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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652094/from-in-vivo-to-in-vitro-how-the-guatemala-std-experiments-transformed-bodies-into-biospecimens
#1
Kayte Spector-Bagdady, Paul A Lombardo
Policy Points: While most scholarship regarding the US Public Health Service's STD experiments in Guatemala during the 1940s has focused on the intentional exposure experiments, secondary research was also conducted on biospecimens collected from these subjects. These biospecimen experiments continued after the Guatemala grant ended, and the specimens were used in conjunction with those from the Tuskegee syphilis experiments for ongoing research. We argue there should be a public accounting of whether there are still biospecimens from the Guatemala and Tuskegee experiments held in US government biorepositories today...
April 13, 2018: Milbank Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626450/female-specific-association-between-variants-on-chromosome-9-and-self-reported-diagnosis-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
Ferdinando Bonfiglio, Tenghao Zheng, Koldo Garcia-Etxebarria, Fatemeh Hadizadeh, Luis Bujanda, Francesca Bresso, Lars Agreus, Anna Andreasson, Aldona Dlugosz, Greger Lindberg, Peter T Schmidt, Pontus Karling, Bodil Ohlsson, Magnus Simren, Susanna Walter, Gerardo Nardone, Rosario Cuomo, Paolo Usai-Satta, Francesca Galeazzi, Matteo Neri, Piero Portincasa, Massimo Bellini, Giovanni Barbara, Anna Latiano, Matthias Hübenthal, Vincent Thijs, Mihai G Netea, Daisy Jonkers, Lin Chang, Emeran A Mayer, Mira M Wouters, Guy Boeckxstaens, Michael Camilleri, Andre Franke, Alexandra Zhernakova, Mauro D'Amato
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Genetic factors are believed to affect risk for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there have been no sufficiently powered and adequately sized studies. To identify DNA variants associated with IBS risk, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of the large UK Biobank population-based cohort, which includes genotype and health data from 500,000 participants. METHODS: We studied 7,287,191 high-quality single-nucleotide polymorphisms in individuals who self-reported a doctor's diagnosis of IBS (cases; m=9576) compared to the remainder of the cohort (controls; n=336,499) (mean age of study subjects, 40-69 years)...
April 4, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621469/misplaced-trust-building-research-relationships-in-the-age-of-biorepository-networks
#3
Aaron Goldenberg, Kyle Brothers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621446/grudging-trust-and-the-limits-of-trustworthy-biorepository-curation
#4
Karen M Meagher, Eric T Juengst, Gail E Henderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618501/use-of-external-quality-control-material-for-hiv-1-rna-testing-to-assess-the-comparability-of-data-generated-in-separate-laboratories-and-the-stability-of-hiv-1-rna-in-samples-after-prolonged-storage
#5
Cheryl Jennings, Carrie G Wager, Salvatore R Scianna, Daniel J Zaccaro, Amy Couzens, John W Mellors, Robert W Coombs, James W Bremer
The NIAID AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) stores specimens from their clinical trials in a biorepository and permits the use of these specimens for non-protocol exploratory studies once the studies for the original protocol are concluded. We sought to assess the comparability of data generated for real-time HIV-1 RNA testing during two clinical trials with data generated from retesting of different aliquots of the same samples after years of storage at -80° C. Overall, there was 92% agreement in the data for 1570 paired samples (Kappa statistic = 0...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588324/wisconsin-microbiome-study-a-cross-sectional-investigation-of-dietary-fibre-microbiome-composition-and-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-rationale-and-methods
#6
Shoshannah Eggers, Kristen Mc Malecki, Paul Peppard, Julie Mares, Daniel Shirley, Sanjay K Shukla, Keith Poulsen, Ronald Gangnon, Megan Duster, Ashley Kates, Garret Suen, Ajay K Sethi, Nasia Safdar
INTRODUCTION: Prevention of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections, such as those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , vancomycin-resistant enterococci, fluoroquinolone-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and Clostridium difficile is crucial. Evidence suggests that dietary fibre increases gut microbial diversity, which may help prevent colonisation and subsequent infection by MDROs. The aim of the Winning the War on Antibiotic Resistance (WARRIOR) project is to examine associations of dietary fibre consumption with the composition of the gut microbiota and gut colonisation by MDROs...
March 27, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587661/characteristics-and-outcome-of-the-coeur-canadian-validation-cohort-for-ovarian-cancer-biomarkers
#7
Cécile Le Page, Kurosh Rahimi, Martin Köbel, Patricia N Tonin, Liliane Meunier, Lise Portelance, Monique Bernard, Brad H Nelson, Marcus Q Bernardini, John M S Bartlett, Dimcho Bachvarov, Walter H Gotlieb, Blake Gilks, Jessica N McAlpine, Mark W Nachtigal, Alain Piché, Peter H Watson, Barbara Vanderhyden, David G Huntsman, Diane M Provencher, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson
BACKGROUND: Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy due to early dissemination and acquired resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy. Reliable markers that are independent and complementary to clinical parameters are needed to improve the management of patients with this disease. The Canadian Ovarian Experimental Unified Resource (COEUR) provides researchers with biological material and associated clinical data to conduct biomarker validation studies. Using standards defined by the Canadian Tissue Repository Network (CTRNet), we have previously demonstrated the quality of the biological material from this resource...
