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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433757/surgical-volunteerism-or-voluntourism-are-we-doing-more-harm-than-good
#1
EDITORIAL
Faheem Ahmed, Madeline Grade, Carl Malm, Sophia Michelen, Na'eem Ahmed
The significant rise in the number of international health electives undertaken by medical students and doctors in the US, Canada and UK reflects acknowledgement of the inter-connected nature of these challenges to health systems and the drive to help solve them. However, the next generation of international volunteers often operate under a conflicting duality: whilst many of their role models have devoted their lives to global health following a similar volunteering experience, there are pervasive ethical problems associated with short-term global health work that must be identified and addressed to ensure positive outcomes for all parties involved...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432218/dynamics-of-growth-zone-patterning-in-the-milkweed-bug-oncopeltus-fasciatus
#2
Tzach Auman, Barbara M I Vreede, Aryeh Weiss, Susan D Hester, Terri A Williams, Lisa M Nagy, Ariel D Chipman
We describe the dynamic process of abdominal segment generation in the milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus We present detailed morphological measurements of the growing germband throughout segmentation. Our data are complemented by cell division profiles and expression patterns of key genes, including invected and even-skipped as markers for different stages of segment formation. We describe morphological and mechanistic changes in the growth zone and in nascent segments during generation of individual segments and throughout segmentation, and examine the relative contribution of newly formed versus existing tissue to segment formation...
April 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431370/hydrodynamic-influence-on-reservoir-sustainability-in-semi-arid-climate-a-physicochemical-and-environmental-isotopic-study
#3
Rawaa Ammar, Véronique Kazpard, Antoine G El Samrani, Nabil Amacha, Zeinab Saad, Lei Chou
Water scarcity and increasing water demand require the development of water management plans such as establishing artificial lakes and dams. Plans to meet water needs are faced by uprising challenges to improve water quality and to ensure the sustainability of hydro-projects. Environmental isotopes coupled to water physicochemical characteristics were investigated over a biennial cycle to assess both geomorphological and environmental impacts on the water quality of a reservoir situated in an intensively used agricultural watershed under a Mediterranean semi-arid climate...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431301/diversity-training-for-the-community-aged-care-workers-a-conceptual-framework-for-evaluation
#4
Arti Appannah, Claudia Meyer, Rajna Ogrin, Sally McMillan, Elizabeth Barrett, Colette Browning
Older Australians are an increasingly diverse population, with variable characteristics such as culture, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and physical capabilities potentially influencing their participation in healthcare. In response, community aged care workers may need to increase skills and uptake of knowledge into practice regarding diversity through appropriate training interventions. Diversity training (DT) programs have traditionally existed in the realm of business, with little research attention devoted to scientifically evaluating the outcomes of training directed at community aged care workers...
March 23, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430189/warming-enhances-old-organic-carbon-decomposition-through-altering-functional-microbial-communities
#5
Lei Cheng, Naifang Zhang, Mengting Yuan, Jing Xiao, Yujia Qin, Ye Deng, Qichao Tu, Kai Xue, Joy D Van Nostrand, Liyou Wu, Zhili He, Xuhui Zhou, Mary Beth Leigh, Konstantinos T Konstantinidis, Edward Ag Schuur, Yiqi Luo, James M Tiedje, Jizhong Zhou
Soil organic matter (SOM) stocks contain nearly three times as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere and changes in soil C stocks may have a major impact on future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Over the past two decades, much research has been devoted to examining the influence of warming on SOM decomposition in topsoil. Most SOM, however, is old and stored in subsoil. The fate of subsoil SOM under future warming remains highly uncertain. Here, by combining a long-term field warming experiment and a meta-analysis study, we showed that warming significantly increased SOM decomposition in subsoil...
