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snake antivenom

Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
There is limited information on the cross-neutralisation of neurotoxic venoms with antivenoms. Cross-neutralisation of the in vitro neurotoxicity of four Asian and four Australian snake venoms, four post-synaptic neurotoxins (α-bungarotoxin, α-elapitoxin-Nk2a, α-elapitoxin-Ppr1 and α-scutoxin; 100 nM) and one pre-synaptic neurotoxin (taipoxin; 100 nM) was studied with five antivenoms: Thai cobra antivenom (TCAV), death adder antivenom (DAAV), Thai neuro polyvalent antivenom (TNPAV), Indian Polyvalent antivenom (IPAV) and Australian polyvalent antivenom (APAV)...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
Syafiq Asnawi Zainal Abidin, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Md Ezharul Hoque Chowdhury, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad Rusmili, Iekhsan Othman, Rakesh Naidu
Tropidolaemus wagleri and Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus are venomous pit viper species commonly found in Malaysia. Tandem mass spectrometry analysis of the crude venoms has detected different proteins in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus. They were classified into 13 venom protein families consisting of enzymatic and nonenzymatic proteins. Enzymatic families detected in T. wagleri and C. purpureomaculatus venom were snake venom metalloproteinase, phospholipase A₂, ʟ-amino acid oxidase, serine proteases, 5'-nucleotidase, phosphodiesterase, and phospholipase B...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
J C Menon, J K Joseph, M P Jose, B L Dhananjaya, O V Oommen
INTRODUCTION: Snakebite is an occupational hazard causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly so in tropical countries like India. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to (i) review the demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in patients (1051) admitted with venomous snakebite (ii) to correlate mortality, morbidity and duration of hospital stay with clinical signs, symptoms and laboratory parameters. METHODS: A retrospective study of 1051 patients treated for snakebite over 10 years (2000 - 2009) in Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly, Kerala...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Seungho Kang, Jeongmi Moon, Byeongjo Chun
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to help set domestic guidelines for administration of antivenom to envenomated patients after snakebites. METHODS: This retrospective observational case series comprised 128 patients with snake envenomation. The patients were divided into two groups according to the need for additional antivenom after the initial treatment based on the traditional snakebite severity grading scale. One group successfully recovered after the initial treatment and did not need any additional antivenom (n=85) and the other needed an additional administration of antivenom (n=43)...
March 2016: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Eduardo Coriolano de Oliveira, Rodrigo Alves Soares Cruz, Nayanna de Mello Amorim, Marcelo Guerra Santos, Luiz Carlos Simas Pereira Junior, Eladio Oswaldo Flores Sanchez, Caio Pinho Fernandes, Rafael Garrett, Leandro Machado Rocha, André Lopes Fuly
Snake venoms are composed of a complex mixture of active proteins that induce toxic effects, such as edema, hemorrhage, and death. Lachesis muta has the highest lethality indices in Brazil. In most cases, antivenom fails to neutralize local effects, leading to disabilities in victims. Thus, alternative treatments are under investigation, and plant extracts are promising candidates. The objective of this work was to investigate the ability of crude extracts, fractions, or isolated products of Erythroxylum ovalifolium and Erythroxylum subsessile to neutralize some toxic effects of L...
October 11, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mariángela Vargas, Álvaro Segura, Maykel Cerdas, Ricardo Estrada, Indika Gawarammana, Dan E Keyler, Kimberly McWhorter, Roy Malleappah, Alberto Alape-Girón, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
A new whole IgG, freeze-dried, polyspecific antivenom was prepared from the plasma of horses immunized with the venoms of the snakes Daboia russelii, Echis carinatus, Hypnale hypnale, and Naja naja from Sri Lanka. The preclinical neutralizing ability of this antivenom against several toxic and enzymatic activities of these four venoms was analyzed, and compared with that of a batch of VINS antivenom (India) being currently used in Sri Lanka. The activities tested were: lethality, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, proteinase and phospholipase A2...
October 6, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Davinia Pla, Benjamin W Bande, Ronelle E Welton, Owen K Paiva, Libia Sanz, Álvaro Segura, Christine E Wright, Juan J Calvete, José María Gutiérrez, David J Williams
: The Papuan black snake (Pseudechis papuanus Serpentes: Elapidae) is endemic to Papua New Guinea, Indonesian Papua and Australia's Torres Strait Islands. We have investigated the biological activity and proteomic composition of its venom. The P. papuanus venom proteome is dominated by a variety (n≥18) of PLA2s, which together account for ~90% of the venom proteins, and a set of low relative abundance proteins, including a short-neurotoxic 3FTx (3.1%), 3-4 PIII-SVMPs (2.8%), 3 cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP; 2...
