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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659491/antivenom-production-against-bothrops-jararaca-and-bothrops-erythromelas-snake-venoms-using-cross-linked-chitosan-nanoparticles-as-an-immunoadjuvant
#1
Karla Samara Rocha Soares, Fiamma Gláucia-Silva, Alessandra Daniele-Silva, Manoela Torres-Rêgo, Nathália Kelly de Araújo, Yamara Arruda Silva de Menezes, Igor Zumba Damasceno, Denise Vilarinho Tambourgi, Arnóbio Antônio da Silva-Júnior, Matheus de Freitas Fernandes-Pedrosa
In Brazil, envenomation by snakes of the genus Bothrops is clinically relevant, particularly for the species Bothrops jararaca and B. erythromelas . The most effective treatment for envenomation by snakes is the administration of antivenoms associated with adjuvants. Novel adjuvants are required to reduce side effects and maximize the efficiency of conventional serum and vaccine formulations. The polymer chitosan has been shown to have immunoadjuvant properties, and it has been used as a platform for delivery systems...
April 16, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656017/proteomic-and-toxinological-characterization-of-the-venom-of-the-south-african-ringhals-cobra-hemachatus-haemachatus
#2
Andrés Sánchez, María Herrera, Mauren Villalta, Daniela Solano, Álvaro Segura, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León, Mariángela Vargas
The protein composition and toxinological profile of the venom of the African spitting elapid Hemachatus haemachatus (Ringhals) were characterized by bottom-up proteomics and functional in vitro and in vivo assays. Venom is composed of abundant three-finger toxins (3FTxs; 63.3%), followed by phospholipases A2 (PLA2 s; 22.8%), snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs 7.1%), cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs; 4.1%) and Kunitz type protease inhibitors (KTPIs; 1.5%). 3FTxs are the main responsible for lethality and myotoxicity in mice and in vitro anticoagulant activity...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651298/true-or-false-coral-snake-is-it-worth-the-risk-a-micrurus-corallinus-case-report
#3
Marcelo Abrahão Strauch, Guilherme Jones Souza, Jordana Nahar Pereira, Tyelli Dos Santos Ramos, Marcelo Oliveira Cesar, Marcelo Amorim Tomaz, Marcos Monteiro-Machado, Fernando Chagas Patrão-Neto, Paulo A Melo
Background: Bites provoked by the genus Micrurus represent less than 1% of snakebite cases notified in Brazil, a tiny fraction compared with other genus such as Bothrops and Crotalus , which together represent almost 80% of accidents. In addition to their less aggressive behavior, habits and morphology of coral snakes are determinant factors for such low incidence of accidents. Although Micrurus bites are rare, victims must be rescued and hospitalized in a short period of time, because this type of envenoming may evolve to a progressive muscle weakness and acute respiratory failure...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626299/short-chain-consensus-alpha-neurotoxin-a-synthetic-60-mer-peptide-with-generic-traits-and-enhanced-immunogenic-properties
#4
Guillermo de la Rosa, Ligia L Corrales-García, Ximena Rodriguez-Ruiz, Estuardo López-Vera, Gerardo Corzo
The three-fingered toxin family and more precisely short-chain α-neurotoxins (also known as Type I α-neurotoxins) are crucial in defining the elapid envenomation process, but paradoxically, they are barely neutralized by current elapid snake antivenoms. This work has been focused on the primary structural identity among Type I neurotoxins in order to create a consensus short-chain α-neurotoxin with conserved characteristics. A multiple sequence alignment considering the twelve most toxic short-chain α-neurotoxins reported from the venoms of the elapid genera Acanthophis, Oxyuranus, Walterinnesia, Naja, Dendroaspis and Micrurus led us to propose a short-chain consensus α-neurotoxin, here named ScNtx...
