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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668124/a-reduced-dose-of-fluconazole-as-primary-antifungal-prophylaxis-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-invasive-fungal-infections-after-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-from-a-hla-identical-sibling
#1
B Sarina, J Mariotti, S Bramanti, L Morabito, R Crocchiolo, A Rimondo, F Tordato, D Pocaterra, E Casari, Chiara De Philippis, C Carlo-Stella, A Santoro, L Castagna
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections (IFI) represent a common side effect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-SCT), resulting in increased non relapse mortality (NRM) and reduced overall survival (OS) rates. 75-days of Fluconazole 400 mg/day represents the standard primary antifungal prophylaxis (PAP) after allo-SCT, especially for low-risk transplants. However, the ideal dosage of fluconazole has never been tested. METHODS: Here we report the experience of our institution on 113 consecutive patients receiving an allo-SCT from a HLA identical sibling between 1999 and 2015, where PAP consisted of fluconazole 100 mg/day only during the pre-engraftment phase...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668123/nocardia-infections-in-the-transplanted-host
#2
M Hemmersbach-Miller, J E Stout, M H Woodworth, G M Cox, J L Saullo
BACKGROUND: Nocardia are uncommon pathogens that disproportionately afflict the immunocompromised host. Epidemiology and outcome data of Nocardia infections in transplant recipients are limited. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients at Duke University Hospital with a history of solid organ transplant (SOT) or hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) and at least one positive culture for Nocardia between 1996-2013. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology and outcomes of Nocardia infections in the transplanted host...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668110/phenylbutyl-isoselenocyanate-induces-reactive-oxygen-species-to-inhibit-androgen-receptor-and-to-initiate-p53-mediated-apoptosis-in-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells
#3
Wei Wu, Deepkamal Karelia, Kartick Pramanik, Shantu G Amin, Arun K Sharma, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lu
Previous studies have established the in vivo bioavailability and efficacious dosages of phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4), a selenium-substituted isothiocyanate, against mouse xenograft models of human melanoma and colorectal cancer. To explore its potential attributes against prostate cancer, we treated human LNCaP prostate cancer cells with ISC-4 and examined their apoptosis responses, and interrogated the signaling mechanisms through pharmacological and siRNA knockdown approaches. Our results show that ISC-4 was more potent at inducing apoptosis than its sulfur analog phenylbutyl isothiocyanate (PBITC) without suppressing protein kinase AKT Ser473 phosphorylation...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668073/sequential-systematic-anti-mold-prophylaxis-with-micafungin-and-voriconazole-results-in-very-low-incidence-of-invasive-mold-infections-in-patients-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#4
Claudia Rosillo, Ana Maria Avila, Yao-Ting Huang, Sean Devlin, Christina Cho, Juan Montoro, Molly A Maloy, Genovefa A Papanicolaou, Pere Barba, Miguel-Angel Perales
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are at high risk for invasive mold infections (IMI). The goal of the study is to describe the incidence and outcome of IMI in patients after allo-HSCT in a large cohort of patients receiving anti-mold prophylaxis. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of 988 consecutive adults who underwent allo-HSCT in our center from 2008 through 2014. Standard prophylaxis consisted of micafungin 150mg IV daily from admission to day +7 +/- 3 followed by voriconazole until day +75 to +100...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668063/beyond-migration-chemokines-in-lymphocyte-priming-differentiation-and-modulating-effector-functions
#5
REVIEW
Julia M Laufer, Daniel F Legler
Chemokines and their receptors coordinate the positioning of leukocytes, and lymphocytes in particular, in space and time. Discrete lymphocyte subsets, depending on their activation and differentiation status, express various sets of chemokine receptors to be recruited to distinct tissues. Thus, the network of chemokines and their receptors ensures the correct localization of specialized lymphocyte subsets within the appropriate microenvironment enabling them to search for cognate antigens, to become activated, and to fulfill their effector functions...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668034/response-of-formed-biofilm-of-enterobacter-cloacae-klebsiella-oxytoca-and-citrobacter-freundii-to-chlorite-based-disinfectants
#6
Linlin Cai, Huawei Wang, Lijiao Liang, Guangyu Wang, Xinglian Xu, Huhu Wang
Bacterial biofilms formed on equipment surfaces are potential sources of cross-contamination and can be responsible for the spread of bacteria involved in food spoilage, such as some Enterobacteriaceae family members. In this study, the effect of chlorite-based disinfectants, including sodium hypochlorite (SH), chlorine dioxide (CD), strongly acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW), and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), on inactivation of mono-biofilms of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter freundii was evaluated separately...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668030/uv-c-irradiation-on-the-quality-of-green-tea-effect-on-catechins-antioxidant-activity-and-cytotoxicity
#7
Matthew J Vergne, Ankit Patras, Manreet S Bhullar, Lincoln M Shade, Michael Sasges, Kanyasiri Rakariyatham, Che Pan, Hang Xiao
Short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) irradiation is a nonthermal processing technique that is a possible alternative to the heat-pasteurization of tea beverages. This study investigated the effect of UV-C irradiation on the polyphenolic and total phenolic contents of a green tea beverage and analyzed cytotoxicity of irradiated green tea using a novel continuous flow-through UV system. UV-C fluence levels ranging from 0 to 240 mJ/cm2 were delivered to green tea, and polyphenols were chemically profiled. Continuous-flow UV-C irradiation of the green tea beverage at a fluence of 68 mJ/cm2  induced a minor reduction in the concentration of the most abundant catechin in green tea, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), from 145 to 131...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667927/biophysics-of-object-segmentation-in-a-collision-detecting-neuron
#8
Richard Burkett Dewell, Fabrizio Gabbiani
Collision avoidance is critical for survival, including in humans, and many species possess visual neurons exquisitely sensitive to objects approaching on a collision course. Here, we demonstrate that a collision-detecting neuron can detect the spatial coherence of a simulated impending object, thereby carrying out a computation akin to object segmentation critical for proper escape behavior. At the cellular level, object segmentation relies on a precise selection of the spatiotemporal pattern of synaptic inputs by dendritic membrane potential-activated channels...
