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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726133/iron-protects-porcine-plasma-coagulation-kinetics-from-degradation-by-crotalus-atrox-venom
#1
Christine S Olver, Vance G Nielsen
While the administration of antivenom to treat hemotoxic snake bite injury remains the gold standard of therapy, we have demonstrated that modifying human fibrinogen with iron and carbon monoxide renders it resistant to fibrinogenolytic snake venom enzymes. In order to translate these findings into a possible biometal-based therapy complementary to antivenom administration, a preclinical model that possesses fibrinogen that closely mimics the human molecule in response to iron and carbon monoxide needed to be identified...
July 19, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708892/cross-recognition-of-a-pit-viper-crotalinae-polyspecific-antivenom-explored-through-high-density-peptide-microarray-epitope-mapping
#2
Mikael Engmark, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Andreas H Laustsen, Federico De Masi, Mikael R Andersen, Ole Lund
Snakebite antivenom is a 120 years old invention based on polyclonal mixtures of antibodies purified from the blood of hyper-immunized animals. Knowledge on antibody recognition sites (epitopes) on snake venom proteins is limited, but may be used to provide molecular level explanations for antivenom cross-reactivity. In turn, this may help guide antivenom development by elucidating immunological biases in existing antivenoms. In this study, we have identified and characterized linear elements of B-cell epitopes from 870 pit viper venom protein sequences by employing a high-throughput methodology based on custom designed high-density peptide microarrays...
July 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698056/daboia-vipera-palaestinae-envenomation-in-horses-clinical-and-hematological-signs-risk-factors-for-mortality-and-construction-of-a-novel-severity-scoring-system
#3
Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Reut Solomovich, Judith Comte, Gila A Sutton, Amir Steinman
Daboia palaestinae is the most common venomous snake in Israel and an important cause of envenomations in humans and animals. Although specific antivenom is produced from horses, little documentation exists regarding the characteristics of envenomed horses. This survey was constructed to describe the clinical, hematological and biochemical characteristics of D. palaestinae envenomation in horses, to identify risk factors for fatality and to construct a prognostic snakebite severity scale (SSS) to be used by veterinarians in the field...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694006/neurotoxicity-with-persistent-unilateral-ophthalmoplegia-from-envenoming-by-a-wild-inland-taipan-oxyuranus-microlepidotus-elapidae-in-remote-outback-south-australia
#4
Scott A Weinstein, Evan Everest, Jeremy Purdell-Lewis, Michael Harrison, Fiona Tavender, Sam Alfred, Liz Marrack, Chris Davenport-Klunder, Neralie Wearn, Julian White
INTRODUCTION: A case of life threatening envenoming by a wild specimen of the inland taipan, Oxyuranus microlepidotus, is described. There have been 11 previously well-documented envenomings by O. microlepidotus, but only 2 were inflicted by wild snakes. Envenomed patients have presented predominantly with defibrinating coagulopathy and neurotoxicity. CASE REPORT: The victim was seeking to observe members of an isolated population of this species and was envenomed while attempting to photograph an approximately 1...
July 8, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691277/crotalus-atrox-venom-exposed-to-carbon-monoxide-has-decreased-fibrinogenolytic-activity-in-vivo-in-rabbits
#5
Vance G Nielsen
Envenomation by hemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood...
July 10, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688916/venom-proteome-of-the-yellow-lipped-sea-krait-laticauda-colubrina-from-bali-insights-into-subvenomic-diversity-venom-antigenicity-and-cross-neutralization-by-antivenom
#6
Choo Hock Tan, Kin Ying Wong, Kae Yi Tan, Nget Hong Tan
The venom proteome of Laticauda colubrina (Bali, Indonesia) was elucidated by nano-ESI-LCMS/MS of the venom reverse-phase HPLC fractions. Altogether 31 distinct forms of proteins were identified and clustered into three toxin families: three-finger toxin (3FTX, 66.12% of total venom proteins), phospholipase A2 (PLA2, 33.26%) and cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRiSP, 0.05%). The 3FTX were α-neurotoxins (five long neurotoxins, LNTX, 48.87%; two short neurotoxins, SNTX, 16.70%) and a trace amount of two cytotoxins (CTX, 0...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683119/the-socio-economic-burden-of-snakebite-in-sri-lanka
#7
Anuradhani Kasturiratne, Arunasalam Pathmeswaran, A Rajitha Wickremasinghe, Shaluka F Jayamanne, Andrew Dawson, Geoff K Isbister, Hithanadura Janaka de Silva, David G Lalloo
BACKGROUND: Snakebite is a major problem affecting the rural poor in many of the poorest countries in the tropics. However, the scale of the socio-economic burden has rarely been studied. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of the burden in Sri Lanka. METHODS: Data from a representative nation-wide community based household survey were used to estimate the number of bites and deaths nationally, and household and out of pocket costs were derived from household questionnaires...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674788/the-bold-and-the-beautiful-a-neurotoxicity-comparison-of-new-world-coral-snakes-in-the-micruroides-and-micrurus-genera-and-relative-neutralization-by-antivenom
#8
Daryl C Yang, James Dobson, Chip Cochran, Daniel Dashevsky, Kevin Arbuckle, Melisa Benard, Leslie Boyer, Alejandro Alagón, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Bryan G Fry
Coral snake envenomations are well characterized to be lethally neurotoxic. Despite this, few multispecies, neurotoxicity and antivenom efficacy comparisons have been undertaken and only for the Micrurus genus; Micruroides has remained entirely uninvestigated. As the USA's supplier of antivenom has currently stopped production, alternative sources need to be explored. The Mexican manufacturer Bioclon uses species genetically related to USA species, thus we investigated the efficacy against Micrurus fulvius (eastern coral snake), the main species responsible for lethal envenomations in the USA as well as additional species from the Americas...