April 6, 2018: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621529/severe-snakebite-envenomation-in-french-guiana-when-antivenom-is-not-available
#5
Hatem Kallel, Claire Mayence, Stéphanie Houcke, Cyrille Mathien, Hossein Mehdaoui, José María Gutiérrez, Bruno Megarbane, Didier Hommel, Dabor Resiere
In French Guiana, Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili, Bothrops bilineatus, Lachesis muta and Micrurus sp are responsible for most cases of snakebite envenomation. The clinical features in patients suffering from envenomations by viperid snakes involve local tissue damage and systemic manifestations, such as hemorrhage, coagulopathies and hemodynamic instability. We report a severe case of envenomation in a patient bitten by a large unidentified pit viper in French Guiana. Due to lack of antivenom, the patient only received symptomatic management...
April 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621528/what-can-be-learned-in-the-snake-antivenom-field-from-the-developments-in-human-plasma-derived-products
#6
Thierry Burnouf
Human plasma-derived medicinal products and snake antivenom immunoglobulins are unique and complex therapeutic protein products. Human plasma products are obtained by fractionating large pools of plasma collected from blood plasma donors. They comprise a wide range of protein products, including polyvalent and hyperimmune immunoglobulins, coagulation factors, albumin, and various protease inhibitors that are transfused to patients affected by congenital or acquired protein deficiencies, immunological disorders, or metabolic diseases...
April 2, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617989/knowledge-of-venomous-snakes-snakebite-first-aid-treatment-and-prevention-among-clinicians-in-northern-nigeria-a-cross-sectional-multicentre-study
#7
Godpower C Michael, Bukar A Grema, Ibrahim Aliyu, Mohammed A Alhaji, Teslim O Lawal, Haliru Ibrahim, Aminu G Fikin, Fatima S Gyaran, Kennedy N Kane, Thomas D Thacher, Abba K Badamasi, Emmanuel Ogwuche
Background: Snakebite envenoming causes considerable morbidity and mortality in northern Nigeria. The clinician's knowledge of snakebite impacts outcome. We assessed clinicians' knowledge of snakebite envenoming to highlight knowledge and practice gaps for possible intervention to improve snakebite outcomes. Methods: This was a cross-sectional multicentre study of 374 doctors selected from the accident and emergency, internal medicine, family medicine/general outpatient, paediatrics and surgery departments of nine tertiary hospitals in northern Nigeria using a multistage sampling technique...
March 29, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616641/snake-bites-by-bothrops-lanceolatus-in-martinique
#8
D Resiere, M Hossein, B Megarbane
Bothrops lanceolatus, a member of the Viperidae family and Crotalinae subfamily, is the only snake causing envenomation in Martinique, which is the only place it exists in the world. Any bite by this snake may result in severe thrombotic complications including cerebral, pulmonary, and myocardial infarction and affecting the patient's vital or functional prognosis. The exact composition of the venom as well as the mechanisms of toxicity involved are still debated today. The first specific antivenom immunotherapy (AVI), Bothrofav1, manufactured in 1991, reduced mortality and morbidity significantly...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616630/the-antivenom-efficacy-against-a-viper-bite-without-medical-treatment-for-3-days-a-case-report
#9
H Alaoui, Y Aissaoui, M Zoubir, M Boughalem
Snakebites can be deadly, depending on the course of extremely serious hemorrhagic complications in the absence of antivenom, which remains the only specific and effective treatment, if it is introduced in time. We report the case of a young patient of 18 years, bitten by a snake and receiving only tradition care until admission to intensive care 3 days later, with advanced bleeding and inflammation; four vials of FAV-Africa antivenom were administered and resulted in dramatic improvement in his condition. This result confirms the empirical concept that delay in management should under no circumstances exclude the administration of antivenom...
February 1, 2018: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611503/accuracy-of-the-lee-white-clotting-time-performed-in-the-hospital-routine-to-detect-coagulopathy-in-bothrops-atrox-envenomation
#10
Jose Diego de Brito Sousa, Jacqueline Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, Sâmella Santos Oliveira, Iran Mendonça-da-Silva, Hedylamar Oliveira Marques, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães de Lacerda, Hui Wen Fan, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Snake envenomation is a major public health problem in Brazil. Systemic complications that may arise from snakebites are mainly related to coagulopathy. The Lee-White clotting time (LWCT) is a simple and inexpensive test and available even in remote health facilities. However, the diagnostic value of such test needs to be evaluated to accurately diagnose coagulopathy in the clinical practice. This study aimed to assess the reliability of the LWCT performed in hospital routine to diagnose venom-induced coagulopathy...
