rosengarten, Rohini Chopra-Dewasthaly
Despite their small genomes mycoplasmas maintain large multigene families devoted to surface antigenic variation. Although implicated as important factors for mycoplasma pathogenicity and persistence, the role of these antigenic switches in host immune evasion has never been unequivocally proven in these minimalist microbes. Mycoplasma agalactiae exhibits antigenic variation due to Xer1-mediated site-specific DNA inversions of vpma genes encoding abundant multiple surface lipoproteins. To evaluate the biological significance of Vpma oscillations the xer1 recombinase gene has been disrupted in earlier studies to abolish Vpma switching and to generate stable phase-locked mutants (PLMs) steadily expressing a single Vpma product...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122052/ultra-processing-an-odd-appraisal
#16
Carlos A Monteiro, Geoffrey Cannon, Jean-Claude Moubarac, Renata B Levy, Maria Laura C Louzada, Patrícia C Jaime
It is now generally agreed that the impact of the current nature, purpose and extent of food processing on human well-being, health and disease needs to be better understood and explained, in order to improve public health. The special issue of Public Health Nutrition devoted to the concept of ultra-processing of food, and the NOVA classification of which ultra-processed foods are one category, is a great step forward in this work. Coincidentally, a polemical 'critical appraisal' of ultra-processing was recently published in another journal...
November 10, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120653/-thyroid-carcinomas-the-present-view-on-diagnostics-and-therapy
#17
Petr Vlček, Dana Nováková, Rami Katra
Thyroid carcinoma (TC) represents 1-2 % of all human tumors, and is the seventh most common tumor. Women are in large majority among new patients. For women, this is the fifth most common tumor. In the Czech Republic, 1 143 new cases of TC were diagnosed in 2015. It is the tumor with the highest increase in incidence. Among newly diagnosed tumors, most of those are differentiated thyroid gland carcinomas (DTCs) originating from follicular thyroid cells. These tumors are follicular and papillary carcinomas and Hurthle carcinoma, accounting for 95 % of new cases...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120477/droplet-array-for-screening-acute-behaviour-response-to-chemicals-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
G Aubry, H Lu
Caenorhabditis elegans is an excellent model organism for studying chemosensation as a significant part of its nervous system and genome are devoted to the detection of chemical cues. Studies of decision-making, learning, mating behaviour, and intraspecies communication require measuring the acute behavioural response to chemical stimulation. Such assays require precise and repeatable chemical delivery and are often arduous when performed manually. Microfluidic platforms have been developed for chemosensation studies in C...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120466/the-generalized-maximum-hardness-principle-revisited-and-applied-to-solids-part-2
#19
Wojciech Grochala
Building on Part 1 devoted to atoms and molecules (PCCP, in press 2017), we now focus on the crystal structure and electronic properties of solids as viewed from the Maximum Hardness Principle (MHP), first formulated by Pearson in 1987. The focus is on cases where nuclear potential acting on electrons does not remain constant and where substantial modifications of the nuclear geometry take place (Generalized MHP, GMHP). We present an overview of important manifestations of the (G)MHP for solids such as (i) a tendency of metals and doped-semiconductors to undergo superconducting transition at low temperatures, (ii) propensity of many types of alloys to develop a band gap or a pseudo-gap, (iii) preference for preserving the noble gas (octet, doublet) configuration of main block element ions in the solid state, (iv) preference of Jahn-Teller systems for band-gap-opening vibronic-coupling-related lattice distortions, (v) pressure phenomena leading to localization of the electronic density, (vi) tendency to annihilate the null band gap via phase separation (while preserving the nominal chemical composition), (vii) absence of a large number of families of high-TC superconductors, (viii) resistance of most stable systems to chemical doping, etc...
November 9, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119774/adherence-to-the-24-hour-movement-guidelines-among-10-to-17-year-old-canadians
#20
Ian Janssen, Karen C Roberts, Wendy Thompson
INTRODUCTION: The Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth were released in 2016. They contain specific recommendations on the daily time that 5- to 17-year-olds should devote to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, recreational screen time, and sleep. The objective of this study was to estimate the proportion of Canadians aged 10 to 17 years that meet the recommendations contained within the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 22 115 young people was examined...
November 2017: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
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