September 17, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
M Schutzbach, S Vonderhagen, M Jäger
A 24-year-old man was bitten on his right forefinger by his black mamba while he was feeding the animal. The primary symptoms caused by a full injection of the snake's venom therefore presented a life-threating situation. Due to pre-hospital troubleshooting of the emergency medical service and the timely administration of the antivenom further potentially harmful effects caused by the snakes venom were avoided.
September 19, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
Bruno Lomonte, Paola Rey-Suárez, Julián Fernández, Mahmood Sasa, Davinia Pla, Nancy Vargas, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Libia Sanz, Carlos Corrêa-Netto, Vitelbina Núñez, Alberto Alape-Girón, Alejandro Alagón, José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete
The application of proteomic tools to the study of snake venoms has led to an impressive growth in the knowledge about their composition (venomics), immunogenicity (antivenomics), and toxicity (toxicovenomics). About one-third of all venomic studies have focused on elapid species, especially those of the Old World. The New World elapids, represented by coral snakes, have been less studied. In recent years, however, a number of venomic studies on Micrurus species from North, Central, and South America have been conducted...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Maria I Estevao-Costa, Silea S Gontijo, Barbara L Correia, Armando Yarleque, Dan Vivas-Ruiz, Edith Rodrigues, Carlos Chávez-Olortegui, Luciana S Oliveira, Eladio F Sanchez
Snakebite envenoming is a neglected public pathology, affecting especially rural communities or isolated areas of tropical and subtropical Latin American countries. The parenteral administration of antivenom is the mainstay and the only validated treatment of snake bite envenoming. Here, we assess the efficacy of polyspecific anti-Bothrops serum (α-BS) produced in the Instituto Nacional de Salud (INS, Peru) and at the Fundação Ezequiel Dias (FUNED, Brazil), to neutralize the main toxic activities induced by five medically-relevant venoms of: Bothrops atrox, B...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Herlinda Clement, Vianey Flores, Guillermo De la Rosa, Fernando Zamudio, Alejandro Alagon, Gerardo Corzo
BACKGROUND: The cysteine-rich neurotoxins from elapid venoms are primarily responsible for human and animal envenomation; however, their low concentration in the venom may hamper the production of efficient elapid antivenoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce fully active elapid neurotoxic immunogens for elapid antivenom production. METHOD: Cysteine-rich neurotoxins showed recombinant expression in two strains of E. coli, and were purified using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC (rpHPLC)...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Choo Hock Tan, Jia Lee Liew, Kae Yi Tan, Nget Hong Tan
Venoms of Calliophis bivirgata and Calliophis intestinalis exhibited moderate binding activities toward Neuro Bivalent Antivenom (Taiwan) but not the other six elapid monovalent or bivalent antivenoms available in the region. All antivenoms failed to neutralize C. bivirgata venom lethality in mice. The findings indicate the need to validate antivenom cross-reactivity with in vivo cross-neutralization, and imply that distinct antigens of Calliophis venoms should be incorporated in the production of a pan-regional poly-specific antivenom...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Henrique Roman Ramos, Ruth Camargo Vassão, Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Ed Carlos Santos E Silva, Peter Mirtschin, Paulo Lee Ho, Patrick Jack Spencer
CONTEXT: Although rare, coral snake envenomation is a serious health threat in Brazil, because of the highly neurotoxic venom and the scarcely available antivenom. The major bottleneck for antivenom production is the low availability of venom. Furthermore, the available serum is not effective against all coral snake species found in Brazil. An alternative to circumvent the lack of venom for serum production and the restricted protection of the actually available antivenom would be of great value...
