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Calcium pyruvate

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909264/global-ablation-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-increases-glycolysis-in-cortical-neurons-subjected-to-energetic-stressors
#1
Matthew Nichols, Pia A Elustondo, Jordan Warford, Aruloli Thirumaran, Evgeny V Pavlov, George S Robertson
The effects of global mitochondrial calcium (Ca(2+)) uniporter (MCU) deficiency on hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury, neuronal Ca(2+) handling, bioenergetics and hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) were examined. Forebrain mitochondria isolated from global MCU nulls displayed markedly reduced Ca(2+) uptake and Ca(2+)-induced opening of the membrane permeability transition pore. Despite evidence that these effects should be neuroprotective, global MCU nulls and wild-type (WT) mice suffered comparable HI brain damage...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833053/western-diet-enhances-intestinal-tumorigenesis-in-min-mice-associating-with-mucosal-metabolic-and-inflammatory-stress-and-loss-of-apc-heterozygosity
#2
Mikael Niku, Anne-Maria Pajari, Laura Sarantaus, Essi Päivärinta, Markus Storvik, Anu Heiman-Lindh, Santeri Suokas, Minna Nyström, Marja Mutanen
Western-type diet (WD) is a risk factor for colorectal cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the interaction of WD and heterozygous mutation in the Apc gene on adenoma formation and metabolic and immunological changes in the histologically normal intestinal mucosa of Apc(Min/+) (Min/+) mice. The diet used was high in saturated fat and low in calcium, vitamin D, fiber and folate. The number of adenomas was twofold higher in the WD mice compared to controls, but adenoma size, proliferation or apoptosis did not differ...
January 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776698/ethyl-pyruvate-modulates-delayed-paralysis-following-thoracic-aortic-ischemia-reperfusion-in-mice
#3
Bao-Ngoc Nguyen, Hassan Albadawi, Rahmi Oklu, Robert S Crawford, Mitchell P Fink, Richard P Cambria, Michael T Watkins
OBJECTIVE: Delayed paralysis is an unpredictable problem for patients undergoing complex repair of the thoracic/thoracoabdominal aorta. These experiments were designed to determine whether ethyl pyruvate (EP), a potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, might ameliorate delayed paralysis following thoracic aortic ischemia reperfusion (TAR). METHODS: C57BL6 mice were subjected to 5 minutes of thoracic aortic ischemia followed by reperfusion for up to 48 hours...
November 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746306/direct-lactic-acid-production-from-beech-wood-by-transgenic-white-rot-fungus-phanerochaete-sordida-yk-624
#4
Toshio Mori, Hiroko Kako, Tomoki Sumiya, Hirokazu Kawagishi, Hirofumi Hirai
A lactic acid (LA)-producing strain of the hyper-lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624 with the lactate dehydrogenase-encoding gene from Bifidobacterium longum (Blldh) was constructed. When the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase gene-knocked down and Blldh-expressing transformant was cultured with beech wood meal, the transformant was able to successively delignify and ferment the substrate. Supplementation of calcium carbonate into the culture medium, significantly increased the level of LA accumulation...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714634/zinc-oxide-nanoparticle-induces-microglial-death-by-nadph-oxidase-independent-reactive-oxygen-species-as-well-as-energy-depletion
#5
Anuj Kumar Sharma, Vikas Singh, Ruchi Gera, Mahaveer Prasad Purohit, Debabrata Ghosh
Zinc oxide nanoparticle (ZnO-NP) is one of the most widely used engineered nanoparticles. Upon exposure, nanoparticle can eventually reach the brain through various routes, interact with different brain cells, and alter their activity. Microglia is the fastest glial cell to respond to any toxic insult. Nanoparticle exposure can activate microglia and induce neuroinflammation. Simultaneous to activation, microglial death can exacerbate the scenario. Therefore, we focused on studying the effect of ZnO-NP on microglia and finding out the pathway involved in the microglial death...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688055/proteomic-analysis-of-pear-pyrus-pyrifolia-ripening-process-provides-new-evidence-for-the-sugar-acid-metabolism-difference-between-core-and-mesocarp
#6
Zhen Gao, Chengjun Zhang, Meng Luo, Yusen Wu, Shuyan Duan, Jiefa Li, Lei Wang, Shiren Song, Wenping Xu, Shiping Wang, Caixi Zhang, Chao Ma
Pears are one of the most popular nutrient-rich fruits in the world. The pear core and mesocarp have significantly different metabolism, although they display similar profiles. Most strikingly, the core is more acidic in taste. Our results showed that there is more titrated acid but lower total soluble solids in the core compared to the mesocarp, and the content of citric acid was more than 17-fold higher in the core compared to the mesocarp at the ripening stage. Proteomics was used to investigate the difference between core and mesocarp tissues during 'Cuiguan' pear ripening...
