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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110345/atlas-of-anatomy-third-edition-anne-m-gilroy-and-brian-r-macpherson-eds-on-the-basis-of-the-work-of-michael-schuenke-erik-schulte-and-udo-schumaker-thieme-medical-publishers-new-york-2016-isbn-978-1-62623-252-5
#1
Gennaro Melluso, Luigi Mansi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110100/transport-of-outer-membrane-lipids-in-mycobacteria
#2
REVIEW
Megan H Touchette, Jessica C Seeliger
The complex organization of the mycobacterial cell wall poses unique challenges for the study of its assembly. Although mycobacteria are classified evolutionarily as Gram-positive bacteria, their cell wall architecture more closely resembles that of Gram-negative organisms. They possess not only an inner cytoplasmic membrane, but also a bilayer outer membrane that encloses an aqueous periplasm and includes diverse lipids that are required for the survival and virulence of pathogenic species. Questions surrounding how mycobacterial outer membrane lipids are transported from where they are made in the cytoplasm to where they function at the cell exterior are thus similar, and similarly compelling, to those that have driven the study of Gram-negative outer membrane transport pathways...
January 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110021/the-application-of-crispr-technology-to-high-content-screening-in-primary-neurons
#3
Ben L Callif, Brian Maunze, Nick L Krueger, Matthew T Simpson, Murray G Blackmore
Axon growth is coordinated by multiple interacting proteins that remain incompletely characterized. High content screening (HCS), in which manipulation of candidate genes is combined with rapid image analysis of phenotypic effects, has emerged as a powerful technique to identify key regulators of axon outgrowth. Here we explore the utility of a genome editing approach referred to as CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Palindromic Repeats) for knockout screening in primary neurons. In the CRISPR approach a DNA-cleaving Cas enzyme is guided to genomic target sequences by user-created guide RNA (sgRNA), where it initiates a double-stranded break that ultimately results in frameshift mutation and loss of protein production...
January 18, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110020/tumor-evolution-linear-branching-neutral-or-punctuated
#4
Alexander Davis, Ruli Gao, Nicholas Navin
Intratumor heterogeneity has been widely reported in human cancers, but our knowledge of how this genetic diversity emerges over time remains limited. A central challenge in studying tumor evolution is the difficulty in collecting longitudinal samples from cancer patients. Consequently, most studies have inferred tumor evolution from single time-point samples, providing very indirect information. These data have led to several competing models of tumor evolution: linear, branching, neutral and punctuated. Each model makes different assumptions regarding the timing of mutations and selection of clones, and therefore has different implications for the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of cancer patients...
January 18, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109959/crispr-cas9-mediated-genome-editing-as-a-therapeutic-approach-for-leber-congenital-amaurosis-10
#5
Guo-Xiang Ruan, Elizabeth Barry, Dan Yu, Michael Lukason, Seng H Cheng, Abraham Scaria
As the most common subtype of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), LCA10 is a severe retinal dystrophy caused by mutations in the CEP290 gene. The most frequent mutation found in patients with LCA10 is a deep intronic mutation in CEP290 that generates a cryptic splice donor site. The large size of the CEP290 gene prevents its use in adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene augmentation therapy. Here, we show that targeted genomic deletion using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system represents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of patients with LCA10 bearing the CEP290 splice mutation...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109302/review-of-mathematical-models-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-essential-tools-for-control-and-elimination-part-b-edited-by-maria-gloria-bas%C3%A3-%C3%A3-ez-and-roy-m-anderson
#6
Robert C Spear
Basáñez MG, Anderson RM, Editors: Mathematical Models for Neglected Tropical Diseases: Essential Tools for Control and Elimination, Part B, Volume 94, Advances in Parasitology, Academic Press; 2016, 430 pages. ISBN: 978-0-12-809971-1.
January 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109146/-cloning-expression-and-activity-identification-of-human-innate-immune-protein-apolipoprotein-b-mrna-editing-enzyme-catalytic-subunit-3a-apobec3a
#7
Shan Cheng, Liyan Cao, Juan Du, Wenyong Wang, Yanhai Guo
Objective To construct the expression vector of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic subunit 3A (APOBEC3A), express APOBEC3A in eukaryotic cells and identify its cytosine deaminase activity. Methods The APOBEC3A gene was obtained by PCR and inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.0(+). The recombinant vector pcDNA3.0-APOBEC3A was then transfected into HEK293T and HepG2 cells after confirmed by DNA sequencing. The recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA HisBind affinity column. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of APOBEC3A protein...