April 18, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667907/direct-peritoneal-resuscitation-reduces-leukocyte-infiltration-in-the-kidney-after-acute-brain-death
#9
Jessica Lee Weaver, Paul J Matheson, Amy Matheson, Victoria S Graham, Cynthia Downard, Richard Neal Garrison, Jason W Smith
Brain death is associated with significant inflammation within the kidneys, which may contribute to reduced graft survival. Direct peritoneal resuscitation (DPR) has been shown to reduce systemic inflammation after brain death. To determine its effects, brain dead rats were resuscitated with normal saline (targeted intravenous fluid, TIVF) to maintain a mean arterial pressure of 80 mmHg and DPR animals also received 30cc of intraperitoneal peritoneal dialysis solution. Rats were euthanized at zero, two, four, and six hours after brain death...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667900/outcomes-of-emergency-thoracotomy-for-trauma-in-a-general-hospital-in-singapore
#10
Isabelle Rui Wen Yoong, Gregory Heng, Sachin Mathur, Woan Wui Lim, Tiong Thye Goo
Background An emergency thoracotomy can be performed either immediately at the site of trauma or in the emergency department or operating room for resuscitation of patients in extremis or life-saving treatment for patients with thoracic injury. It remains a procedure associated with high mortality rates, and there is a paucity of data from Asia. This study analyzed our six-year experience of emergency trauma thoracotomy in an acute general hospital in Singapore. Methods This retrospective analysis was based on experience in a single institution with all emergency trauma thoracotomies performed by general surgeons...
January 1, 2018: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667887/battle-royale-systemic-versus-locoregional-therapy-for-unresectable-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Willscott E Naugler
OBJECTIVE: This commentary discusses research examining comparisons of locoregional therapy with systemic therapy for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). CONCLUSION: Comparison of patient outcomes after locoregional or systemic therapy for HCC is confounded by selection bias, wherein patients chosen for locoregional therapy usually have better underlying liver function that may contribute to the observed longer survival.
April 18, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667825/structure-based-design-of-inhibitors-targeting-prfa-the-master-virulence-regulator-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#12
Martina Kulén, Marie Lindgren, Sabine Hansen, Andrew Gerard Cairns, Christin Grundström, Afshan Begum, Ingeborg van der Lingen, Kristoffer Brännström, Michael Hall, Uwe H Sauer, Jörgen Johansson, A Elisabeth Sauer-Eriksson, Fredrik Almqvist
Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that controls much of its virulence through the transcriptional regulator PrfA. In this study, we describe structure-guided design and synthesis of a set of PrfA inhibitors based on ring-fused 2-pyridone heterocycles. Our most effective compound decreased virulence factor expression, reduced bacterial uptake into eukaryotic cells, and improved survival of chicken embryos infected with L. monocytogenes compared to previously identified compounds. Crystal structures identified an intra-protein "tunnel" as the main inhibitor binding site (AI), where the compounds participate in an extensive hydrophobic network that restricts the protein's ability to form functional DNA-binding helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667778/dna-methylation-biomarkers-for-the-occurrence-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-from-tcga-data-mining
#13
Xiao-Feng Zhu, Bi-Sheng Zhu, Fei-Ma Wu, Hai-Bo Hu
The development of lung cancer is a combination of multifactor, multistage, and multiple genetic alterations processes. DNA methylation is an important factor. Currently, the study on the genome-scale epigenetic modification for studying the pathogenesis of lung cancer is still lacking. Here, we aimed to identify the epigenetic modifications of lung cancer, thus to provide scientific basis for the personalized medicine, and research of classification screening for lung adenocarcinoma patients. The DNA methylation data, and the corresponding clinical information of lung adenocarcinoma samples were extracted from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667769/targeting-the-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-akt-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-b-lineage-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Carolina Simioni, Alberto M Martelli, Giorgio Zauli, Marco Vitale, James A McCubrey, Silvano Capitani, Luca M Neri
Despite considerable progress in treatment protocols, B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) displays a poor prognosis in about 15-20% of pediatric cases and about 60% of adult patients. In addition, life-long irreversible late effects from chemo- and radiation therapy, including secondary malignancies, are a growing problem for leukemia survivors. Targeted therapy holds promising perspectives for cancer treatment as it may be more effective and have fewer side effects than conventional therapies. The phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is a key regulatory cascade which controls proliferation, survival and drug-resistance of cancer cells, and it is frequently upregulated in the different subtypes of B-ALL, where it plays important roles in the pathophysiology, maintenance and progression of the disease...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667766/role-of-clinical-trials-in-survival-progress-of-american-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-cancer-and-lack-thereof
