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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105719/allostatic-load-and-biological-anthropology
#1
Ashley N Edes, Douglas E Crews
Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality...
January 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105642/what-do-popular-youtube-tm-videos-say-about-vaccines
#2
C H Basch, P Zybert, R Reeves, C E Basch
BACKGROUND: The unregulated social network YouTube(TM) has become an increasingly popular source of information on health topics such as vaccine safety. With a reach of over one billion users per month, the potential for misinformation is significant. METHODS: Using the keywords 'vaccine safety' and 'vaccines and children', 87 of the most widely viewed YouTube(TM) videos were identified and analyzed for content, author status and view count. RESULTS: The range of view counts was 25 532 to 6 229 835, with a median of 62 075 views per video...
January 19, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105564/occurrence-and-fate-of-pesticides-in-the-argentine-stretch-of-the-paraguay-paran%C3%A3-basin
#3
M A Etchegoyen, A E Ronco, P Almada, M Abelando, D J Marino
The Argentine stretch of the del Plata basin crosses regions devoted to extensive and intensive agriculture mostly with chemical pest control. The utilization of pesticides in the region has increased 900% in the last two decades associated with the introduction of biotech crops and direct-seeding techniques. Our objective was to study the occurrence, concentration, and fate of pesticides in surface water and bottom sediments of the principal tributaries and main watercourse of the Paraguay-Paraná River. We sampled 22 sites in the distal positions of the main affluents and main watercourse of the Paraná and report here results from two monitoring campaigns (2010-2012)...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104906/interrogating-open-issues-in-cancer-precision-medicine-with-patient-derived-xenografts
#4
Annette T Byrne, Denis G Alférez, Frédéric Amant, Daniela Annibali, Joaquín Arribas, Andrew V Biankin, Alejandra Bruna, Eva Budinská, Carlos Caldas, David K Chang, Robert B Clarke, Hans Clevers, George Coukos, Virginie Dangles-Marie, S Gail Eckhardt, Eva Gonzalez-Suarez, Els Hermans, Manuel Hidalgo, Monika A Jarzabek, Steven de Jong, Jos Jonkers, Kristel Kemper, Luisa Lanfrancone, Gunhild Mari Mælandsmo, Elisabetta Marangoni, Jean-Christophe Marine, Enzo Medico, Jens Henrik Norum, Héctor G Palmer, Daniel S Peeper, Pier Giuseppe Pelicci, Alejandro Piris-Gimenez, Sergio Roman-Roman, Oscar M Rueda, Joan Seoane, Violeta Serra, Laura Soucek, Dominique Vanhecke, Alberto Villanueva, Emilie Vinolo, Andrea Bertotti, Livio Trusolino
Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have emerged as an important platform to elucidate new treatments and biomarkers in oncology. PDX models are used to address clinically relevant questions, including the contribution of tumour heterogeneity to therapeutic responsiveness, the patterns of cancer evolutionary dynamics during tumour progression and under drug pressure, and the mechanisms of resistance to treatment. The ability of PDX models to predict clinical outcomes is being improved through mouse humanization strategies and the implementation of co-clinical trials, within which patients and PDXs reciprocally inform therapeutic decisions...
January 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103764/multimodal-pediatric-pain-management-part-2
#5
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf
Dr Stefan Friedrichsdorf speaks to Commissioning Editor Jade Parker: Stefan Friedrichsdorf, MD, is medical director of the Department of Pain Medicine, Palliative Care and Integrative Medicine at Children's Hospitals and Clinics of Minnesota in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, USA, home to one of the largest and most comprehensive programs of its kind in the country. The pain and palliative care program is devoted to control acute, chronic/complex and procedural pain for inpatients and outpatients in close collaboration with all pediatric subspecialties at Children's Minnesota...
January 20, 2017: Pain Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102945/learning-based-deformable-image-registration-for-infant-mr-images-in-the-first-year-of-life
#6
Shunbo Hu, Lifang Wei, Yaozong Gao, Yanrong Guo, Guorong Wu, Dinggang Shen
PURPOSE: Many brain development studies have been devoted to investigate dynamic structural and functional changes in the first year of life. To quantitatively measure brain development in such a dynamic period, accurate image registration for different infant subjects with possible large age gap is of high demand. Although many state-of-the-art image registration methods have been proposed for young and elderly brain images, very few registration methods work for infant brain images acquired in the first year of life, because of (a) large anatomical changes due to fast brain development and (b) dynamic appearance changes due to white-matter myelination...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102815/assessment-of-the-characteristics-and-quality-of-life-of-patients-with-uremic-peripheral-neuropathy%C3%A2
#7
Xiu-Zhi Yu, Shi Lu, Wei Gou, Wei Wang, Shui-Hong Zou, Yin-Xia Han, Wei-Wei Wang, Jin-Yuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study seeks to examine the characteristics and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with uremic peripheral neuropathy. METHODS: Uremic patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) at our hospital were enrolled in this study. Data collection began in January 2011 and ended in June 2011. The patients were divided into two groups, the lesion group (110 cases) and the non-lesion group (168 cases), based on the presence or absence of peripheral neuropathy...