February 2017: Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109027/amplitude-integrated-electroencephalography-can-predict-neurodevelopmental-outcome-at-12-months-of-corrected-age-in-very-preterm-infants
#8
Elisabeth Ralser, Vera Neubauer, Ulrike Pupp-Peglow, Ursula Kiechl-Kohlendorfer, Elke Griesmaier
AIM: It is difficult to find diagnostic tools than can reliably predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in very preterm infants in clinical practice. This study evaluated whether amplitude-integrated electroencephalography predicted neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants when they reached 12 months of corrected age. METHODS: Between October 2007 and December 2013 we studied 232 preterm infants (51% male) at Innsbruck Medical University Hospital, Austria. Their mean birth weight was 1,264 grams and their mean gestational age was 29...
January 20, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109000/implementation-of-the-7th-edition-ajcc-staging-system-effects-on-staging-and-survival-for-pt1-melanoma-a-dutch-population-based-study
#9
C M C Oude Ophuis, M W J Louwman, D J Grünhagen, C Verhoef, A C J van Akkooi
: In the 7(th) edition of the AJCC staging system the mitotic rate criterion replaced Clark level to increase correct classification of high risk thin melanoma patients (pT1B). Additionally, sentinel node biopsy (SNB) was recommended for nodal staging for pT1B melanomas. AIM: to evaluate the effects on pT1 substaging and clinical implications in the national pT1 melanoma population. All pT1 melanomas diagnosed in the Netherlands between 2003-2014 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (IKNL)...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108553/the-bright-fluorescent-protein-mneongreen-facilitates-protein-expression-analysis-in-vivo
#10
Lola Hostettler, Laura Grundy, Stéphanie Käser-Pébernard, Chantal Wicky, William R Schafer, Dominique A Glauser
The Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) has been tremendously useful to investigate cell architecture, protein localization, and protein function. While recent developments in transgenesis and genome editing methods enable working with few transgene copies and, consequently, with physiological expression levels, lower signal intensity might become a limiting factor. The recently developed mNeonGreen protein is a brighter alternative to GFP in vitro The goal of the present study was to determine how mNeonGreen performs in vivo in Caenorhabditis elegans, a model extensively used for fluorescence imaging in intact animals...
January 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108420/neutrophil-derived-microparticles-increase-mortality-and-the-counter-inflammatory-response-in-a-murine-model-of-sepsis
#11
Bobby L Johnson, Emily F Midura, Priya S Prakash, Teresa C Rice, Natalia Kunz, Kathrin Kalies, Charles C Caldwell
Although advances in medical care have significantly improved sepsis survival, sepsis remains the leading cause of death in the ICU. This is likely due to a lack of complete understanding of the pathophysiologic mechanisms that lead to dysfunctional immunity. Neutrophil derived microparticles (NDMPs) have been shown to be the predominant microparticle present at infectious and inflamed foci in human models, however their effect on the immune response to inflammation and infection is sepsis has not been fully elucidated...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108356/lipid-a-structural-modifications-in-extreme-conditions-and-identification-of-unique-modifying-enzymes-to-define-the-toll-like-receptor-4-structure-activity-relationship
#12
REVIEW
Alison J Scott, Benjamin L Oyler, David R Goodlett, Robert K Ernst
Strategies utilizing Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonists for treatment of cancer, infectious diseases, and other targets report promising results. Potent TLR4 antagonists are also gaining attention as therapeutic leads. Though some principles for TLR4 modulation by lipid A have been described, a thorough understanding of the structure-activity relationship (SAR) is lacking. Only through a complete definition of lipid A-TLR4 SAR is it possible to predict TLR4 signaling effects of discrete lipid A structures, rendering them more pharmacologically relevant...
January 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108316/crispr-cas9-in-insects-applications-best-practices-and-biosafety-concerns
#13
REVIEW
Clauvis Nji Tizi Taning, Benigna Van Eynde, Na Yu, Sanyuan Ma, Guy Smagghe
Discovered as a bacterial adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeat/CRISPR associated) is being developed as an attractive tool in genome editing. Due to its high specificity and applicability, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing has been employed in a multitude of organisms and cells, including insects, for not only fundamental research such as gene function studies, but also applied research such as modification of organisms of economic importance. Despite the rapid increase in the use of CRISPR in insect genome editing, results still differ from each study, principally due to existing differences in experimental parameters, such as the Cas9 and guide RNA form, the delivery method, the target gene and off-target effects...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108198/ted-a-tolerant-edit-distance-for-segmentation-evaluation
#14
Jan Funke, Jonas Klein, Francesc Moreno-Noguer, Albert Cardona, Matthew Cook
In this paper, we present a novel error measure to compare a computer-generated segmentation of images or volumes against ground truth. This measure, which we call Tolerant Edit Distance (TED), is motivated by two observations that we usually encounter in biomedical image processing: (1) Some errors, like small boundary shifts, are tolerable in practice. Which errors are tolerable is application dependent and should be explicitly expressible in the measure. (2) Non-tolerable errors have to be corrected manually...
