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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908262/history-and-perspectives-on-how-to-ensure-antivenom-accessibility-in-the-most-remote-areas-in-brazil
#1
Hui Wen Fan, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
A plan to achieve self-sufficiency in manufacturing biologicals for public health has been structured for the last 40 years in Brazil, in the context of a reform in the health system. Industrial plants of the national public laboratories have been modernized, and a program for reducing morbidity and mortality of venomous snakebite has been created, as part of the National Epidemiological Surveillance System. The epidemiological data are essential to plan for the antivenom production of 400,000 vials of snake antivenoms per year, and the acquisition by the Ministry of Health, which is the exclusive purchaser in the country...
June 13, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900771/the-first-report-of-a-crotalid-envenomation-in-a-domesticated-ferret-mustela-furo-and-successful-treatment-with-a-novel-f-ab-2-antivenom
#2
Ariel I Loredo, Jenny E Bauman, Raegan J Wells
  A case report of a domesticated ferret ( Mustela furo) envenomated by a presumptive rattlesnake ( Crotalus sp.) treated successfully and safely with the novel Fab (2') North American Snake Antivenom (Veteria Labs). The ferret presented with clinical signs of depressed mentation and facial edema following a rattlesnake ( Crotalus sp.) bite. It developed hypotension, thrombocytopenia, and ecchymosis following the envenomation. It was treated with Fab (2') antivenom and given supportive care including crystalloid fluids and analgesia to resolution of clinical signs...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892202/clinical-and-epidemiologic-profile-and-predictors-of-outcome-of-poisonous-snake-bites-an-analysis-of-1-500-cases-from-a-tertiary-care-center-in-malabar-north-kerala-india
#3
Kg Sajeeth Kumar, Santhosh Narayanan, V Udayabhaskaran, N K Thulaseedharan
Background: Snake bites are a neglected public health problem in all tropical countries, and particularly in Malabar region of Kerala, India. Demographic characteristics and clinical parameters vary in this part of the world, and studies based on them are scarce. Increased incidence of capillary leak syndrome (CLS) in hemotoxic snake bites and emergence of cases of hump-nosed pit viper (HNPV, Hypnale hypnale ) envenomation are some notable features seen here. Objectives: The study was conducted to assess the epidemiological profile and clinical features to identify factors contributing to outcome in patients with venomous snakebites...
2018: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867131/venom-proteomics-and-antivenom-neutralization-for-the-chinese-eastern-russell-s-viper-daboia-siamensis-from-guangxi-and-taiwan
#4
Kae Yi Tan, Nget Hong Tan, Choo Hock Tan
The eastern Russell's viper (Daboia siamensis) causes primarily hemotoxic envenomation. Applying shotgun proteomic approach, the present study unveiled the protein complexity and geographical variation of eastern D. siamensis venoms originated from Guangxi and Taiwan. The snake venoms from the two geographical locales shared comparable expression of major proteins notwithstanding variability in their toxin proteoforms. More than 90% of total venom proteins belong to the toxin families of Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor, phospholipase A2 , C-type lectin/lectin-like protein, serine protease and metalloproteinase...
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796013/delayed-double-reading-of-whole-blood-clotting-test-wbct-results-at-20-and-30-minutes-enhances-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-viper-envenomation
#5
Jordan Max Benjamin, Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Bio Tamou Sambo, Achille Massougbodji
Background: The whole blood clotting test (WBCT) is a simple test of coagulation that is often used in the assessment, diagnosis, and therapeutic monitoring of snakebite patients in sub-Saharan Africa. WBCT requires only a clean glass tube and several milliliters of venous blood and is ideal for use in poorly equipped health centers throughout the rural areas where 95% of snakebites occur. However, questions surrounding the accuracy and reliability of the test remain unanswered due to variations in testing conditions and a lack of comparative research with which to validate them...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792342/misidentification-of-copperhead-and-cottonmouth-snakes-following-snakebites
#6
Robert D Cox, Christina S Parker, Erin C E Cox, Michael B Marlin, Robert L Galli
INTRODUCTION: Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and cottonmouth or water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus) snakes account for the majority of venomous snakebites in the southern United States. Cottonmouth snakes are generally considered to have more potent venom. Copperheads are considered less venomous and there is some controversy as to whether or not bites from copperhead snakes need to be treated with antivenom. Copperhead and juvenile cottonmouth snakes are both brown in color...
May 24, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776445/community-based-audits-of-snake-envenomations-in-a-resource-challenged-setting-of-cameroon-case-series
#7
Frank-Leonel Tianyi, Valirie Ndip Agbor, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Benjamin Momo Kadia, Armand Seraphin Nkwescheu
BACKGROUND: Snakebites are a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide with the highest mortality burden in poor rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Inadequate surveillance systems result in loss of morbidity and mortality data in these settings. Although rarely reported in these resource-constraint environments, community-based audits are recognised pivotal tools which could help update existing data and indicate key public health interventions to curb snakebite-related mortality...