April 2, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584906/capillary-leak-syndrome-in-daboia-russelii-bite-a-complication-associated-with-poor-outcome
#11
Pradip P Kendre, Manoj P Jose, Abraham M Varghese, Jaideep C Menon, Joseph K Joseph
Background: Capillary leak syndrome (CLS) has been previously observed as a complication of Daboia russelii bite but not clearly defined or studied in length. This observational case-control study evaluates the mortality along with associated clinical and laboratory features. Methods: Twenty-five patients who developed CLS were compared with 25 patients without CLS following Daboia russelii (Russell's viper) bite. Results: Development of CLS is associated with a significantly high risk of mortality; 11 (44%) patients with CLS died compared with 1 (4%) control (odds ratio 18...
March 23, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572088/predictive-factors-for-death-after-snake-envenomation-in-myanmar
#12
Kyi-Phyu Aye, Vipa Thanachartwet, Chit Soe, Varunee Desakorn, Supat Chamnanchanunt, Duangjai Sahassananda, Thanom Supaporn, Visith Sitprija
INTRODUCTION: Factors predictive for death from snake envenomation vary between studies, possibly due to variation in host genetic factors and venom composition. This study aimed to evaluate predictive factors for death from snake envenomation in Myanmar. METHODS: A prospective study was performed among adult patients with snakebite admitted to tertiary hospitals in Yangon, Myanmar, from May 2015 to August 2016. Data including clinical variables and laboratory parameters, management, and outcomes were evaluated...
March 20, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546833/natural-snake-venom-inhibitors-and-their-pharmaceutical-uses-challenges-and-possibilities
#13
Soledad Lorena Saavedra, Lucia Avila, Silvana Laura Giudicessi, Fernando Albericio, Silvia Andrea Camperi, Osvaldo Cascone, Maria Camila Martinez-Ceron
Nowadays, treatment with specific antivenins is considered the only cure for snakebites accidents. However, access to antivenom obstructs the successful implementation of the World Health Organization international guidelines. In the last few years, natural organic compounds, peptides and proteins with the ability to inhibit snake toxins and obtained from different sources such as plant extracts and animal blood have been proposed as antivenoms. In this work, we will focus on the inhibitors of the main venom toxins, phospholipases A2 and metalloproteinases, and their application as novel antivenoms...
February 23, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510161/preclinical-assessment-of-the-neutralizing-efficacy-of-antivenoms-in-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-a-review
#14
José María Gutiérrez
The preclinical evaluation of the neutralizing efficacy of antivenoms is mandatory before a product is introduced for clinical use. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for antivenoms categorize the tests used in preclinical studies as 'essential assays' (neutralization of lethality) and 'additional recommended assays' (neutralization of other relevant toxic activities). The present review presents an overview of the methodological aspects of antivenom preclinical efficacy tests, and summarizes the studies performed in this subject on antivenoms used in Latin America and the Caribbean...
March 3, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490236/snakebites-as-cause-of-deaths-in-the-western-brazilian-amazon-why-and-who-dies-deaths-from-snakebites-in-the-amazon
#15
Anderson da Silva Souza, Jacqueline de Almeida Gonçalves Sachett, João Arthur Alcântara, Monique Freire, Maria das Graças Costa Alecrim, Marcus Lacerda, Luiz Carlos de Lima Ferreira, Hui Wen Fan, Vanderson de Souza Sampaio, Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro
Snake envenoming represents a major burden for public health worldwide. In the Amazon, the official number of cases and deaths detected is probably underestimated because of the difficulty riverine and indigenous populations have reaching health centers in order to receive medical assistance. Thus, integrated analysis of health information systems must be used in order to improve adequate health policies. The aim of this work is to describe a series of deaths and identify risk factors for lethality from snakebites in the state of Amazonas, Brazil...
