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Vomiting in children

Meltem Akcaboy, Melahat Melek Oguz, Esma Altınel Acoglu, Mehtap Acar, Pelin Zorlu, Ferda Ozbay Hosnut, Saliha Senel
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Although the clinical complaints associated with rotavirus are generally gastrointestinal, including vomiting and diarrhea, data suggest that it can also cause symptoms that extend beyond the gastrointestinal tract. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We report three pediatric cases of rotavirus infection: one accompanied by encephalopathy and two with elevated hepatic transaminase activity. The patients were admitted to Dr...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
Benjamin Assouline, Martin R Tramèr, Lukas Kreienbühl, Nadia Elia
Ketamine is often added to opioids in patient-controlled analgesia devices. We tested whether in surgical patients, ketamine added to an opioid patient-controlled analgesia decreased pain intensity by ≥25%, cumulative opioid consumption by ≥30%, the risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting by ≥30%, the risk of respiratory adverse effects by ≥50%, and increased the risk of hallucination not more than 2-fold. In addition, we searched for evidence of dose-responsiveness. Nineteen randomized trials (1349 adults, 104 children) testing different ketamine regimens added to various opioids were identified through searches in databases and bibliographies (to 04...
August 29, 2016: Pain
Zhang Chao, Huang Gui Jin, Yu Cong
BACKGROUND: The incidence of early childhood caries shows a significant increasing trend. Often, children younger than 6 years need additional help to finish the dental treatment. Therefore, general anesthesia (GA) could help to provide a successful environment for pediatric dental treatment. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dental treatment under general anesthesia (DGA) on the patients' oral health in Chongqing, Southwest China using the P-CPQ and the FIS questionnaires...
October 25, 2016: Paediatric Anaesthesia
M Oviedo Gutiérrez, S Amat Valero, A Gómez Farpón, C Montalvo Ávalos, L Fernández García, D C Lara Cárdenas, S Barnes Marañón, C Granell Suárez, N Vega Mata, A J López López, M González Guerrero, V Álvarez Muñoz
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor most frequently located in the stomach. The differential diagnosis is wide because of its large clinical spectrum and unspecific radiological findings. Surgical excision is both diagnostic and therapeutic. CASE REPORT: A 49-days old girl presented with nonbilious vomiting of 48 hours of evolution. Infantile hypertrofic pyloric stenosis was suspected. Ultrasound showed a nonobstructive nodular lesion in the anterior pyloric wall...
April 20, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
M Fanjul, L Pérez, J Cerdá, M Zornoza, R Rojo, I Simal, M A García-Casillas, C Corona, D Peláez, E Molina, A Parente, S Rivas, J M Angulo, E De Tomás
BACKGROUND: Multiple approaches to the treatment of simple and complicated (gangrenous or perforated) appendicitis in children have been promoted. Our goal is to develop a new protocol for these patients that allows shorter hospital stays without increasing complications rates. METHODS: Prospective collected data of patients undergoing appendicitis treated according to the new protocol for a period of 7 months were reviewed. This protocol consists on antibiotic prophylaxis in all cases continued with triple antibiotic regimen in complicated appendicitis...
October 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
Clarice L S Lopes, Paula Pitta Pinheiro, Luzia S Barberena, Guilherme U Eckert
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of children aged 0-14 years diagnosed with diabetic ketoacidosis and compare the following outcomes between children with prior diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1) and children without prior diagnosis of DM1: length of hospital stay, severity on admission, insulin dosage, time of continuous insulin use, volume of fluids infused during treatment, and complications. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive study with review of medical records of patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit of a referral hospital from June 2013 to July 2015...
October 19, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
Manisha Balwani, Preeti Singh, Anju Seth, Ekta Malik Debnath, Hetanshi Naik, Dana Doheny, Brenden Chen, Makiko Yasuda, Robert J Desnick
Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant inborn error of heme metabolism, typically presents in adulthood, most often in women in the reproductive age group. There are limited reports on the clinical presentation in children, and in contrast to the adults, most of the reported pediatric cases are male. While acute abdominal pain is the most common presenting symptom in children, seizures are commonly seen and may precede the diagnosis of AIP. As an example, we report a 9year old developmentally normal pre-pubertal boy who presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation followed by hyponatremia, seizures, weakness and neuropathy...
October 15, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Aditya H Gaur, Hilda Kizito, Wasana Prasitsueubsai, Natella Rakhmanina, Mohammed Rassool, Rana Chakraborty, Jagmohan Batra, Pope Kosalaraksa, Wicharn Luesomboon, Danielle Porter, Yongwu Shao, Michael Myers, Lillian Ting, Devi SenGupta, Erin Quirk, Martin S Rhee
BACKGROUND: The prodrug tenofovir alafenamide is associated with improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. We aimed to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of this single-tablet, fixed-dose combination of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adolescents. METHODS: We did a 48 week, single-arm, open-label trial in treatment-naive adolescents with HIV from ten hospital clinics in South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA...