March 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578601/time-trust-and-transparency-lessons-learned-from-collecting-blood-biospecimens-for-cancer-research-from-the-asian-american-community
#8
Julie H T Dang, Moon S Chen
BACKGROUND: Biospecimens from racially diverse groups are needed to advance cancer research. The Asian American Cancer Education Study was developed to increase the number and proportion of blood biospecimen donations from Asian Americans for cancer research. METHODS: The authors' targeted approach included 2 types of community engagement, in-reach (within institution to Asian American patients with cancer) and outreach (external to institution to the general Asian American community)...
April 1, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569857/hdl-associated-paraoxonase-1-activity-correlates-with-systemic-inflammation-disease-activity-and-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-psoriatic-disease
#9
M Elaine Husni, W H Wilson Tang, Michael Lucke, U M Chandrasekharan, Danielle M Brennan, Stanley L Hazen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the activity of the HDL associated paraoxonase-1 (PON1) in psoriasis (PsO) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) populations and its association with disease activity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden. METHODS: Serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities (measures of PON1 function in humans) were measured in psoriatic arthritis (n=198, 51.0% male) and psoriasis (n=145, 50.3% male) patients enrolled in a longitudinal psoriatic disease biorepository...
March 23, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496157/a-review-of-brain-biorepository-management-and-operations
#10
H Ronald Zielke, Deborah C Mash
Brain biospecimen banking requires centralized resources, national networks for referral of donors, trained personnel to interact with grieving families, and scientific staff to process the biospecimens. Process development of quality control standards is needed to meet the specific requirements of emerging genomic and proteomic technologies. Attention has to be paid to agonal factors and postmortem interval, tissue processing, neuropathology review, and long-term storage. Samples of both diseased and unaffected normal tissues are required with age- and gender-matched control tissues...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493116/serum-igfbp-2-levels-are-associated-with-reduced-insulin-sensitivity-in-obese-children
#11
S W Yau, B E Harcourt, K-T Kao, E J Alexander, V C Russo, G A Werther, M A Sabin
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP-2) may represent a critical link between body composition and insulin sensitivity. We investigated the relationship between circulating IGFBP-2 levels, body composition, insulin sensitivity, energy intake and physical activity in children with obesity. Children were recruited via the Weight Management Service at the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, as part of the Childhood Overweight BioRepository of Australia (COBRA). Comprehensive anthropometric, biochemical and environmental data were collected and compared to serum IGFBP-2 levels (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29467610/open-science-meets-stem-cells-a-new-drug-discovery-approach-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#12
REVIEW
Chanshuai Han, Mathilde Chaineau, Carol X-Q Chen, Lenore K Beitel, Thomas M Durcan
Neurodegenerative diseases are a challenge for drug discovery, as the biological mechanisms are complex and poorly understood, with a paucity of models that faithfully recapitulate these disorders. Recent advances in stem cell technology have provided a paradigm shift, providing researchers with tools to generate human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from patient cells. With the potential to generate any human cell type, we can now generate human neurons and develop "first-of-their-kind" disease-relevant assays for small molecule screening...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456124/a-multicenter-study-of-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation-tpiat-post-prospective-observational-study-of-tpiat
#13
Melena D Bellin, Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Katherine Morgan, David Adams, Gregory J Beilman, Srinath Chinnakotla, Darwin L Conwell, Ty B Dunn, Martin L Freeman, Timothy Gardner, Varvara A Kirchner, Luis F Lara, Leslie Long-Simpson, Jaimie D Nathan, Bashoo Naziruddin, John A Nyman, Timothy L Pruett, Sarah J Schwarzenberg, Vikesh K Singh, Kerrington Smith, Jennifer L Steel, Martin Wijkstrom, Piotr Witkowski, James S Hodges
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) is considered for managing chronic pancreatitis in selected patients when medical and endoscopic interventions have not provided adequate relief from debilitating pain. Although more centers are performing TPIAT, we lack large, multi-center studies to guide decisions about selecting candidates for and timing of TPIAT. METHODS: Multiple centers across the United States (9 to date) performing TPIAT are prospectively enrolling patients undergoing TPIAT for chronic pancreatitis into the Prospective Observational Study of TPIAT (POST), a NIDDK funded study with a goal of accruing 450 TPIAT recipients...