September 30, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681178/expression-of-the-mitochondrial-calcium-uniporter-in-cardiac-myocytes-improves-impaired-mitochondrial-calcium-handling-and-metabolism-in-simulated-hyperglycemia
#7
Julieta Diaz-Juarez, Jorge Suarez, Federico Cividini, Brian T Scott, Tanja Diemer, Anzhi Dai, Wolfgang H Dillmann
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is associated with metabolic changes including decreased glucose oxidation (Gox) and increased fatty acid oxidation (FAox), which result in cardiac energetic deficiency. Diabetic hyperglycemia is a pathophysiological mechanism that triggers multiple maladaptive phenomena. The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is the channel responsible for Ca(2+) uptake in mitochondria and free mitochondrial calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) regulates mitochondrial metabolism. Experiments with cardiac myocytes (CM) exposed to simulated hyperglycemia revealed both reduced [Ca(2+)]m and MCU protein levels...
September 28, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651676/studies-on-clinical-signs-and-biochemical-alteration-in-pregnancy-toxemic-goats
#8
Prasannkumar R Vasava, R G Jani, H V Goswami, S D Rathwa, F B Tandel
AIM: This study was planned to reveal the clinical signs and biochemical alterations in pregnancy toxemic goats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy pregnant and 45 pregnancy toxemic goats and analyzed biochemically. RESULTS: The most significant clinical findings were observed in naturally affected goats with pregnancy toxemia included anorexia, recumbency, lethargy, opisthotonos, dropped head, periodic convulsion, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation...
August 2016: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648837/mir-138-and-mir-25-downregulate-mcu-causing-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-s-cancer-phenotype
#9
Zhigang Hong, Kuang-Hueih Chen, Asish Dasgupta, Francois Potus, Kimberly Dunham-Snary, Sebastien Bonnet, Lian Tian, Jennifer Fu, Sandra Breuils-Bonnet, Steeve Provencher, Danchen Wu, Jeffrey Mewburn, Mark L Ormiston, Stephen L Archer
RATIONALE: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is an obstructive vasculopathy characterized by excessive pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC) proliferation, migration, and apoptosis-resistance. This cancer-like phenotype is promoted by increased cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyto), aerobic glycolysis and mitochondrial fission. OBJECTIVES: To determine how changes in mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (MCUC) function influence mitochondrial dynamics and contribute to PAH's cancer-like phenotype...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636676/effects-of-arsenic-supplementation-in-feed-on-laying-performance-arsenic-retention-of-eggs-and-organs-biochemical-indices-and-endocrine-hormones
#10
X Y Zhang, M Y Zhou, L L Li, Y J Jiang, X T Zou
1. The primary objective of this experiment was to estimate the toxic effects of arsenic (As) supplementation in feed on laying performance, As retention of eggs and organs, serum biochemical indices and endocrine hormones in laying hens. 2. A total of 320 "Jinghong Number 1" hens, 56-week-old, were randomly allocated into four treatments of four replicates with 20 layers. Graded arsenical was added to the basal diet at As levels of 0, 17, 34 and 51 mg/kg, respectively, in the experimental diets. The trial lasted for 9 weeks including a 1 week for acclimatization...
