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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091894/mechanisms-of-action-of-surgical-interventions-on-weight-related-diseases-the-potential-role-of-bile-acids
#1
REVIEW
Mohsen Mazidi, Pedro Paulo P de Caravatto, John R Speakman, Ricardo V Cohen
Surgical interventions for weight-related diseases (SWRD) may have substantial and sustainable effect on weight reduction, also leading to a higher remission rate of type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus than any other medical treatment or lifestyle intervention. The resolution of T2D after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) typically occurs too quickly to be accounted for by weight loss alone, suggesting that these operations have a direct impact on glucose homeostasis. The mechanisms underlying these beneficial effects however remain unclear...
January 14, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089587/development-of-111-in-labeled-exendin-9-39-derivatives-for-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-imaging-of-insulinoma
#2
Hiroyuki Kimura, Hirokazu Matsuda, Yu Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Kentaro Toyoda, Naotaka Fujita, Kenji Arimitsu, Keita Hamamatsu, Yusuke Yagi, Masahiro Ono, Nobuya Inagaki, Hideo Saji
Insulinoma is a tumor derived from pancreatic β-cells, and the resulting hyperinsulinemia leads to characteristic hypoglycemia. Recent studies have reported the frequent overexpression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in human insulinomas, suggesting that the binding of a radiolabeled compound to GLP-1R is useful for the imaging of such tumors. Exendin(9-39), a fragment peptide of exendin-3 and -4, binds GLP-1R with high affinity and acts as an antagonist. Accordingly, radiolabeled exendin(9-39) derivatives have also been investigated as insulinoma imaging probes that might be less likely to induce hypoglycemia...
January 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088959/-effect-of-exendin-4-on-lipid-deposition-in-skeletal-muscle-of-diet-induced-obese-mice-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#3
H Y Cao, F Xu, Z L Chen, B S Lin, X B Zheng, S H Yuan, H Liang, J P Weng
Objective: To investigate the effect of exendin-4, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, on reducing lipid deposition and improving insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and the underlying mechanisms in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Methods: Twelve male C57BL/6J mice were challenged with HFD for 12 weeks to induce obesity and then randomly divided into two groups: exendin-4 group (intraperitoneal injection of 24 nmol·kg(-1)·d(-1) exendin-4 for 4 weeks) and HFD group (intraperitoneal injection of normal saline for 4 weeks), with 6 mice in each group...
January 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087908/-berberine-regulates-glycemia-via-local-inhibition-of-intestinal-dipeptidyl-peptidase-%C3%A2
#4
Jiesheng Wang, Guanhai Dai, Weijia Li
Objective: To investigate the effect of berberine on glycemia regulation in rats with diabetes and the related mechanisms. Methods: Diabetic-like rat model was successfully induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in 50 out of 60 male SD rats, which were then randomly divided into 5 groups with 10 rats in each:control group (received vehicle only), positive drug control group (sitagliptin 10 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), low-dose berberine group (30 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), moderate-dose berberine group (60 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)), and high-dose berberine group (120 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1))...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086882/differential-effects-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-on-heart-rate
#5
REVIEW
Martin Lorenz, Francesca Lawson, David Owens, Denis Raccah, Christine Roy-Duval, Anne Lehmann, Riccardo Perfetti, Lawrence Blonde
While glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are known to increase heart rate (HR), it is insufficiently recognized that the extent varies greatly between the various agonists and is affected by the assessment methods employed. Here we review published data from 24-h time-averaged HR monitoring in healthy individuals and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with either short-acting GLP-1 RAs, lixisenatide or exenatide, or long-acting GLP-1 RAs, exenatide LAR, liraglutide, albiglutide, or dulaglutide (N = 1112; active-treatment arms)...
January 13, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078541/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-glp-1ra-therapy-adherence-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-in-a-medicare-population
#6
Hiep Nguyen, Robert Dufour, Amanda Caldwell-Tarr
INTRODUCTION: Anti-diabetes medication regimen adherence is a clinical challenge in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other comorbidities associated with aging. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) therapies such as exenatide once weekly (QW), exenatide twice daily (BID), and liraglutide once daily (QD) are an increasingly used class of drugs with proven efficacy and tolerability. Real-world evidence on adherence to GLP-1RAs in elderly or disabled patients is limited...
January 11, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076808/spatiotemporal-modeling-of-triggering-and-amplifying-pathways-in-glp-1-secreting-intestinal-l-cells
#7
Alessia Tagliavini, Morten Gram Pedersen
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is secreted by intestinal L-cells, and augments glucose-induced insulin secretion, thus playing an important role in glucose control. The stimulus-secretion pathway in L-cells is still incompletely understood and a topic of debate. It is known that GLP-1 secreting cells can sense glucose to promote electrical activity either by the electrogenic sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT1, or by closure of ATP-sensitive potassium channels after glucose metabolism. Glucose also has an effect on GLP-1 secretion downstream of electrical activity...