April 21, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428864/integrating-biogeography-threat-and-evolutionary-data-to-explore-extinction-crisis-in-the-taxonomic-group-of-cycads
#6
Kowiyou Yessoufou, Barnabas H Daru, Respinah Tafirei, Hosam O Elansary, Isaac Rampedi
Will the ongoing extinction crisis cause a severe loss of evolutionary information accumulated over millions of years on the tree of life? This question has been largely explored, particularly for vertebrates and angiosperms. However, no equivalent effort has been devoted to gymnosperms. Here, we address this question focusing on cycads, the gymnosperm group exhibiting the highest proportion of threatened species in the plant kingdom. We assembled the first complete phylogeny of cycads and assessed how species loss under three scenarios would impact the cycad tree of life...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428763/adhd-lifestyles-and-comorbidities-a-call-for-an-holistic-perspective-from-medical-to-societal-intervening-factors
#7
REVIEW
Simon Weissenberger, Radek Ptacek, Martina Klicperova-Baker, Andreja Erman, Katerina Schonova, Jiri Raboch, Michal Goetz
The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427534/methodologies-for-the-characterization-of-the-quality-of-dairy-products
#8
Romdhane Karoui
The growing interest of consumers in food quality and safety issues has contributed to the increasing demand for sensitive and rapid analytical technologies. Physicochemical, textural, sensory, etc., methods have been used to evaluate the quality and authenticity of milk and dairy products. Despite the importance of these standard methods, they are expensive and time consuming. Recently, spectroscopic methods have shown great potential due to speed of analysis, minimal sample preparation, high repeatability, low cost, and, most of all, the fact that these techniques are noninvasive and nondestructive and, therefore, could be applied to any on-line monitoring system...
2017: Advances in Food and Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427114/h-lifestyle-use-of-drugs-by-healthy-people-for-enhancing-cognition-creativity-motivation-and-pleasure
#9
REVIEW
L-S Camilla d'Angelo, George Savulich, Barbara J Sahakian
Today there is continued, and in some cases growing, availability of psychoactive substances, including treatments for mental health disorders such as cognitive enhancers, which can enhance or restore brain function, but also 'recreational' drugs such as novel psychoactive substances (NPS). The use of psychoactive drugs has both benefits and risks: whilst new drugs to treat cognitive symptoms in neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative disorders could have great benefits for many patient groups, the increasing ease of accessibility to recreational NPS and the increasing lifestyle use of cognitive enhancers by healthy people means that the effective management of psychoactive substances will be an issue of increasing importance...
April 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426249/non-enzymatic-electrochemistry-in-characterization-and-analysis-of-steroid-compounds
#10
Jan Klouda, Jiří Barek, Karel Nesměrák, Karolina Schwarzová-Pecková
This review summarizes achievements in electrochemistry-related research of steroid-based compounds in clinical, pharmaceutical, and environmental analysis. Special attention is paid to compounds possessing none or only isolated double bonds at the steroid core. Their direct redox activity is limited to far positive/negative potentials under variety of conditions and electrode materials and relies on the functional groups attached to the steroid skeleton, or as the case may be its double bond, or moieties present at the side chain...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425297/new-approaches-for-itaconic-acid-production-bottlenecks-and-possible-remedies
#11
Richa Bafana, R A Pandey
Currently, growing attention is being devoted to the conversion of biomass into value-added products, such as itaconic acid (IA), which is considered as the cleanest alternative to petroleum-based acrylic acid. IA is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid that is used as a building block chemical for the production of several value-added products such as poly-itaconic acid. IA and its derivatives have a wide range of potential applications in textile, paint, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Presently, industries are producing IA on the large scale by fermentation from glucose...
April 20, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424892/bayesian-characterization-of-uncertainty-in-species-interaction-strengths
#12
Christopher Wolf, Mark Novak, Alix I Gitelman
Considerable effort has been devoted to the estimation of species interaction strengths. This effort has focused primarily on statistical significance testing and obtaining point estimates of parameters that contribute to interaction strength magnitudes, leaving the characterization of uncertainty associated with those estimates unconsidered. We consider a means of characterizing the uncertainty of a generalist predator's interaction strengths by formulating an observational method for estimating a predator's prey-specific per capita attack rates as a Bayesian statistical model...