January 19, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101267/bioart-and-bildung-wetware-art-agency-animation-an-exhibition-as-case-study
#8
Charissa N Terranova
Recent events in the field of biology have further unfixed the definition of life. The negotiability of "life" is at the center of the exhibition "Wetware: Art, Agency, Animation" at the Beall Center for Art + Technology at the University of California, Irvine. The exhibition includes art by nine international artists working in the avant-garde area of contemporary art called "bioart." This article is devoted to the unique educational space opened through the practice of bioart, focusing on how the exhibition brings the scientific question "What is life?" to a public audience...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099446/reconstruction-of-the-cortical-maps-of-the-tasmanian-tiger-and-comparison-to-the-tasmanian-devil
#9
Gregory S Berns, Ken W S Ashwell
The last known Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus)-aka the thylacine-died in 1936. Because its natural behavior was never scientifically documented, we are left to infer aspects of its behavior from museum specimens and historical recollections of bushmen. Recent advances in brain imaging have made it possible to scan postmortem specimens of a wide range of animals, even more than a decade old. Any thylacine brain, however, would be more than 100 years old. Here, we show that it is possible to reconstruct white matter tracts in two thylacine brains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099092/training-and-development-of-canadian-wheelchair-basketball-players
#10
N Dehghansai, S Lemez, N Wattie, J Baker
Considering the growth in research, examining the development of mainstream sport athletes over the past two decades, studies examining development of athletes with disabilities have been surprisingly limited. While similarities in developmental trajectories between the two cohorts may exist regarding factors such as the value of practice, which tend to be universal regardless of context, disability-related issues (e.g. whether the disability was congenital or acquired) may influence the course of development, affecting variables such as starting age, training and developmental milestones...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098580/an-investigation-of-treatment-engagement-among-returning-veterans-with-problematic-anger
#11
Kirsten H Dillon, Eric F Crawford, Harold Kudler, Kristy A Straits-Troster, Eric B Elbogen, Patrick S Calhoun
Anger is a commonly reported problem among returning veterans, yet little attention has been devoted to studying treatment engagement among veterans who report anger problems but do not have posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study compares Iraq-Afghanistan veterans with anger/no PTSD (n = 159) to others reporting significant PTSD symptoms (n = 285) and those reporting neither anger nor PTSD (n = 716) on rates of treatment utilization, perceived barriers to treatment, and preferences for care. Relative to the PTSD group, the anger/no-PTSD group was significantly less likely to have received mental health treatment in the last year, despite endorsing barriers to treatment at a lower rate...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097765/a-false-positive-screening-hit-in-fragment-based-lead-discovery-watch-out-for-the-red-herring
#12
Jonathan Cramer, Johannes Schiebel, Tobias Wulsdorf, Kristof Grohe, Eszter Eva Najbauer, Frederik R Ehrmann, Nedyalka Radeva, Nina Zitzer, Uwe Linne, Rasmus Linser, Andreas Heine, Gerhard Klebe
With the rising popularity of fragment-based approaches in drug development, more and more attention has to be devoted to the detection of false-positive screening results. In particular, the small size and low affinity of fragments drives screening techniques to their limit. The pursuit of a false-positive hit can cause significant loss of time and resources. Here, we present an instructive and intriguing investigation into the origin of misleading assay results for a fragment that emerged as the most potent binder for the aspartic protease endothiapepsin (EP) across multiple screening assays...
January 18, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097480/average-flow-generation-by-a-pulsating-flow-near-a-curved-interface
#13
Lyudmila S Klimenko, Dmitry V Lyubimov
This paper is devoted to the study of curvature influence on the average flow generation near the fluid interface. The time averaging of a non-uniform pulsating flow often results in a nonzero average flow in the bulk. The well-known average flow occurs near a solid surface, the so-called Schlichting mechanism of the average flow generation. For flows with a free surface there is the other known mechanism of Longuet-Higgins, according to which the average flow is generated by surface waves traveling on a free surface...
January 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096307/-he-would-by-no-means-risque-his-reputation-patient-and-doctor-shame-in-daniel-turner-s-de-morbis-cutaneis-1714-and-syphilis-1717
#14
Emily Cock
This article offers a historical corollary to the examination of shame in medical practice by considering the negotiation of shame in the treatment of a stigmatised disease at a time in which surgeons themselves occupied a highly ambivalent social position. It will focus on case studies provided by Daniel Turner (1667-1741), prominent surgeon and later member of the College of Physicians, in his textbooks De Morbis Cutaneis. A Treatise of Diseases Incident to the Skin (1714) and Syphilis. A Practical Dissertation on the Venereal Disease (1717)...