May 18, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764824/achieving-full-neurological-recovery-in-snakebite-using-best-supportive-care
#8
Sally Wright, Genevieve Haddock
A 29-year-old woman presented to a community hospital in Sierra Leone 2 hours after being bitten by an unknown snake. On arrival, she was agitated though alert, however deteriorated into respiratory arrest. There was no local availability of antivenom. The patient remained in respiratory arrest undergoing best supportive care in a low-resource setting for 2 hours 55 minutes before returning to spontaneous ventilation. She went on to make a full neurological recovery. Though spontaneous recovery following snakebite envenoming is rare, this case showcases that good communication and basic manoeuvres can have a hugely positive impact on patient outcome...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758383/does-size-matter-venom-proteomic-and-functional-comparison-between-night-adder-species-viperidae-causus-with-short-and-long-venom-glands
#9
Francisco C P Coimbra, James Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Bianca Op den Brouw, Brett Hamilton, Jordan Debono, Paul Masci, Nathaniel Frank, Lilin Ge, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Night adders (Causus species within the Viperidae family) are amphibian specialists and a common source of snakebite in Africa. Some species are unique in that they have the longest venom glands of any viper, extending approximately 10% of the body length. Despite their potential medical importance and evolutionary novelty, their venom has received almost no research attention. In this study, venoms from a short-glanded species (C. lichtensteinii) and from a long-glanded species (C. rhombeatus) were compared using a series of proteomic and bioactivity testing techniques to investigate and compare the toxin composition and functioning of the venoms of these two species...
May 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746978/clinical-studies-of-the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-antivenoms
#10
David J Williams, Abdulrazaq G Habib, David A Warrell
In the 1890s, hyperimmune sera proved effective in animals against challenge by the snake venom against which they had been raised. They were first used, apparently successfully, in a human patient in about 1895. Since then, antivenoms have become accepted as the only reliable specific treatment for snake-bite envenoming. Despite decades of accumulated clinical experience and a number of published randomised comparative and observational studies, the clinical effectiveness and safety of some antivenoms remain open to question, due to a lack of robust randomised controlled trial data...
May 7, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729992/proteomics-functional-characterization-and-antivenom-neutralization-of-the-venom-of-pakistani-russell-s-viper-daboia-russelii-from-the-wild
#11
Tasnim Faisal, Kae Yi Tan, Si Mui Sim, Naeem Quraishi, Nget Hong Tan, Choo Hock Tan
The venom proteome of wild Pakistani Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) was investigated through nano-ESI-LCMS/MS of the reverse-phase HPLC fractions. A total of 54 venom proteins were identified and clustered into 11 protein families. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2 , 63.8%) and Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI, 16.0%) were most abundant, followed by snake venom serine protease (SVSP, 5.5%, mainly Factor V activating enzyme), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, 4.3%), snake venom metalloprotease (SVMP, 2...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704534/toxin-resolved-antivenomics-guided-assessment-of-the-immunorecognition-landscape-of-antivenoms
#12
Juan J Calvete, Yania Rodríguez, Sarai Quesada-Bernat, Davinia Pla
Snakebite envenoming represents a major issue in rural areas of tropical and subtropical regions across sub-Saharan Africa, South to Southeast Asia, Latin America and Oceania. Antivenoms constitute the only scientifically validated therapy for snakebite envenomings, provided they are safe, effective, affordable, accessible and administered appropriately. However, the lack of financial incentives in a technology that has remained relatively unchanged for more than a century, has contributed to some manufacturers leaving the market and others downscaling production or increasing the prices, leading to a decline in the availability and accessibility for these life-saving antidotes to millions of rural poor most at risk from snakebites in low income countries...
April 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701671/proteopeptidomic-functional-and-immunoreactivity-characterization-of-bothrops-moojeni-snake-venom-influence-of-snake-gender-on-venom-composition
#13
Fernanda Gobbi Amorim, Tassia Rafaela Costa, Dominique Baiwir, Edwin De Pauw, Loic Quinton, Suely Vilela Sampaio
Venom composition varies across snakes from all taxonomic levels and is influenced by the snakes’ age, habitat, diet, and sexual dimorphism. The present study reports the first in-depth investigation of venom composition in male and female Bothrops moojeni ( B. moojeni ) snakes (BmooM and BmooF, respectively) through three proteomics approaches associated with functional, cytotoxic, and immunoreactivity characterization. Compared with BmooM venom, BmooF venom exhibited weaker hyaluronidase, metalloproteinase, and phospholipase activity; stronger recognition by anti-bothropic serum; 1...
