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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636631/incidence-and-mortality-due-to-snakebite-in-the-americas
#1
Jean-Philippe Chippaux
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality...
June 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627854/swiss-and-tropical-snakebites-the-clinical-management
#2
Laurence Rochat, Gabriel Alcoba
With increasing trips to tropical areas, as well as a high number of venomous snake holders in the country, the frequency of snake bites is likely to increase. Even if in 50 % of cases, the bites do not lead to clinical envenoming, rapid and effective management is essential to successful treatment, which includes supply with the polyvalent or specific antivenom and recognition of the signs and symptoms justifying its administration. We will deal here mainly with local and tropical snake envenoming that Swiss practitioners could encounter in their offices or the emergency rooms and propose scenarios according to the syndromes...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623383/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-biotechnological-applications-of-eclipta-prostrata
#3
REVIEW
Ill-Min Chung, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Ji-Hee Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Eclipta prostrata belongs to a family of medicinal plants (Asteraceae) and plays a role in the treatment of several diseases, including infectious hepatitis, snake venom poisoning, gastritis, and respiratory diseases such as a cough and asthma. A number of compounds, including thiophene derivatives, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, polypeptides, and coumestans, have been isolated from E. prostrata. The plant functional compounds can act as reducing agent in the field of nanoparticle synthesis...
June 16, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601268/the-efficacy-of-crotalidae-polyvalent-immune-fab-ovine-antivenom-versus-placebo-plus-optional-rescue%C3%A2-therapy-on-recovery-from-copperhead-snake-envenomation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#4
Charles J Gerardo, Eugenia Quackenbush, Brandon Lewis, S Rutherfoord Rose, Spencer Greene, Eric A Toschlog, Nathan P Charlton, Michael E Mullins, Richard Schwartz, David Denning, Kapil Sharma, Kurt Kleinschmid, Sean P Bush, Samantha Ryan, Maria Gasior, Victoria E Anderson, Eric J Lavonas
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix) envenomation causes limb injury resulting in pain and disability. It is not known whether antivenom administration improves limb function. We determine whether administration of antivenom improves recovery from limb injury in patients envenomated by copperhead snakes. METHODS: From August 2013 through November 2015, we performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to evaluate the effect of ovine Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) antivenom therapy on recovery of limb function in patients with copperhead snake envenomation at 14 days postenvenomation...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595875/development-of-igy-antibodies-against-anti-snake-toxins-endowed-with-highly-lethal-neutralizing-activity
#5
David Gitirana da Rocha, Jorge Hernandez Fernandez, Cláudia Maria Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Letícia da Silva, Fábio Carlos Magnoli, Osmair Élder da Silva, Wilmar Dias da Silva
Snakebite envenoming is a major neglected disease related to poverty in developing countries. Treatment involves the administration of a specific antivenom serum and auxiliary therapies, if necessary. The improvement of antibodies is of great importance for the technological advancement of antivenom therapy and to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this medical burden. In the present study, adult hens were immunized nine times with 20μg of B. arietans or C. d. terrificus venoms at three-week intervals between immunizations...
June 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579478/absolute-venomics-absolute-quantification-of-intact-venom-proteins-through-elemental-mass-spectrometry
#6
Francisco Calderón-Celis, Laura Cid-Barrio, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Juan J Calvete
We report the application of a hybrid element and molecular MS configuration for the parallel absolute quantification of μHPLC-separated intact sulfur-containing venom proteins, via ICP triple quadrupole MS and (32)S/(34)S isotope dilution analysis, and identification by ESI-QToF-MS of the toxins of the medically important African black-necked spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis (Tanzania); New Guinea small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka; and Papuan black snake, Pseudechis papuanus. The main advantage of this approach is that only one generic sulfur-containing standard is required to quantify each and all intact Cys- and/or Met-containing toxins of the venom proteome...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555950/lowland-copperhead-austrelaps-superbus-envenomation-causing-severe-neuromuscular-paralysis-in-a-dog
#7
L V Wright, Y H Indrawirawan
CASE REPORT: A case of lowland copperhead snake (Austrelaps superbus) envenomation in a dog is described. The dog developed severe and prolonged neuromuscular paralysis, including ventilatory failure. The dog was treated successfully with antivenom, intravenous fluids and mechanical ventilation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The toxic components of lowland copperhead snake venom are reviewed.
June 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555029/venom-on-a-chip-a-fast-and-efficient-method-for-comparative-venomics
#8
Giulia Zancolli, Libia Sanz, Juan J Calvete, Wolfgang Wüster
Venom research has attracted an increasing interest in disparate fields, from drug development and pharmacology, to evolutionary biology and ecology, and rational antivenom production. Advances in "-omics" technologies have allowed the characterization of an increasing number of animal venoms, but the methodology currently available is suboptimal for large-scale comparisons of venom profiles. Here, we describe a fast, reproducible and semi-automated protocol for investigating snake venom variability, especially at the intraspecific level, using the Agilent Bioanalyzer on-chip technology...