January 10, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076758/polysaccharides-from-ganoderma-lucidum-promote-cognitive-function-and%C3%A2-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Shichao Huang, Jianxin Mao, Kan Ding, Yue Zhou, Xianglu Zeng, Wenjuan Yang, Peipei Wang, Cun Zhao, Jian Yao, Peng Xia, Gang Pei
Promoting neurogenesis is a promising strategy for the treatment of cognition impairment associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ganoderma lucidum is a revered medicinal mushroom for health-promoting benefits in the Orient. Here, we found that oral administration of the polysaccharides and water extract from G. lucidum promoted neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation to enhance neurogenesis and alleviated cognitive deficits in transgenic AD mice. G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) also promoted self-renewal of NPC in cell culture...
January 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#9
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076481/correlation-between-pre-and-postoperative-levels-of-glp-1-glp-2-and-weight-loss-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-prospective-study
#10
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, Maria Rita Lazzarini Barreto, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Background: The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis and weight loss achievement and maintenance after bariatric surgery appears to be a key point in the understanding of the beneficial effects observed following these procedures. Aim: To determine whether there is a correlation between the pre and postoperative levels of both GLP-1 and GLP-2 and the excess weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Methods: An exploratory prospective study which enrolled 11 individuals who underwent RYGB and were followed-up for 12 months...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074747/liraglutide-a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonist-for-chronic-weight-management
#11
Kendra R Manigault, Maria Miller Thurston
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight loss. DATA SOURCE: A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016. The following key terms were used alone or in combination: glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, liraglutide, obesity, overweight, and weight loss. Additional supporting literature was identified utilizing the reference lists of the preceding articles. STUDY SELECTION: Analyzed studies were published in English and investigated use of liraglutide and its impact on weight loss...
December 1, 2016: Consultant Pharmacist: the Journal of the American Society of Consultant Pharmacists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074109/improvement-of-quality-of-life-through-glycemic-control-by-liraglutide-a-glp-1-analog-in-insulin-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-the-page1-study
#12
Hitoshi Ishii, Tetsuji Niiya, Yasuhiro Ono, Naoyuki Inaba, Hideaki Jinnouchi, Hirotaka Watada
BACKGROUND: In addition to achieving good glycemic control, diabetes care management aims to improve the quality of life (QOL) in patients. Treatment-associated difficulties and side effects frequently cause deterioration in QOL. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, is a novel injection drug that promotes insulin secretion. It is a user-friendly, once-daily injection with fewer hypoglycemic events. In this study, we aimed to examine the effect of liraglutide therapy on QOL in patients...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070733/glp-1-ra-treatment-patterns-among-type-2-diabetes-patients-in-five-european-countries
#13
Victoria Divino, Mitch DeKoven, Farhad Ali Khan, Kristina S Boye, Hélène Sapin, Kirsi Norrbacka
INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are a relatively new class of injectable drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This retrospective database study evaluated real-world treatment patterns of T2D patients initiating GLP-1 RAs in Belgium (BE), France (FR), Germany (DE), The Netherlands (NL) and Sweden (SE). METHODS: Adult T2D patients initiating exenatide twice daily (exBID), exenatide once weekly (exQW), liraglutide (LIRA) or lixisenatide (LIXI) during 2013 were identified using the QuintilesIMS (QuintilesIMS, Durham, NC, and Danbury, CT, USA) longitudinal retail pharmacy databases (LRx; BE/FR/DE/NL) and national health register data (SE)...
January 9, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069076/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-porridge-with-added-inulin-and-wheat-gluten-on-appetite-gut-fermentation-and-postprandial-glucose-metabolism-a-randomised-cross-over-breakfast-study
#14
Isabella Lee, Lin Shi, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Ulf Risérus, Rikard Landberg
Whole-grain rye foods reduce appetite, insulin and sometimes glucose responses. Increased gut fermentation and plant protein may mediate the effect. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether the appetite-suppressing effects of whole-grain rye porridge could be enhanced by replacing part of the rye with fermented dietary fibre and plant protein, and to explore the role of gut fermentation on appetite and metabolic responses over 8 h. We conducted a randomised, cross-over study using two rye porridges (40 and 55 g), three 40-g rye porridges with addition of inulin:gluten (9:3; 6:6; 3:9 g) and a refined wheat bread control (55 g), served as part of complete breakfasts...