September 5, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
Line P Lauridsen, Andreas H Laustsen, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez
: A toxicovenomic analysis of the venom of the forest cobra, N. melanoleuca, was performed, revealing the presence of a total of 52 proteins by proteomics analysis. The most abundant proteins belong to the three-finger toxins (3FTx) (57.1wt%), which includes post-synaptically acting α-neurotoxins. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) were the second most abundant group of proteins (12.9wt%), followed by metalloproteinases (SVMPs) (9.7wt%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) (7.6wt%), and Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitors (3...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Rita de Cássia O Collaço, Priscila Randazzo-Moura, Mariana L Tamascia, Igor Rapp F da Silva, Thalita Rocha, José C Cogo, Stephen Hyslop, Charles G Sanny, Léa Rodrigues-Simioni
In this work, we examined some biochemical and biological activities of Bothrops fonsecai venom, a pitviper endemic to southeastern Brazil, and assessed their neutralization by commercial bothropic antivenom (CAv). Cross-reactivity of venom with CAv was also assessed by immunoblotting and size-exclusion high performance chromatography (SE-HPLC). Bothrops fonsecai venom had PLA2, proteolytic and esterase activities that were neutralized to varying extents by venom:antivenom ratios of 5:1 and 5:2 (PLA2 and esterase activities) or not significantly by either venom:antivenom ratio (proteolytic activity)...
August 30, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Hai-Long Duan, Qi-Yi He, Bin Zhou, Wen-Wen Wang, Bo Li, Ying-Zheng Zhang, Qiu-Ping Deng, Ying-Feng Zhang, Xiao-Dong Yu
BACKGROUND: Snakebite incidence in southwestern China is mainly attributed to one of the several venomous snakes found in the country, the white-lipped green pit viper Trimeresurus albolabris. Since antivenom produced from horses may cause numerous clinical side effects, the present study was conducted aiming to develop an alternative antivenom antibody (immunoglobulin Y - IgY) from leghorn chickens. METHODS: IgY in egg yolk from white leghorn chicken previously injected with T...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Tihana Kurtović, Miran Brvar, Damjan Grenc, Maja Lang Balija, Igor Križaj, Beata Halassy
Viperfav(TM) is a commercial F(ab')₂ antivenom prepared against European vipers venom. It is safe and effective for treating envenomation caused by Vipera aspis and Vipera berus. Therapeutic efficacy for treating Vipera ammodytes ammodytes (V. a. ammodytes) envenoming has not been yet described, although protective efficacy has been demonstrated in preclinical studies. We report on a 32-year-old man bitten by V. a. ammodytes who was treated with Viperfav™. Viperfav™ promptly reduced local extension and improved systemic pathological signs, but 24 h after the incident a recurrence of thrombocytopenia occurred despite a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with systemic clearance (1...
2016: Toxins
Vance G Nielsen, Philip A Losada
Since the introduction of antivenom administration over a century ago to treat venomous snake bite, it has been the most effective therapy for saving life and limb. However, this treatment is not always effective and not without potential life-threatening side effects. We tested a new paradigm to abrogate the plasmatic anticoagulant effects of fibrinogenolytic snake venom metalloproteinases by inhibiting these Zn(+2) -dependent enzymes directly with carbon monoxide exposure. Assessment of the fibrinogenolytic effects of venoms collected from the Arizona Black rattlesnake, Northern Pacific rattlesnake, Western cottonmouth, Eastern cottonmouth, Broad-banded copperhead and Southern copperhead on human plasmatic coagulation kinetics was performed with thrombelastography in vitro...
August 22, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Senanayake A M Kularatne, Kosala Weerakoon, Anjana Silva, Kalana Maduwage, Chamara Walathara, Ishani Rathnayake, Senal Medagedara, Ranjith Paranagama, Suresh Mendis, P V R Kumarasiri
The prevention of adverse drug reactions to antivenom serum poses a formidable challenge in the management of snakebite. Hydrocortisone is being used concurrently with antivenom in order to prevent these adverse drug reactions without a proven benefit. However, all previous studies seemed to ignore the testing of effectiveness of hydrocortisone therapy during its pharmacological effects, which come hours later. On this principle, we aimed to test the effectiveness of intravenous hydrocortisone given 2 h or more prior to the commencement of antivenom therapy to reduce adverse drug reactions to antivenom...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
J R Almeida, M Lancellotti, A M Soares, L A Calderon, D Ramírez, W González, S Marangoni, S L Da Silva
Snake venoms are rich and intriguing sources of biologically-active molecules that act on target cells, modulating a diversity of physiological functions and presenting promising pharmacological applications. Lys49 phospholipase A2 is one of the multifunctional proteins present in these complex secretions and, although catalytically inactive, has a variety of biological activities, including cytotoxic, antibacterial, inflammatory, antifungal activities. Herein, a Lys49 phospholipase A2, denominated CoaTx-II from Crotalus oreganus abyssus, was purified and structurally and pharmacologically characterized...
September 15, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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