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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334551/rapid-decline-of-hiv-1-dna-and-rna-in-infants-starting-very-early-art-may-pose-a-diagnostic-challenge
#1
Kirsten A Veldsman, Jean Maritz, Shahieda Isaacs, Mary Grace Katusiime, Anita Janse Van Rensburg, Barbara Laughton, John W Mellors, Mark F Cotton, Gert U van Zyl
OBJECTIVE: Birth diagnosis of HIV-1 infection offers an ideal opportunity for early antiretroviral treatment (ART) to limit HIV-1 reservoir size and limit disease progression. Although data on cellular HIV-1 DNA decay exist for children commencing treatment from 2-3 months of age, data is lacking for starting shortly after birth. DESIGN: We studied infants who initiated ART within 8 days after birth to assess HIV-1 DNA levels longitudinally. METHODS: Children were recruited from public health clinics in Cape Town where birth diagnosis of HIV-1 coupled with early ART initiation occurred...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334408/effects-of-metalaxyl-enantiomers-stress-on-root-activity-and-leaf-antioxidant-enzyme-activities-in-tobacco-seedlings
#2
Song Fang, Yi Tao, Yizhi Zhang, Fanyu Kong, Yunbai Wang
The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of metalaxyl enantiomers on the activity of roots and antioxidative enzymes in tobacco seedlings. Water culture experiment was conducted to analyze the effects of different concentrations of metalaxyl enantiomers (30 and 10 mg L-1 ) on root activity and leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of tobacco seedlings. The results showed that metalaxyl significantly inhibited root activity and significantly improved leaf SOD, POD, and CAT activities and MDA content...
January 15, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334349/research-outputs-of-england-s-hospital-episode-statistics-hes-database-bibliometric-analysis
#3
Zain Chaudhry, Fahmida Mannan, Angela Gibson-White, Usama Syed, Shirin Ahmed, Azeem Majeed
BACKGROUND: Hospital administrative data, such as those provided by the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) database in England, are increasingly being used for research and quality improvement. To date, no study has tried to quantify and examine trends in the use of HES for research purposes. OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in the use of HES data for research. METHODS: Publications generated from the use of HES data were extracted from PubMed and analysed...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334202/lifestyle-related-factors-associated-with-reproductive-health-in-couples-seeking-fertility-treatments-results-of-a-pilot-study
#4
Marie-Lou Piché, Véronique Babineau, Julie Robitaille, Émilie Lachance, Stephanie-May Ruchat
Background: The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a larger prospective cohort study, which will aim at determining the independent contribution of male and female lifestyle-related factors to assisted reproductive technology (ART) success. The study also examined whether couples seeking fertility treatments present lifestyle-related factors that may interfere with their reproductive health. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective pilot study was conducted in a fertility clinic between May 2015 and February 2016...
April 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334200/comparative-effectiveness-of-antidepressant-medication-versus-psychological-intervention-on-depression-symptoms-in-women-with-infertility-and-sexual-dysfunction
#5
Hajar Pasha, Zahra Basirat, Mahbobeh Faramarzi, Farzan Kheirkhah
Background: Fertility loss is considered as a challenging experience. This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of antidepressant medication and psychological intervention on depression symptoms in women with infertility and sexual dysfunctions (SD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This randomized, controlled clinical trial study was completed from December 2014 to June 2015 in Babol, Iran. Of the 485 participants, 93 were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to psychosexual therapy (PST), bupropion extended-release (BUP ER) at a dose of 150 mg/d, and control (no intervention) groups...
April 2018: International Journal of Fertility & Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334044/gene-environment-interplay-in-the-etiology-of-psychosis
#6
Alyson Zwicker, Eileen M Denovan-Wright, Rudolf Uher
Schizophrenia and other types of psychosis incur suffering, high health care costs and loss of human potential, due to the combination of early onset and poor response to treatment. Our ability to prevent or cure psychosis depends on knowledge of causal mechanisms. Molecular genetic studies show that thousands of common and rare variants contribute to the genetic risk for psychosis. Epidemiological studies have identified many environmental factors associated with increased risk of psychosis. However, no single genetic or environmental factor is sufficient to cause psychosis on its own...
January 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333775/-effect-of-dexmedetomidine-on-emergence-agitation-after-general-anesthesia-in-children-undergoing-odontotherapy-in-day-surgery-operating-room
#7
Luo Lin, Zhang Yueming, Li Meisheng, Wang Jiexue, Ji Yang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of dexmedetomidine used for general anesthesia maintenance in children undergoing odontotherapy in day-surgery operating room in reducing the incidence of emergence agitation (EA). METHODS: Eighty children undergoing odontotherapy and under general anesthesia in day-surgery operating room were randomized into two groups, group A (n=40) and group B (n=40). Each patient in group A was administered with a bolus dose of dexmedetomidine (1...