October 17, 2016: Lancet HIV
J Y Zhao, X J Shen, B F Zhang, Z Q Wang, S L Xia, X Y Huang, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate the infection status of human rotavirus, calicivirus, astrovirus and enteric adenovirus in children aged <5 years in disease surveillance areas in Henan province from 2013 to 2015. Methods: A total of 880 stool samples were collected from four sentinel hospitals and group A rotavirus was detected by ELISA and group A rotavirus G/P genotyping was performed with nested multiplex RT-PCR, while rotavirus (group B, C), calicivirus and astrovirus were detected by two-step multiplex RT-PCR and adenovirus were detected by PCR...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Wenkuan Liu, Dehui Chen, Weiping Tan, Duo Xu, Shuyan Qiu, Zhiqi Zeng, Xiao Li, Rong Zhou
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most important pathogenic infections of children and requires in-depth research worldwide, and especially in developing countries. We used a novel multiplex real-time PCR to test 5483 patients (≤ 14 years old) hospitalized with respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China, over a 3-year period. Of these patients, 729 were positive for RSV-A (51.2%, 373/729) or RSV-B (48.8%, 356/729), but none was infected with both viruses. Two seasonal peaks in total RSV were detected at the changes from winter to spring and from summer to autumn...
2016: PloS One
Daniel S Budnitz, Maribeth C Lovegrove, Mathew R P Sapiano, Justin Mathew, Scott R Kegler, Andrew I Geller, Christian Hampp
Expanding access to office-based medication-assisted treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone for opioid dependence is a key part of the national strategy to address the opioid abuse epidemic (1). However, as buprenorphine/naloxone prescribing increased, emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations for unsupervised ingestions by young children began to increase, with buprenorphine/naloxone ingestions becoming the most common cause of hospitalization for medication ingestions by young children during 2010-2011 (2)...
October 21, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sanjay Bhandari, Thangam Venkatesan
Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS) is a chronic functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by episodic nausea and vomiting. Initially thought to only affect children, CVS in adults was often misdiagnosed with significant delays in therapy. Over the last decade, there has been a considerable increase in recognition of CVS in adults but there continues to be a lack of knowledge about management of this disorder. This paper seeks to provide best practices in the treatment of CVS and also highlight some novel therapies that have the potential in better treating this disorder in the future...
October 18, 2016: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Li-Ping Xia, Xu Chen, Yi Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical effect of high-dose gamma globulin pulse therapy for abdominal Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). METHODS: Thirty-three children with abdominal HSP were randomly assigned to dexamethasone group (15 children) and gamma globulin group (18 children). The children in the dexamethasone group were treated with dexamethasone and conventional treatment, and those in the gamma globulin group were treated with high-dose gamma globulin pulse therapy in addition to the conventional treatment...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Laila Alawdah, Ahmad Nahari, Dayel Alshahrani, Musa Fagih, Shahid Ghazi, Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini
Gastrointestinal sarcoidosis is a rare disease with very limited data in children. Here we report the first pediatric case of successful treatment with infliximab. The first case was an 8-year-old Saudi girl who presented with fever, weight loss, and abdominal pain that was followed in a few months with hematemesis and development of hepatosplenomegaly. The second case was a 9-year-old Sudanese boy who manifested with vomiting, epigastric pain, and weight loss. On upper endoscopy, both cases demonstrated severe erosive nodular gastric mucosa...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Chandni Sinha, Bindey Kumar, Umesh Kumar Bhadani, Ajeet Kumar, Amarjeet Kumar, Alok Ranjan
BACKGROUND: Caudal block is a reliable regional analgesic technique for pediatric urogenital surgeries. Various adjuvants have been tried to enhance the duration of action of bupivicaine. Though clonidine is extensively used as an adjuvant in caudal anaesthesia, it can have troublesome adverse effects like bradycardia, hypotension and sedation. Lately dexamethasone has become popular as an adjuvant in paediatric caudals due to its safety profile. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare dexamethasone and clonidine coadministered with bupivicaine caudally in paediatric patients undergoing urogenital surgeries in terms of analgesia and adverse effects...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Basak Erginel, Feryal Gun Soysal, Huseyin Ozbey, Erbug Keskin, Alaattin Celik, Aslıhan Karadag, Tansu Salman
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate our experience with enteric duplication cysts in 40 children during the past 26 years, while assessing the variability of their presentations and to propose an algorithm for surgical management. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed sex, age, clinical presentations, duplication site, surgical treatment, presence of ectopic tissue, complications, associated anomalies, and prognosis of 40 patients with gastrointestinal tract duplications who were surgically treated in our clinic...
October 12, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Ingeborg P M Hermus, Stacey J B Willems, Aimée C C F Bogman, Paddy K C Janssen, Leonie Brabers, Jan N M Schieveld
OBJECTIVE: This article presents an update on cyclic vomiting syndrome, a potentially exhausting disorder that can occur in children, adolescents, and adults and and has a huge impact on the quality of life. A structured literature search was conducted to explore the current knowledge about antipsychotics in the treatment of cyclic vomiting syndrome. A case report is presented of a 15-year-old boy with refractory cyclic vomiting syndrome (ICD-10 criteria), who finally responded to a unique combination of risperidone and amitriptyline...
2016: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
Martina Heinrich, Alexandra Kain, Florian Bergmann, Dietrich von Schweinitz
AIM: Fundoplication is required for children with chronic recurrent gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this study was to report parental perceptions of symptoms and overall satisfaction with the long-term course following fundoplication with special reference to patients with GERD risk factors. METHODS: We studied 34 patients, with a median age of 6.5 ±4.9 years, who received fundoplication between 2001-2005. Clinical information and surgical complications were recorded...
October 11, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
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