September 16, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621312/cardiac-ryanodine-receptor-ryr2-mediated-calcium-signals-specifically-promote-glucose-oxidation-via-pyruvate-dehydrogenase
#11
Michael J Bround, Rich Wambolt, Haoning Cen, Parisa Asghari, Razvan F Albu, Jun Han, Donald McAfee, Marc Pourrier, Nichollas E Scott, Lubos Bohunek, Jerzy E Kulpa, S R Wayne Chen, David Fedida, Roger W Brownsey, Christoph H Borchers, Leonard J Foster, Thibault Mayor, Edwin D W Moore, Michael F Allard, James D Johnson
Cardiac ryanodine receptor (Ryr2) Ca(2+) release channels and cellular metabolism are both disrupted in heart disease. Recently, we demonstrated that total loss of Ryr2 leads to cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction, arrhythmia, and reduced heart rate. Acute total Ryr2 ablation also impaired metabolism, but it was not clear whether this was a cause or consequence of heart failure. Previous in vitro studies revealed that Ca(2+) flux into the mitochondria helps pace oxidative metabolism, but there is limited in vivo evidence supporting this concept...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599101/changes-in-energetic-metabolism-of-biomphalaria-glabrata-mollusca-planorbidae-in-response-to-exogenous-calcium
#12
L D Silva, V C S Amaral, M C Vinaud, A M Castro, H H A Rezende, D B Santos, C C Mello-Silva, J C B Bezerra
Calcium is considered an essential element for the metabolism of aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818), intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 in Brazil, and represents a limiting factor to its distribution and adaptation to the environment. This study investigated the effect of different concentrations of exogenous CaCO3 on the energetic metabolism of B. glabrata for better understanding the physiological interference of chemical elements dissolved in the environment with the physiology of this species...
September 5, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515054/a-novel-mechanism-for-the-pyruvate-protection-against-zinc-induced-cytotoxicity-mediation-by-the-chelating-effect-of-citrate-and-isocitrate
#13
Jee-Won Sul, Tae-Youn Kim, Hyun Ju Yoo, Jean Kim, Young-Ah Suh, Jung Jin Hwang, Jae-Young Koh
Intracellular accumulation of free zinc contributes to neuronal death in brain injuries such as ischemia and epilepsy. Pyruvate, a glucose metabolite, has been shown to block zinc neurotoxicity. However, it is largely unknown how pyruvate shows such a selective and remarkable protective effect. In this study, we sought to find a plausible mechanism of pyruvate protection against zinc toxicity. Pyruvate almost completely blocked cortical neuronal death induced by zinc, yet showed no protective effects against death induced by calcium (ionomycin, NMDA) or ferrous iron...
August 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464764/xanthan-pyruvilation-is-essential-for-the-virulence-of-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#14
María Isabel Bianco, Laila Toum, Pablo Marcelo Yaryura, Natalia Mielnichuk, Gustavo Eduardo Gudesblat, Roxana Roeschlin, María Rosa Marano, Luis Ielpi, Adrián A Vojnov
Xanthan, the main exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by Xanthomonas spp., contributes to bacterial stress tolerance and enhances attachment to plant surfaces by helping in biofilm formation. Therefore, xanthan is essential for successful colonization and growth in planta and has also been proposed to be involved in the promotion of pathogenesis by calcium ion chelation and, hence, in the suppression of the plant defense responses in which this cation acts as a signal. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between xanthan structure and its role as a virulence factor...
September 2016: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27370644/sex-differences-in-the-regulation-of-spatially-distinct-cardiac-mitochondrial-subpopulations
#15
Rogério Faustino Ribeiro, Karoline Sousa Ronconi, Elis Aguiar Morra, Patrícia Ribeiro Do Val Lima, Marcella Leite Porto, Dalton Valentim Vassallo, Suely Gomes Figueiredo, Ivanita Stefanon
Spatially distinct mitochondrial subpopulation may mediate myocardial pathology through permeability transition pore opening (MPTP). The goal of this study was to assess sex differences on the two spatially distinct mitochondrial subpopulations: subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) and intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM) based on morphology, membrane potential, mitochondrial function, oxidative phosphorylation, and MPTP. Aged matched Wistar rats were used to study SSM and IFM. Mitochondrial size was larger in SSM than in IFM in both genders...