April 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448963/academic-medical-centers-as-innovation-ecosystems-to-address-population-omics-challenges-in-precision-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Patrick J Silva, Valerie M Schaibley, Kenneth S Ramos
While the promise of the Human Genome Project provided significant insights into the structure of the human genome, the complexities of disease at the individual level have made it difficult to utilize -omic information in clinical decision making. Some of the existing constraints have been minimized by technological advancements that have reduced the cost of sequencing to a rate far in excess of Moore's Law (a halving in cost per unit output every 18 months). The reduction in sequencing costs has made it economically feasible to create large data commons capturing the diversity of disease across populations...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439135/mapping-human-development-at-single-cell-resolution
#15
Sam Behjati, Susan Lindsay, Sarah A Teichmann, Muzlifah Haniffa
Human development is regulated by spatiotemporally restricted molecular programmes and is pertinent to many areas of basic biology and human medicine, such as stem cell biology, reproductive medicine and childhood cancer. Mapping human development has presented significant technological, logistical and ethical challenges. The availability of established human developmental biorepositories and the advent of cutting-edge single-cell technologies provide new opportunities to study human development. Here, we present a working framework for the establishment of a human developmental cell atlas exploiting single-cell genomics and spatial analysis...
February 8, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394087/the-college-of-american-pathologists-biorepository-accreditation-program-results-from-the-first-5-years
#16
Shannon J McCall, Philip A Branton, Victoria M Blanc, Sarah M Dry, Julie M Gastier-Foster, James H Harrison, Scott D Jewell, Rajesh C Dash, Rebecca C Obeng, Joan Rose, Dawna L Mateski, Albi Liubinskas, James A Robb, Nilsa C Ramirez, Kathi Shea
The College of American Pathologists (CAP) developed the Biorepository Accreditation Program (BAP) in 2012. This program integrates best practices from the International Society for Biological and Environmental Biorepositories, the National Cancer Institute, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and the CAP Laboratory Accreditation Program. The goal of this elective program is to provide requirements for standardization in biorepository processes that will result in high-quality specimens that can be used to support research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine...
February 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385589/the-research-participant-perspective-related-to-the-conduct-of-genomic-cohort-studies-a-systematic-review-of-the-quantitative-literature
#17
Deborah Goodman, Deborah Bowen, Lari Wenzel, Paris Tehrani, Francis Fernando, Araksi Khacheryan, Farihah Chowdhury, Catherine O Johnson, Karen Edwards
Observational genome-wide association studies require large sample sizes. Evaluating the interplay between genomic, environmental, and lifestyle factors can require even larger sample sizes. The All of Us Research Program will recruit 1 million participants to facilitate research on genomic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Integrating participant preferences into the research process is a new paradigm and a necessary component of the All of Us Research Program. The purpose of the study is to summarize quantitative studies of participant preferences related to participation in observational genomic research studies, starting with consent through return of results...
January 29, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385588/a-comparison-of-views-regarding-the-use-of-de-identified-data
#18
Deborah Goodman, Catherine O Johnson, Deborah Bowen, Megan Smith, Lari Wenzel, Karen L Edwards
Data sharing of large genomic databases and biorepositories provides researchers adequately powered samples to advance the goals of precision medicine. Data sharing may also introduce, however, participant privacy concerns including possible reidentification. This study compares views of research participants, genetic researchers, and institutional review board (IRB) professionals regarding concerns about the use of de-identified data. An online survey was completed by cancer patients, their relatives, and controls from the Northwest Cancer Genetics Registry (n = 450) querying views about potential harms with the use of de-identified data...
January 29, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378785/the-women-s-health-initiative-whi-life-and-longevity-after-cancer-lilac-study-description-and-baseline-characteristics-of-participants
#19
Electra D Paskett, Bette J Caan, Lisa Johnson, Brittany M Bernardo, Gregory S Young, Michael L Pennell, Roberta M Ray, Candyce H Kroenke, Peggy L Porter, Garnet L Anderson
Background: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Life and Longevity After Cancer (LILAC) study offers an important opportunity to advance cancer research by extending the original WHI studies to examine survivorship in women diagnosed with cancer during their participation in WHI.Methods: The goals of LILAC are to (i) obtain cancer treatment information and long-term cancer outcomes for women diagnosed with one of eight selected cancers (breast, endometrial, ovarian, lung, and colorectal cancers, and melanoma, lymphoma, and leukemia); (ii) augment the existing WHI biorepository with fixed tumor tissue from the solid tumor sites for cancers diagnosed since 2002; and (iii) develop, refine, and validate methods to use administrative data to capture treatment and recurrence data...
January 29, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374573/the-role-of-local-cpg-dna-methylation-in-mediating-the-17q21-asthma-susceptibility-gsdmb-ormdl3-expression-quantitative-trait-locus
#20
Parul H Kothari, Weiliang Qiu, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Fernando D Martinez, Andrew H Liu, Robert F Lemanske, Carole Ober, Jerry A Krishnan, Dan L Nicolae, Kathleen C Barnes, Stephanie J London, Albino Barraza-Villarreal, Steven R White, Edward T Naureckas, Joshua Millstein, W James Gauderman, Frank D Gilliland, Vincent J Carey, Scott T Weiss, Benjamin A Raby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 25, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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