April 19, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423827/parallel-design-of-browsing-scheme-and-data-model-for-multi-level-hierarchical-application-devoted-to-management-of-patient-with-infectious-disease-in-primary-care
#13
Adrien Ugon, Catherine Duclos, Salamata Konate, Sarah Arnedos Lopez, Hechem Yazidi, Alain Venot, Marie-Christine Jaulent, Rosy Tsopra
Many decision systems are based on a hierarchical approach, enriching the known context used to finally choose the right potential action. Designing the scheme for browsing the clinical guidelines is a task devoted to expert in infectious diseases. Designing the data model is a task devoted to the expert in data modeling. As a consequence, browsing scheme and data model generally differ in terms of abstraction levels. While the browsing scheme proposes to navigate into depth, the data model stays flat. We propose here a novel method to design in parallel the browsing scheme and the data model so that both of them reflect the different abstraction levels in decision process...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423569/accurate-prediction-of-protein-protein-interactions-by-integrating-potential-evolutionary-information-embedded-in-pssm-profile-and-discriminative-vector-machine-classifier
#14
Zheng-Wei Li, Zhu-Hong You, Xing Chen, Li-Ping Li, De-Shuang Huang, Gui-Ying Yan, Ru Nie, Yu-An Huang
Identification of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is of critical importance for deciphering the underlying mechanisms of almost all biological processes of cell and providing great insight into the study of human disease. Although much effort has been devoted to identifying PPIs from various organisms, existing high-throughput biological techniques are time-consuming, expensive, and have high false positive and negative results. Thus it is highly urgent to develop in silico methods to predict PPIs efficiently and accurately in this post genomic era...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422075/multisensory-system-for-the-detection-and-localization-of-peripheral-subcutaneous-veins
#15
Roemi Fernández, Manuel Armada
This paper proposes a multisensory system for the detection and localization of peripheral subcutaneous veins, as a first step for achieving automatic robotic insertion of catheters in the near future. The multisensory system is based on the combination of a SWIR (Short-Wave Infrared) camera, a TOF (Time-Of-Flight) camera and a NIR (Near Infrared) lighting source. The associated algorithm consists of two main parts: one devoted to the features extraction from the SWIR image, and another envisaged for the registration of the range data provided by the TOF camera, with the SWIR image and the results of the peripheral veins detection...
April 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421691/the-impact-of-maternal-employment-on-children-s-adiposity-evidence-from-china-s-labor-policy-reform
#16
Young Jo, Qing Wang
BACKGROUND: China has experienced a rapid growth in childhood adiposity in recent years. Although a large number of studies examine the effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in developed countries, only a few studies investigate the issue in developing countries. Moreover, existing studies tend to suffer from a potential endogeneity issue. AIMS: We provide new evidence on the causal effect of maternal employment on children's adiposity in China. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We employ a difference-in-difference strategy that takes advantage of China's 1995 legislative change to labor regulations, which reduced the number of workdays from 6 to 5 days per week...
April 19, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419240/from-nano-to-micro-using-nanotechnology-to-combat-microorganisms-and-their-multidrug-resistance
#17
Michal Natan, Ehud Banin
The spread of antibiotic resistance and increasing prevalence of biofilm-associated infections is driving demand for new means to treat bacterial infection. Nanotechnology provides an innovative platform for addressing this challenge, with potential to manage even infections involving multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The current review summarizes recent progress over the last 2 years in the field of antibacterial nanodrugs, and describes their unique properties, mode of action and activity against MDR bacteria and biofilms...
April 13, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416263/the-keys-to-conservative-treatment-of-early-stage-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-tonsillar-region
#18
O Laccourreye, P Castelnau-Marchand, F Rubin, C Badoual, P Halimi, P Giraud
To analyze the medical literature devoted to work-up, epidemiology, local control, survival, complications and sequelae after conservative treatment for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsillar region. An analysis of the PubMed (1975-2016) database was performed using the following keywords and associations: "tonsil/tonsillar region/oropharynx" AND "squamous cell carcinoma" AND "early-stage (I-II; T1-2N0M0)" AND "radiation therapy/radiotherapy" OR "conservative surgery/oropharyngectomy/transoral surgery/radical tonsillectomy"...
April 14, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415834/the-surgical-treatment-of-gastric-cancer-in-the-era-of-minimally-invasive-surgery
#19
Shuchang Wang, Tian-Long Ling, Enhao Zhao, Hui Cao
Minimally invasive surgery is regarded as an alternative to conventional open surgery in gastric cancer. More and more surgeons devote their efforts to reduce surgical incision and acquire better recovery. Nowadays, laparoscopic distal gastrectomy has been the standard method for early stage cancer with remarkable advantage in short-term outcomes and is widely accepted by patients. The indication of laparoscopic gastrectomy has been extended to local advanced gastric cancer. However, the oncological safety has long been debated...
April 14, 2017: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415142/neural-correlates-of-cognitive-processing-in-monolinguals-and-bilinguals
#20
REVIEW
John G Grundy, John A E Anderson, Ellen Bialystok
Here, we review the neural correlates of cognitive control associated with bilingualism. We demonstrate that lifelong practice managing two languages orchestrates global changes to both the structure and function of the brain. Compared with monolinguals, bilinguals generally show greater gray matter volume, especially in perceptual/motor regions, greater white matter integrity, and greater functional connectivity between gray matter regions. These changes complement electroencephalography findings showing that bilinguals devote neural resources earlier than monolinguals...
April 17, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
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