January 17, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095682/superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-as-high-efficiency-magnetic-resonance-imaging-t2-contrast-agent
#15
Fernanda Sousa, Barbara Sanavio, Alessandra Saccani, Yun Tang, Ileana Zucca, Tamara M Carney, Alfonso Mastropietro, Paulo H Jacob Silva, Randy P Carney, Kurt Schenk, Arash O Omrani, Ping Huang, Lin Yang, Henrik M Rønnow, Francesco Stellacci, Silke Krol
Nanoparticle-based magnetic resonance imaging T2 negative agents are of great interest, and much effort is devoted to increasing cell-loading capability while maintaining low cytotoxicity. Herein, two classes of mixed-ligand protected magnetic-responsive, bimetallic gold/iron nanoparticles (Au/Fe NPs) synthesized by a two-step method are presented. Their structure, surface composition, and magnetic properties are characterized. The two classes of sulfonated Au/Fe NPs, with an average diameter of 4 nm, have an average atomic ratio of Au to Fe equal to 7 or 8, which enables the Au/Fe NPs to be superparamagnetic with a blocking temperature of 56 K and 96 K...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094502/highly-efficient-full-color-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescent-organic-light-emitting-diodes-extremely-low-efficiency-roll-off-utilizing-a-host-with-small-singlet-triplet-splitting
#16
Dongdong Zhang, Chongguang Zhao, Yunge Zhang, Xiaozeng Song, Pengcheng Wei, Minghan Cai, Lian Duan
Numerous efforts have been devoted to boost the efficiency of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) devices; however, strategies to suppress the device efficiency roll-off are still in urgent need. Here, a general and effective approach to suppress the efficiency roll-off of TADF devices is proposed, that is utilizing TADF materials as the hosts for TADF emitters. Bearing small singlet-triplet splitting (ΔEST) with donor and acceptor units, TADF materials as the hosts possess the potential to achieve matched frontier energy levels with the adjacent transporting layers, facilitating balanced charge injection, as well as bipolar charge transport mobilities, beneficial to the balanced charges transportation...
January 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093359/fmri-characterisation-of-widespread-brain-networks-relevant-for-behavioural-variability-in-fine-hand-motor-control-with-and-without-visual-feedback
#17
Stephen D Mayhew, Camillo Porcaro, Franca Tecchio, Andrew P Bagshaw
A bilateral visuo-parietal-motor network is responsible for fine control of hand movements. However, the sub-regions which are devoted to maintenance of contraction stability and how these processes fluctuate with trial-quality of task execution and in the presence/absence of visual feedback remains unclear. We addressed this by integrating behavioural and fMRI measurements during right-hand isometric compression of a compliant rubber bulb, at 10% and 30% of maximum voluntary contraction, both with and without visual feedback of the applied force...
January 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092123/complex-hollow-nanostructures-synthesis-and-energy-related-applications
#18
REVIEW
Le Yu, Han Hu, Hao Bin Wu, Xiong Wen David Lou
Hollow nanostructures offer promising potential for advanced energy storage and conversion applications. In the past decade, considerable research efforts have been devoted to the design and synthesis of hollow nanostructures with high complexity by manipulating their geometric morphology, chemical composition, and building block and interior architecture to boost their electrochemical performance, fulfilling the increasing global demand for renewable and sustainable energy sources. In this Review, we present a comprehensive overview of the synthesis and energy-related applications of complex hollow nanostructures...
January 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091660/universal-wetting-transition-of-an-evaporating-water-droplet-on-hydrophobic-micro-and-nano-structures
#19
Adrien Bussonnière, Masoud B Bigdeli, Di-Yen Chueh, Qingxia Liu, Peilin Chen, Peichun Amy Tsai
Water-repellent, rough surfaces have a remarkable and beneficial wetting property: when a water droplet comes in contact with a small fraction of the solid, both liquid-solid adhesion and hydrodynamic drag are reduced. As a prominent example from nature, the lotus leaf-comprised of a wax-like material with micro- and nano-scaled roughness-has recently inspired numerous syntheses of superhydrophobic substrates. Due to the diverse applications of superhydrophobicity, much research has been devoted to the fabrication and investigations of hydrophobic micro-structures using established micro-fabrication techniques...
January 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088357/joint-genome-wide-prediction-in-several-populations-accounting-for-randomness-of-genotypes-a-hierarchical-bayes-approach-ii-multivariate-spike-and-slab-priors-for-marker-effects-and-derivation-of-approximate-bayes-and-fractional-bayes-factors-for-the-complete
#20
Carlos Alberto Martínez, Kshitij Khare, Arunava Banerjee, Mauricio A Elzo
This study corresponds to the second part of a companion paper devoted to the development of Bayesian multiple regression models accounting for randomness of genotypes in across population genome-wide prediction. This family of models considers heterogeneous and correlated marker effects and allelic frequencies across populations, and has the ability of considering records from non-genotyped individuals and individuals with missing genotypes in any subset of loci without the need for previous imputation, taking into account uncertainty about imputed genotypes...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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