December 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333373/correction-of-congenital-cleft-earlobe-with-front-and-back-flaps
#8
Selman Karaci, Rüştü Köse
Congenital auricular deformities may be either deformational or malformational. Malformational anomalies present with a skin or cartilage shortage. Two cases with congenital cleft earlobe were presented. A new surgical technique using a two-layered repair with front and back flaps were introduced. She waited to begin wearing earrings until six months after the surgery to prevent possible scar contracture. The patients were followed up for a period ranging from 3 to 14 months. The earlobe volume deficiency was replaced, and acceptable scar maturation was obtained...
December 2017: Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333267/type-1-diabetes-genome-wide-association-studies-not-to-be-lost-in-translation
#9
REVIEW
Flemming Pociot
Genetic studies have identified >60 loci associated with the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D). The vast majority of these are identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using large case-control cohorts of European ancestry. More than 80% of the heritability of T1D can be explained by GWAS data in this population group. However, with few exceptions, their individual contribution to T1D risk is low and understanding their function in disease biology remains a huge challenge. GWAS on its own does not inform us in detail on disease mechanisms, but the combination of GWAS data with other omics-data is beginning to advance our understanding of T1D etiology and pathogenesis...
December 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332652/initial-airflow-obstruction-in-new-cases-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-complication-comorbidity-or-missed
#10
Andrii Dudnyk, Svitlana Blyzniuk, Oleksandr Pavel'chuk, Olena Zakharchenko, Dmytro Butov, Sergiі Zaіkov
Tuberculosis (TB) may have a similar spirometry findings as a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease but the prevalence of TB-induced airflow obstruction (AO) is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: To measure frequency of AO in new TB cases at the beginning of treatment and to evaluate factors associated with obstructive abnormalities following TB diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 317 patients that have no history of prior AO were recruited into the study with a median age of 39...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332611/effect-of-rubber-mats-and-perforation-in-the-lying-area-on-claw-and-limb-lesions-of-fattening-pigs
#11
A Falke, K Friedli, L Gygax, B Wechsler, X Sidler, R Weber
Claw and leg lesions are frequently observed in finishing pigs and are likely to compromise their welfare. Providing softer than the usual concrete flooring may reduce both the frequency and severity of these lesions. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of rubber mats and floor perforation in the lying area on claw and leg health of finishing pigs. A total of 240 Swiss Large White finishing pigs from on average 24.9 kg until 102.3 kg were used in four batches, with six groups of 10 animals per batch...
January 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332588/treatment-strategies-for-hypercholesterolemia
#12
Sarah Clauss, Jacob Hartz
Atherosclerotic disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in adults and is generally thought of as only affecting adults. However, the pathologic changes in vessels leading to atherosclerosis, and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, have been shown to begin in early adolescence. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that earlier treatment, through lifestyle changes and pharmacotherapy, can help reduce this risk.
January 11, 2018: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332531/supporting-rape-survivors-through-the-criminal-injuries-compensation-scheme-an-exploration-of-english-and-welsh-independent-sexual-violence-advisors-experiences
#13
Olivia Smith, Jessica Galey
English and Welsh responses to rape have long been critically examined, leading to attempted improvements in the criminal justice system. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (CICS) and the difficulties applying it to rape. To begin addressing this gap, researchers interviewed three, and qualitatively surveyed 22, Independent Sexual Violence Advisors. The findings suggest that CICS may not only reinforce rape myths and disadvantage vulnerable survivors, but is also a source of validation and contributes to survivor justice...
October 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332494/an-evaluation-of-adolescent-and-young-adult-re-victimization-experiences-problematic-substance-use-and-negative-consequences
#14
D J Angelone, Tiffany Marcantonio, Jessica Melillo
We investigated substance use and negative consequences in women who experienced an initial sexual assault (SA) in high school and subsequently in college. More than 650 participants completed questionnaires assessing substance use/consequences, SA history, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology. Revictimized women reported differential substance use/consequences relative to controls underscoring the need to conceptualize adolescence as a key developmental period with a unique pathway to a subsequent SA, especially in association with substance use...