January 17, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108186/editing-the-trypanosoma-cruzi-genome-with-zinc-finger-nucleases
#15
Gabriela Assis Burle-Caldas, Viviane Grazielle-Silva, Melissa Soares-Simões, Gabriela Schumann Burkard, Isabel Roditi, Wanderson Duarte DaRocha, Santuza M Teixeira
Gene function studies in Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, have been hindered by the lack of efficient genetic manipulation protocols. In most organisms, insertion and deletion of DNA fragments in the genome are dependent on the generation of double-stranded DNA break (DSB) and repair. By inducing a site-specific DSB, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have proven to be useful to enhance gene editing in many cell types. Using a pair of ZFNs targeted to the T. cruzi gp72 gene, we were able to generate gp72 knockout parasites with improved efficiency compared to the conventional gene knockout protocol...
January 17, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108032/disruption-of-the-sheep-bmpr-ib-gene-by-crispr-cas9-in-in%C3%A2-vitro-produced-embryos
#16
Xuemei Zhang, Wenrong Li, Yangsheng Wu, Xinrong Peng, Bian Lou, Liqin Wang, Mingjun Liu
BMPR-IB (also known as FecB) is a key candidate gene for the genetic control of sheep reproductive performance. Loss-of-function mutations in the sheep BMPR-IB gene lead to an increase in ovulation rate and consequently larger litter size. However, the BMPR-IB gene has been identified in only a few sheep breeds. To improve sheep reproduction through modification of the BMPR-IB gene, we designed an sgRNA to target the sheep BMPR-IB gene by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. First, we performed gene editing by injecting Cas9/sgRNA into the cytoplasm of one-cell fertilized eggs...
November 9, 2016: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107248/how-mice-are-indispensable-for-understanding-obesity-and-diabetes-genetics
#17
Alan D Attie, Gary A Churchill, Joseph H Nadeau
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The task of cataloging human genetic variation and its relation to disease is rapidly approaching completion. The new challenge is to discover the function of disease-associated genes and to understand the pathways that lead to human disease. We propose that achieving this new level of understanding will increasingly rely on the use of model organisms. We discuss the advantages of the mouse as a model organism. RECENT FINDINGS: The collection of available mouse strains represents as much genetic and phenotype variation as is found in the human population...
January 19, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107219/do-neurocognitive-scat3-baseline-test-scores-differ-between-footballers-soccer-living-with-and-without-disability-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Richard Weiler, Willem van Mechelen, Colin Fuller, Osman Hassan Ahmed, Evert Verhagen
OBJECTIVE: To determine if baseline Sport Concussion Assessment Tool, third Edition (SCAT3) scores differ between athletes with and without disability. DESIGN: Cross-sectional comparison of preseason baseline SCAT3 scores for a range of England international footballers. SETTING: Team doctors and physiotherapists supporting England football teams recorded players' SCAT 3 baseline tests from August 1, 2013 to July 31, 2014. PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 249 England footballers, of whom 185 were players without disability (male: 119; female: 66) and 64 were players with disability (male learning disability: 17; male cerebral palsy: 28; male blind: 10; female deaf: 9)...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107209/nephropathic-cystinosis-an-update
#19
Koenraad R Veys, Mohamed A Elmonem, Fanny O Arcolino, Lambertus van den Heuvel, Elena Levtchenko
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past few decades, cystinosis, a rare lysosomal storage disorder, has evolved into a treatable metabolic disease. The increasing understanding of its pathophysiology has made cystinosis a prototype disease, delivering new insights into several fundamental biochemical and cellular processes. RECENT FINDINGS: In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest advances in the pathogenetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of cystinosis...
January 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107002/review-of-mass-spectrometry-instrumentation-interpretation-and-applications-mass-spectrometry-instrumentation-interpretation-and-applications-edited-by-rolf-ekman-jerzy-silberring-ann-m-westman-brinkmalm-and-agnieszka-kraj-wiley-new-york-2009-388-pp-149-00
#20
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