May 28, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534833/coagulating-colubrids-evolutionary-pathophysiological-and-biodiscovery-implications-of-venom-variations-between-boomslang-dispholidus-typus-and-twig-snake-thelotornis-mossambicanus
#9
Jordan Debono, James Dobson, Nicholas R Casewell, Anthony Romilio, Bin Li, Nyoman Kurniawan, Karine Mardon, Vera Weisbecker, Amanda Nouwens, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and the twig snakes (Thelotornis species) are iconic African snakes belonging to the family Colubridae. Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced for treating bites by D...
May 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528176/production-and-preclinical-assessment-of-camelid-immunoglobulins-against-echis-sochureki-venom-from-desert-of-rajasthan-india
#10
P D Tanwar, S K Ghorui, S K Kochar, Raghvendar Singh, N V Patil
Snakebite is a significant cause of death and disability in subsistent farming populations of rural India. Antivenom is the most effective treatment of envenoming and is manufactured from IgG of venom-immunised horses. Because of complex fiscal reasons, the production, testing and delivery of antivenoms designed to treat envenoming by the most medically-important snakes in the region has been questioned time to time. In this study, we report successful immunisation of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) against the venom of Indian saw-scaled Viper- Echis carinatus sochureki...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527998/molecular-cloning-and-structural-modelling-of-gamma-phospholipase-a2-inhibitors-from-bothrops-atrox-and-micrurus-lemniscatus-snakes
#11
Carina G Picelli, Rafael J Borges, Carlos A H Fernandes, Fabio M Matioli, Carla F C Fernandes, Juliana C Sobrinho, Rudson J Holanda, Luiz S Ozaki, Anderson M Kayano, Leonardo A Calderon, Marcos R M Fontes, Rodrigo G Stábeli, Andreimar M Soares
Phospholipases A2 inhibitors (PLIs) produced by venomous and non-venomous snakes play essential role in this resistance. These endogenous inhibitors may be classified by their fold in PLIα, PLIβ and PLIγ. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) develop myonecrosis in snake envenomation, a consequence that is not efficiently neutralized by antivenom treatment. This work aimed to identify and characterize two PLIs from Amazonian snake species, Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus. Liver tissues RNA of specimens from each species were isolated and amplified by RT-PCR using PCR primers based on known PLIγ gene sequences, followed by cloning and sequencing of amplified fragments...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507562/antivenomics-as-a-tool-to-improve-the-neutralizing-capacity-of-the-crotalic-antivenom-a-study-with-crotamine
#12
Ricardo Teixeira-Araújo, Patrícia Castanheira, Leonora Brazil-Más, Francisco Pontes, Moema Leitão de Araújo, Maria Lucia Machado Alves, Russolina Benedeta Zingali, Carlos Correa-Netto
BACKGROUND: Snakebite treatment requires administration of an appropriate antivenom that should contain antibodies capable of neutralizing the venom. To achieve this goal, antivenom production must start from a suitable immunization protocol and proper venom mixtures. In Brazil, antivenom against South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) bites is produced by public institutions based on the guidelines defined by the regulatory agency of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, ANVISA...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505100/preclinical-evaluation-of-the-efficacy-of-antivenoms-for-snakebite-envenoming-state-of-the-art-and-challenges-ahead
#13
REVIEW
José María Gutiérrez, Gabriela Solano, Davinia Pla, María Herrera, Álvaro Segura, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, Libia Sanz, Bruno Lomonte, Guillermo León, Juan J Calvete
Animal-derived antivenoms constitute the mainstay in the therapy of snakebite envenoming. The efficacy of antivenoms to neutralize toxicity of medically-relevant snake venoms has to be demonstrated through meticulous preclinical testing before their introduction into the clinical setting. The gold standard in the preclinical assessment and quality control of antivenoms is the neutralization of venom-induced lethality. In addition, depending on the pathophysiological profile of snake venoms, the neutralization of other toxic activities has to be evaluated, such as hemorrhagic, myotoxic, edema-forming, dermonecrotic, in vitro coagulant, and defibrinogenating effects...