February 25, 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466649/preclinical-efficacy-against-toxic-activities-of-medically-relevant-bothrops-sp-serpentes-viperidae-snake-venoms-by-a-polyspecific-antivenom-produced-in-mexico
#16
Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Alfredo Uscanga-Reynell, Guillermo León, José María Gutiérrez
The assessment of the preclinical neutralizing ability of antivenoms in Latin America is necessary to determine their scope of efficacy. This study was aimed at analyzing the neutralizing efficacy of a polyspecific bothropic-crotalic antivenom manufactured by BIRMEX in Mexico against lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenating and in vitro coagulant activities of the venoms of Bothrops jararaca (Brazil), B. atrox (Perú and Colombia), B. diporus (Argentina), B. mattogrossensis (Bolivia), and B. asper (Costa Rica)...
March 2017: Revista de Biología Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462691/factor-x-activating-atractaspis-snake-venoms-and-the-relative-coagulotoxicity-neutralising-efficacy-of-african-antivenoms
#17
Brice Oulion, James S Dobson, Christina N Zdenek, Kevin Arbuckle, Callum Lister, Francisco C P Coimbra, Bianca Op den Brouw, Jordan Debono, Aymeric Rogalski, Aude Violette, Rudy Fourmy, Nathaniel Frank, Bryan G Fry
Atractaspis snake species are enigmatic in their natural history, and venom effects are correspondingly poorly described. Clinical reports are scarce but bites have been described as causing severe hypertension, profound local tissue damage leading to amputation, and deaths are on record. Clinical descriptions have largely concentrated upon tissue effects, and research efforts have focused upon the blood-pressure affecting sarafotoxins. However, coagulation disturbances suggestive of procoagulant functions have been reported in some clinical cases, yet this aspect has been uninvestigated...
May 15, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460967/tumescent-contravenom-murine-model-for-prehospital-treatment-of-naja-naja-neurotoxic-snake-envenomation
#18
Joy R Makdisi, Dennis P Kim, Paytra A Klein, Jeffrey A Klein
BACKGROUND: Snake envenomation is a neglected global health problem. There is a need for a prehospital treatment of neurotoxic snakebite that prolongs survival and allows time for a victim to reach a hospital for antivenom therapy. Tumescent epinephrine consists of a large volume of dilute epinephrine (2 mg/l) injected subcutaneously. It functions as "contravenom" by causing capillary vasoconstriction and delaying venom absorption. METHODS: A murine model of neurotoxic envenomation using lidocaine as a surrogate for neurotoxic snake venom was first developed in a pilot study...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428543/synergistic-strategies-of-predominant-toxins-in-snake-venoms
#19
REVIEW
Shengwei Xiong, Chunhong Huang
Synergism is a significant phenomenon present in snake venoms that may be an evolving strategy to potentiate toxicities. Synergism exists between different toxins or toxin complexes in various snake venoms, with phospholipaseA 2 s (PLA 2 s) (toxins or subunits) the main enablers. The predominant toxins, snake venom PLA 2 s, metalloproteases (SVMPs), serine proteases (SVSPs) and three-finger toxins (3FTxs), play essential roles in synergistic processes. The hypothetical mechanisms of synergistic effect can be generalized under the effects of amplification and chaperoning...
February 8, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414889/pharmacokinetics-of-snake-venom
#20
REVIEW
Suchaya Sanhajariya, Stephen B Duffull, Geoffrey K Isbister
Understanding snake venom pharmacokinetics is essential for developing risk assessment strategies and determining the optimal dose and timing of antivenom required to bind all venom in snakebite patients. This review aims to explore the current knowledge of snake venom pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Literature searches were conducted using EMBASE (1974-present) and Medline (1946-present). For animals, 12 out of 520 initially identified studies met the inclusion criteria. In general, the disposition of snake venom was described by a two-compartment model consisting of a rapid distribution phase and a slow elimination phase, with half-lives of 5 to 48 min and 0...
February 7, 2018: Toxins
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