June 1, 2017: Violence Against Women
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332370/hallmarks-in-the-evolution-of-gynaecological-cancer-surgery-the-famous-pioneers-in-children
#15
Marianna Karamanou, Nikolaos Salakos, Ioannis Grammatikakis, George Androutsos
At the beginning of the 19th century, gynaecological cancer, mainly cancer of the uterus and cervix was a dreadful, incurable affection. However, the popularization of the three fundamentals in surgery, anesthesia, asepsis and haemostasis, ushered the golden age of operative gynaecology. During that period distinguished surgeons/gynaecologists such as Friedrich Benjamin Osiander (1759-1822), Elias von Siebold (1775-1828) and Joseph-Claude-Anthelme Récamier (1774-1852) contributed to the development of the operative techniques, providing a therapeutic solution in gynaecological cancer...
November 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332248/performance-of-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-at-3-0t-for-early-assessment-of-tumor-response-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-treated-with-preoperative-chemoradiation-therapy
#16
Andrea Delli Pizzi, Roberta Cianci, Domenico Genovesi, Gianluigi Esposito, Mauro Timpani, Alessandra Tavoletta, Pierluigi Pulsone, Raffaella Basilico, Daniela Gabrielli, Consuelo Rosa, Luciana Caravatta, Monica Di Tommaso, Massimo Caulo, Antonella Filippone
PURPOSE: The purpose of the article is to determine whether changes in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) obtained 2 weeks after the beginning of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) allow to predict treatment response and whether correlate with tumor histopathologic response. METHODS: Forty-three patients receiving CRT for LARC and 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted sequences before treatment, 2 weeks during, and 8 weeks post the completion of CRT were included...
January 13, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331826/pathway-and-mechanism-of-nitrogen-transformation-during-composting-functional-enzymes-and-genes-under-different-concentrations-of-pvp-agnps
#17
Guangming Zeng, Lihua Zhang, Haoran Dong, Yaoning Chen, Jiachao Zhang, Yuan Zhu, Yujie Yuan, Yankai Xie, Wei Fang
Polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanoparticles (PVP-AgNPs) were applied at different concentrations to reduce total nitrogen (TN) losses and the mechanisms of nitrogen bio-transformation were investigated in terms of the nitrogen functional enzymes and genes. Results showed that mineral N in pile 3 which was treated with AgNPs at a concentration of 10 mg/kg compost was the highest (6.58 g/kg dry weight (DW) compost) and the TN loss (47.07%) was the lowest at the end of composting. Correlation analysis indicated that TN loss was significantly correlated with amoA abundance...
December 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331793/moderate-dose-simvastatin-therapy-potentiates-the-effect-of-vitamin-d-on-thyroid-autoimmunity-in-levothyroxine-treated-women-with-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis-and-vitamin-d-insufficiency
#18
Robert Krysiak, Witold Szkróbka, Bogusław Okopień
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D preparations reduce titers of thyroid antibodies in women with autoimmune thyroiditis. The same effect was induced by high-dose, but not moderate-dose-, statin therapy. No previous study has investigated the impact of concomitant treatment with a statin and vitamin D on thyroid autoimmunity. METHODS: The study included three matched groups of women with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and low vitamin D status. Groups B (n = 19) and C (n = 20) were treated with vitamin D (2000 IU daily)...
July 27, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331599/long-term-reduction-of-seclusion-and-forced-medication-on-a-hospital-wide-level-implementation-of-an-open-door-policy-over-6-years
#19
L Hochstrasser, D Fröhlich, A R Schneeberger, S Borgwardt, U E Lang, R-D Stieglitz, C G Huber
BACKGROUND: Psychiatric inpatient treatment is increasingly performed in settings with locked doors. However, locked wards have well-known disadvantages and are ethically problematic. In addition, recent data challenges the hypothesis that locked wards provide improved safety over open-door settings regarding suicide, absconding and aggression. Furthermore, there is evidence that the introduction of an open-door policy may lead to short-term reductions in involuntary measures. The aim of this study was to assess if the introduction of an open-door policy is associated with a long-term reduction of the frequency of seclusion and forced medication...
December 11, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331426/hybrid-porous-thin-films-opportunities-and-challenges-for-sensing-applications
#20
REVIEW
Pawan Kumar, Ki-Hyun Kim, Kowsalya Vellingiri, Pallabi Samaddar, Parveen Kumar, Akash Deep, Naresh Kumar
In this paper, the scientific progress in the field of thin film materials and their associated sensing technologies are described comprehensively to address the directions for future research and developments as per the need of modern-day technologies. To begin with, we briefly discussed the fundamental synthesis approaches for advanced thin films with an emphasis on the properties necessary for controlled fabrication (e.g., the elemental ratio and spatial arrangement). Subsequently, we explored the control, characterization, and optimization of hybrid porous thin films with respect to diverse sensing applications...
January 5, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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