April 26, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690533/snakebite-when-the-human-touch-becomes-a-bad-touch
#14
REVIEW
Bryan G Fry
Many issues and complications in treating snakebite are a result of poor human social, economic and clinical intervention and management. As such, there is scope for significant improvements for reducing incidence and increasing patient outcomes. Snakes do not target humans as prey, but as our dwellings and farms expand ever farther and climate change increases snake activity periods, accidental encounters with snakes seeking water and prey increase drastically. Despite its long history, the snakebite crisis is neglected, ignored, underestimated and fundamentally misunderstood...
April 21, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673703/snake-venoms-from-angola-intra-specific-variations-and-immunogenicity
#15
Paula Regina Simões de Oliveira, Felipe Silva de França, Isadora Maria Villas Boas, Marisa Maria Teixeira da Rocha, Sávio Stefanini Sant'Anna, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Denise V Tambourgi
Snakebite is a public health problem in many countries of world. These accidents are considered a Neglected Tropical Disease and are responsible for a high morbidity and mortality index in the South and Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Angolan snake venoms are poorly investigated and no specific antivenom against them is available in the country. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and immunogenic properties of male and female venoms from Naja nigricollis, Bitis arietans and Bitis gabonica snakes...
June 15, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659491/antivenom-production-against-bothrops-jararaca-and-bothrops-erythromelas-snake-venoms-using-cross-linked-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-an-immunoadjuvant
#16
Karla Samara Rocha Soares, Fiamma Gláucia-Silva, Alessandra Daniele-Silva, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Nathália Kelly de Araújo, Yamara Arruda Silva de Menezes, Igor Zumba Damasceno, Denise Vilarinho Tambourgi, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
In Brazil, envenomation by snakes of the genus Bothrops is clinically relevant, particularly for the species Bothrops jararaca and B. erythromelas . The most effective treatment for envenomation by snakes is the administration of antivenoms associated with adjuvants. Novel adjuvants are required to reduce side effects and maximize the efficiency of conventional serum and vaccine formulations. The polymer chitosan has been shown to have immunoadjuvant properties, and it has been used as a platform for delivery systems...
April 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656017/proteomic-and-toxinological-characterization-of-the-venom-of-the-south-african-ringhals-cobra-hemachatus-haemachatus
#17
Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Daniela Solano, Álvaro Segura, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León, Mariángela Vargas
The protein composition and toxinological profile of the venom of the African spitting elapid Hemachatus haemachatus (Ringhals) were characterized by bottom-up proteomics and functional in vitro and in vivo assays. Venom is composed of abundant three-finger toxins (3FTxs; 63.3%), followed by phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s; 22.8%), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs; 7.1%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs; 4.1%) and Kunitz type protease inhibitors (KTPIs; 1.5%). 3FTxs are the main responsible for lethality and myotoxicity in mice and in vitro anticoagulant activity...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651298/true-or-false-coral-snake-is-it-worth-the-risk-a-micrurus-corallinus-case-report
#18
Marcelo Abrahão Strauch, Guilherme Jones Souza, Jordana Nahar Pereira, Tyelli Dos Santos Ramos, Marcelo Oliveira Cesar, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Fernando Chagas Patrão-Neto, Paulo A Melo
Background: Bites provoked by the genus Micrurus represent less than 1% of snakebite cases notified in Brazil, a tiny fraction compared with other genus such as Bothrops and Crotalus , which together represent almost 80% of accidents. In addition to their less aggressive behavior, habits and morphology of coral snakes are determinant factors for such low incidence of accidents. Although Micrurus bites are rare, victims must be rescued and hospitalized in a short period of time, because this type of envenoming may evolve to a progressive muscle weakness and acute respiratory failure...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626299/short-chain-consensus-alpha-neurotoxin-a-synthetic-60-mer-peptide-with-generic-traits-and-enhanced-immunogenic-properties
#19
Guillermo de la Rosa, Ligia L Corrales-García, Ximena Rodriguez-Ruiz, Estuardo López-Vera, Gerardo Corzo
The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621529/severe-snakebite-envenomation-in-french-guiana-when-antivenom-is-not-available
#20
Hatem Kallel, Claire Mayence, Stéphanie Houcke, Cyrille Mathien, Hossein Mehdaoui, José María Gutiérrez, Bruno Megarbane, Didier Hommel, Dabor Resiere
In French Guiana, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili, Bothrops bilineatus, Lachesis muta and Micrurus sp are responsible for most cases of snakebite envenomation. The clinical features in patients suffering from envenomations by viperid snakes involve local tissue damage and systemic manifestations, such as hemorrhage, coagulopathies and hemodynamic instability. We report a severe case of envenomation in a patient bitten by a large unidentified pit viper in French Guiana. Due to lack of antivenom, the patient only received symptomatic management...
May 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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