May 13, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476572/venomics-of-bungarus-caeruleus-indian-krait-comparable-venom-profiles-variable-immunoreactivities-among-specimens-from-sri-lanka-india-and-pakistan
#14
Angeline Mei Feng Oh, Choo Hock Tan, Gnanathasan Christeine Ariaranee, Naeem Quraishi, Nget Hong Tan
The Indian krait (Bungarus caeruleus) is one of the "Big Four" venomous snakes widely distributed in South Asia. The present venomic study reveals that its venom (Sri Lankan origin) is predominated by phospholipases A2 (64.5% of total proteins), in which at least 4.6% are presynaptically-acting β-bungarotoxin A-chains. Three-finger toxins (19.0%) are the second most abundant, comprising 15.6% κ-neurotoxins, the potent postsynaptically-acting long neurotoxins. Comparative chromatography showed that venom samples from Sri Lanka, India and Pakistan did not exhibit significant variation...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465677/strategies-in-snake-venomics-aiming-at-an-integrative-view-of-compositional-functional-and-immunological-characteristics-of-venoms
#15
REVIEW
Bruno Lomonte, Juan J Calvete
This work offers a general overview on the evolving strategies for the proteomic analysis of snake venoms, and discusses how these may be combined through diverse experimental approaches with the goal of achieving a more comprehensive knowledge on the compositional, toxic, and immunological characteristics of venoms. Some recent developments in this field are summarized, highlighting how strategies have evolved from the mere cataloguing of venom components (proteomics/venomics), to a broader exploration of their immunological (antivenomics) and functional (toxicovenomics) characteristics...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422078/antivenom-for-neuromuscular-paralysis-resulting-from-snake-envenoming
#16
REVIEW
Anjana Silva, Wayne C Hodgson, Geoffrey K Isbister
Antivenom therapy is currently the standard practice for treating neuromuscular dysfunction in snake envenoming. We reviewed the clinical and experimental evidence-base for the efficacy and effectiveness of antivenom in snakebite neurotoxicity. The main site of snake neurotoxins is the neuromuscular junction, and the majority are either: (1) pre-synaptic neurotoxins irreversibly damaging the presynaptic terminal; or (2) post-synaptic neurotoxins that bind to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Pre-clinical tests of antivenom efficacy for neurotoxicity include rodent lethality tests, which are problematic, and in vitro pharmacological tests such as nerve-muscle preparation studies, that appear to provide more clinically meaningful information...
April 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421973/-bitten-by-an-exotic-venomous-snake
#17
M A Dijkman, I de Vries, M van Dam, D W de Lange
BACKGROUND: Patients who have been bitten by an exotic venomous snake are at risk of severe morbidity and a fatal outcome following an incorrect risk-assessment. Treatment with an antivenom can be necessary and can turn out to be lifesaving. In the Netherlands there are only a few cases of bites from exotic venomous snakes each year. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 28-year-old man presented at the emergency department (ED) after having been bitten by a monocled cobra (Naja kaouthia)...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419970/effect-of-premedication-with-subcutaneous-adrenaline-on-the-pharmacokinetics-and-immunogenicity-of-equine-whole-igg-antivenom-in-a-rabbit-model
#18
María Herrera, Melvin Sánchez, Anderson Machado, Nils Ramírez, Mariángela Vargas, Mauren Villalta, Andrés Sánchez, Álvaro Segura, Aarón Gómez, Gabriela Solano, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
Subcutaneous administration of a low dose of adrenaline is used to prevent the early adverse reactions (EARs) induced by snake antivenoms. We used a rabbit model to study the effect of premedication with adrenaline on the potential of antivenoms to exert therapeutic effects and to induce late adverse reactions. We found that premedication with adrenaline did not change the heart rate or blood pressure of normal rabbits, but reduced the rise in temperature in rabbits previously sensitized with antivenom. Pharmacokinetic studies suggest that premedication with adrenaline does not affect the ability of the antivenom to exert the initial control of envenomation nor the susceptibility of rabbits to develop recurrence of antigenemia and envenomation...
June 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411931/north-american-snake-envenomation
#19
REVIEW
Bryan Corbett, Richard F Clark
Native US snakes that produce clinically significant envenomation can be divided into 2 groups, crotalids and elapids. The crotalids include rattlesnakes, cottonmouths, and copperheads. Crotalid envenomation can result in significant local tissue damage as well as thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. Rarely are bites fatal. Native US elapids are all coral snakes that possess neurotoxic venom that can cause weakness, respiratory paralysis, and rarely death. Treatment of both types of envenomation revolves around general supportive care and antivenom administration when indicated...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411930/marine-envenomation
#20
REVIEW
Kirsten B Hornbeak, Paul S Auerbach
Venomous aquatic animals are hazardous to swimmers, surfers, divers, and fishermen. Exposures include mild stings, bites, abrasions, and lacerations. Severe envenomations can be life threatening. This article reviews common marine envenomations, exploring causative species, clinical presentation, and current treatment recommendations. Recommendations are included for cnidaria, sponges, bristle worms, crown-of-thorns starfish, sea urchins, venomous fish, stingrays, cone snails, stonefish, blue-ringed octopus, and sea snakes...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
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