January 10, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067770/assessment-of-pansharpening-methods-applied-to-worldview-2-imagery-fusion
#15
Hui Li, Linhai Jing, Yunwei Tang
Since WorldView-2 (WV-2) images are widely used in various fields, there is a high demand for the use of high-quality pansharpened WV-2 images for different application purposes. With respect to the novelty of the WV-2 multispectral (MS) and panchromatic (PAN) bands, the performances of eight state-of-art pan-sharpening methods for WV-2 imagery including six datasets from three WV-2 scenes were assessed in this study using both quality indices and information indices, along with visual inspection. The normalized difference vegetation index, normalized difference water index, and morphological building index, which are widely used in applications related to land cover classification, the extraction of vegetation areas, buildings, and water bodies, were employed in this work to evaluate the performance of different pansharpening methods in terms of information presentation ability...
January 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065744/efficacy-and-safety-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Yajie Dong, Qingguo Lv, Sheyu Li, Yuan Wu, Ling Li, Juan Li, Fang Zhang, Xin Sun, Nanwei Tong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: New drugs are urgently needed for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) in NAFLD/NASH. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library Central to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies that compared GLP-1RAs with a control treatment or baseline values with respect to efficacy and safety in patients with NAFLD/NASH...
January 5, 2017: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062257/liraglutide-prevents-cognitive-decline-in-a-rat-model-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetes-independently-from-its-peripheral-metabolic-effects
#17
Caterina Palleria, Antonio Leo, Francesco Andreozzi, Rita Citraro, Michelangelo Iannone, Rosangela Spiga, Giorgio Sesti, Andrew Constanti, Giovambattista De Sarro, Franco Arturi, Emilio Russo
Diabetes has been identified as a risk factor for cognitive dysfunctions. Glucagone like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have neuroprotective effects in preclinical animal models. We evaluated the effects of GLP-1 receptor agonist, liraglutide (LIR), on cognitive decline associated with diabetes. Furthermore, we studied LIR effects against hippocampal neurodegeneration induced by streptozotocin (STZ), a well-validated animal model of diabetes and neurodegeneration associated with cognitive decline. Diabetes and/or cognitive decline were induced in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injection of STZ and then rats were treated with LIR (300μg/kg daily subcutaneously) for 6 weeks...
January 3, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062192/direct-effects-of-glucose-insulin-glp-1-and-gip-on-bulbospinal-neurons-in-the-rostral-ventrolateral-medulla-in-neonatal-wistar-rats
#18
Naoki Oshima, Hiroshi Onimaru, Hidehito Matsubara, Takahiro Uchida, Atsushi Watanabe, Toshihiko Imakiire, Yasuhiro Nishida, Hiroo Kumagai
Although patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) often exhibit hypertension, the mechanisms responsible for this correlation are not well known. We hypothesized that the bulbospinal neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are affected by the levels of glucose, insulin, or incretins (glucagon like peptide-1 [GLP-1] or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide [GIP]) in patients with DM. To investigate whether RVLM neurons are activated by glucose, insulin, GLP-1, or GIP, we examined changes in the membrane potentials of bulbospinal RVLM neurons using whole-cell patch-clamp technique during superfusion with various levels of glucose or these hormones in neonatal Wistar rats...
January 3, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058769/upper-and-or-lower-gastrointestinal-adverse-events-with-glp-1-receptor-agonists-incidences-and-consequences
#19
Michael Horowitz, Vanita R Aroda, Jenny Han, Elise Hardy, Chris K Rayner
AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are associated with gastrointestinal adverse events (AEs), although type and frequency may differ across the class. We characterized gastrointestinal AEs with different GLP-1RAs. METHODS: Two retrospective intent-to-treat analyses of 6-month patient-level data were conducted. Data from three studies comparing exenatide once weekly (QW; n = 617) with exenatide twice daily (BID; n = 606) were pooled, and one (DURATION-6) comparing exenatide QW (n = 461) with liraglutide (n = 450) was analyzed separately...
January 6, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058656/evaluating-the-long-term-cost-effectiveness-of-daily-administered-glp-1-receptor-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-the-united-kingdom
#20
Barnaby Hunt, Qing Ye, William J Valentine, Donna Ashley
INTRODUCTION: The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist class has grown in the last decade, with several agents available in the UK. However there is currently a paucity of evidence regarding the relative cost-effectiveness of liraglutide 1.2 mg versus other daily administered GLP-1 receptor agonists, due to a lack of head-to-head trial data. Therefore the present analysis was performed, using results from a network meta-analysis (NMA), to compare the cost-effectiveness of three currently available daily administered GLP-1 receptor agonists for treatment of diabetes in the UK setting...
January 5, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
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