#15
Archie Bleyer, Eric Tai, Stuart Siegel
In the United States, adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have the lowest clinical trial participation rate of all age groups and slower progress in survival improvement than younger patients. Ominously, AYA clinical trial participation has been steadily decreasing since 2010, except in 15-19 year olds and AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In order to reverse the accrual trend, multiple changes are necessary, including convincing community oncologists to pursue clinical trials on behalf of their AYA patients and to have the new National Community Oncology Research Program and National Clinical Trials Network lead a coordinated effort to increase accrual...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667751/suz12-is-a-novel-putative-oncogene-promoting-tumorigenesis-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Yaping Wu, Huijun Hu, Wei Zhang, Zhongwu Li, Pengfei Diao, Dongmiao Wang, Wei Zhang, Yanling Wang, Jianrong Yang, Jie Cheng
The suppressor of zest 12 (SUZ12), one of the core polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) components, has increasingly appreciated as a key mediator during human tumorigenesis. However, its expression pattern and oncogenic roles in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain largely unexplored yet. Here, we sought to determine its expression pattern, clinicopathological significance and biological roles in HNSCC. Through data mining and interrogation from multiple publicly available databases, our bioinformatics analyses revealed that SUZ12 mRNA was significantly overexpressed in multiple HNSCC patient cohorts...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667748/accumulation-and-sublethal-effects-of-triclosan-and-its-transformation-product-methyl-triclosan-in-the-earthworm-eisenia-andrei-exposed-to-environmental-concentrations-in-an-artificial-soil
#17
Fanny Chevillot, Mélanie Guyot, Mélanie Desrosiers, Nicole Cadoret, Éloïse Veilleux, Hubert Cabana, Jean-Philippe Bellenger
Municipal biosolids are increasingly used as a low-cost fertilizer in agricultural soil. Biosolids are contaminated by low concentrations (ng g-1 dw range) of a large variety of organic contaminants, such as triclosan (TCS). The effect of exposure to low concentrations of organic contaminants on soil biota remains largely undocumented. We evaluated the sublethal effects of TCS on the earthworm Eisenia andrei using an artificial soil amended with a nominal concentration of TCS of 50 ng g-1 dry weight soil...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667729/hla-dqb1-03-genotype-and-perioperative-blood-transfusion-are-not-conducive-to-the-prognosis-of-patients-with-gastric-cancer
#18
Shen-Kang Zhou, Lei-Lei Yang, Rui Chen, Yong Lu, Yong-Hua Zheng
BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is a disease associated with a higher incidence and mortality, and some host genetic polymorphisms have been reported as potential factors contributing to the development of GC. In view of this, the study was conducted to investigate the effects of HLA-DQB1 gene polymorphisms and perioperative blood transfusion on prognosis of patients with gastric cancer (GC). METHODS: A total of 142 patients with GC (case group) and 150 healthy controls (control group) were enrolled...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667722/acute-myelogenous-leukemia-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#19
REVIEW
Ursula Creutzig, Matthew A Kutny, Ronald Barr, Richard F Schlenk, Raul C Ribeiro
The incidence of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) increases progressively with age. Favorable genetic mutations are most prevalent in children, and unfavorable profiles increase proportionately in adolescents and young adults (AYA) and into later adulthood. Survival rates of AYA have improved over recent decades to 50-60%, but their accrual to clinical trials remains poor. In contrast to AYA with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the prognostic benefit for AYA with AML enrolled in pediatric compared with adult trials is minor and only seen when different protocols are used...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667721/diverse-manifestations-of-acute-sickle-cell-hepatopathy-in-pediatric-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-case-series
#20
Lydia H Pecker, Nidhi Patel, Susan Creary, Anil Darbari, Emily Riehm Meier, Deepika S Darbari, Ross M Fasano
The hepatic complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adults; children usually survive but may suffer significant sequelae. Few diagnostic tools differentiate the various hepatic manifestations of SCD. Why patients exhibit one hepatic pathology versus another is unclear. We report four pediatric patients with hemoglobin SS disease with diverse manifestations of acute hepatic involvement including acute sickle hepatic crisis, hepatic sequestration, sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis, and a non-SCD cause of hepatopathy in a patient with viral hepatitis...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
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