August 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362663/toxic-effects-and-depuration-after-the-dietary-lead-ii-exposure-on-the-bioaccumulation-and-hematological-parameters-in-starry-flounder-platichthys-stellatus
#16
In-Ki Hwang, Kyeong-Wook Kim, Jun-Hwan Kim, Ju-Chan Kang
Platichthys stellatus (mean length 20±2cm, mean weight 160.15±15g) were exposed to the different levels of dietary lead(II) at the concentrations of 0, 30, 60, 120, 240mg/kg for 4 weeks. Depuration was conducted for 2 weeks after exposure. The lead exposure over 60mg Pb/kg induced the significant bioaccumulation in tissues of P. stellatus (5-30μg/g tissue), except for brain and muscle where the exposure to 240mg Pb/kg caused the bioaccumulation (2-4μg/g tissue). The hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC) counts, hematocrit (Ht) value and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration were substantially decreased over 60mg Pb/kg, and lasted even after the depuration period...
July 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27343087/acquired-mitochondrial-abnormalities-including-epigenetic-inhibition-of-superoxide-dismutase-2-in-pulmonary-hypertension-and-cancer-therapeutic-implications
#17
Stephen L Archer
There is no cure for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Therapies lack efficacy and/or are toxic, reflecting a failure to target disease abnormalities that are distinct from processes vital to normal cells. NSCLC and PAH share reversible mitochondrial-metabolic abnormalities which may offer selective therapeutic targets. The following mutually reinforcing, mitochondrial abnormalities favor proliferation, impair apoptosis, and are relatively restricted to PAH and cancer cells: (1) Epigenetic silencing of superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) by methylation of CpG islands creates a pseudohypoxic redox environment that causes normoxic activation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α)...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27278803/post-exercise-cold-water-immersion-does-not-alter-high-intensity-interval-training-induced-exercise-performance-and-hsp72-responses-but-enhances-mitochondrial-markers
#18
Paula Fernandes Aguiar, Sílvia Mourão Magalhães, Ivana Alice Teixeira Fonseca, Vanessa Batista da Costa Santos, Mariana Aguiar de Matos, Marco Fabrício Dias Peixoto, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Craig Crandall, Hygor Nunes Araújo, Leonardo Reis Silveira, Etel Rocha-Vieira, Flávio de Castro Magalhães, Fabiano Trigueiro Amorim
This study aims to evaluate the effect of regular post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) on intramuscular markers of cellular stress response and signaling molecules related to mitochondria biogenesis and exercise performance after 4 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT). Seventeen healthy subjects were allocated into two groups: control (CON, n = 9) or CWI (n = 8). Each HIIT session consisted of 8-12 cycling exercise stimuli (90-110 % of peak power) for 60 s followed by 75 s of active recovery three times per week, for 4 weeks (12 HIIT sessions)...
September 2016: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27047084/evaluation-of-geriatric-changes-in-dogs
#19
Soumyaranjan Pati, S K Panda, A P Acharya, S Senapati, M Behera, S S Behera
AIM: The present study has been envisaged to ascertain the old age for critical management of geriatric dogs considering the parameters of externally visible changes, haemato-biochemical alterations and urine analysis in geriatric dogs approaching senility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was undertaken in the Department of Veterinary Pathology in collaboration with Teaching Veterinary Clinic complex spanning a period of 1 year. For screening of geriatric dogs, standard geriatric age chart of different breeds was followed...
March 2015: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26994581/hyperosmolar-sodium-chloride-is-toxic-to-cultured-neurons-and-causes-reduction-of-glucose-metabolism-and-atp-levels-an-increase-in-glutamate-uptake-and-a-reduction-in-cytosolic-calcium
#20
Cecilie Morland, Mi Nguyen Pettersen, Bjørnar Hassel
Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake...
May 2016: Neurotoxicology
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