July 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657429/safety-profile-of-snake-antivenom-use-in-hong-kong-a-review-of-191-cases-from-2008-to-2015
#9
Rupeng Mong, Vember C H Ng, Man Li Tse
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay of treatment for significant envenoming from snakebites is antivenom. However, there is insufficient data regarding the safety of antivenom used in Hong Kong. We describe the incidence of hypersensitivity reactions from antivenom use and review the frequency and reasons for intensive care unit (ICU) admission. METHODS: The Hong Kong Poisons Information Centre database was reviewed. All patients given snake antivenom between 2008 and 2015 were included...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636631/incidence-and-mortality-due-to-snakebite-in-the-americas
#10
Jean-Philippe Chippaux
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627854/swiss-and-tropical-snakebites-the-clinical-management
#11
Laurence Rochat, Gabriel Alcoba
With increasing trips to tropical areas, as well as a high number of venomous snake holders in the country, the frequency of snake bites is likely to increase. Even if in 50 % of cases, the bites do not lead to clinical envenoming, rapid and effective management is essential to successful treatment, which includes supply with the polyvalent or specific antivenom and recognition of the signs and symptoms justifying its administration. We will deal here mainly with local and tropical snake envenoming that Swiss practitioners could encounter in their offices or the emergency rooms and propose scenarios according to the syndromes...
May 3, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623383/ethnopharmacological-uses-phytochemistry-biological-activities-and-biotechnological-applications-of-eclipta-prostrata
#12
REVIEW
Ill-Min Chung, Govindasamy Rajakumar, Ji-Hee Lee, Seung-Hyun Kim, Muthu Thiruvengadam
Eclipta prostrata belongs to a family of medicinal plants (Asteraceae) and plays a role in the treatment of several diseases, including infectious hepatitis, snake venom poisoning, gastritis, and respiratory diseases such as a cough and asthma. A number of compounds, including thiophene derivatives, steroids, triterpenes, flavonoids, polyacetylenes, polypeptides, and coumestans, have been isolated from E. prostrata. The plant functional compounds can act as reducing agent in the field of nanoparticle synthesis...
July 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601268/the-efficacy-of-crotalidae-polyvalent-immune-fab-ovine-antivenom-versus-placebo-plus-optional-rescue%C3%A2-therapy-on-recovery-from-copperhead-snake-envenomation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
Charles J Gerardo, Eugenia Quackenbush, Brandon Lewis, S Rutherfoord Rose, Spencer Greene, Eric A Toschlog, Nathan P Charlton, Michael E Mullins, Richard Schwartz, David Denning, Kapil Sharma, Kurt Kleinschmid, Sean P Bush, Samantha Ryan, Maria Gasior, Victoria E Anderson, Eric J Lavonas
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Copperhead snake (Agkistrodon contortrix) envenomation causes limb injury resulting in pain and disability. It is not known whether antivenom administration improves limb function. We determine whether administration of antivenom improves recovery from limb injury in patients envenomated by copperhead snakes. METHODS: From August 2013 through November 2015, we performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial to evaluate the effect of ovine Crotalidae polyvalent immune Fab (ovine) (CroFab; FabAV) antivenom therapy on recovery of limb function in patients with copperhead snake envenomation at 14 days postenvenomation...
June 7, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595875/development-of-igy-antibodies-against-anti-snake-toxins-endowed-with-highly-lethal-neutralizing-activity
#14
David Gitirana da Rocha, Jorge Hernandez Fernandez, Cláudia Maria Costa de Almeida, Cláudia Letícia da Silva, Fábio Carlos Magnoli, Osmair Élder da Silva, Wilmar Dias da Silva
Snakebite envenoming is a major neglected disease related to poverty in developing countries. Treatment involves the administration of a specific antivenom serum and auxiliary therapies, if necessary. The improvement of antibodies is of great importance for the technological advancement of antivenom therapy and to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this medical burden. In the present study, adult hens were immunized nine times with 20μg of B. arietans or C. d. terrificus venoms at three-week intervals between immunizations...
August 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579478/absolute-venomics-absolute-quantification-of-intact-venom-proteins-through-elemental-mass-spectrometry
#15
Francisco Calderón-Celis, Laura Cid-Barrio, Jorge Ruiz Encinar, Alfredo Sanz-Medel, Juan J Calvete
We report the application of a hybrid element and molecular MS configuration for the parallel absolute quantification of μHPLC-separated intact sulfur-containing venom proteins, via ICP triple quadrupole MS and (32)S/(34)S isotope dilution analysis, and identification by ESI-QToF-MS of the toxins of the medically important African black-necked spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis (Tanzania); New Guinea small-eyed snake, Micropechis ikaheka; and Papuan black snake, Pseudechis papuanus. The main advantage of this approach is that only one generic sulfur-containing standard is required to quantify each and all intact Cys- and/or Met-containing toxins of the venom proteome...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555950/lowland-copperhead-austrelaps-superbus-envenomation-causing-severe-neuromuscular-paralysis-in-a-dog
#16
L V Wright, Y H Indrawirawan
CASE REPORT: A case of lowland copperhead snake (Austrelaps superbus) envenomation in a dog is described. The dog developed severe and prolonged neuromuscular paralysis, including ventilatory failure. The dog was treated successfully with antivenom, intravenous fluids and mechanical ventilation. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The toxic components of lowland copperhead snake venom are reviewed.
June 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555029/venom-on-a-chip-a-fast-and-efficient-method-for-comparative-venomics
#17
Giulia Zancolli, Libia Sanz, Juan J Calvete, Wolfgang Wüster
Venom research has attracted an increasing interest in disparate fields, from drug development and pharmacology, to evolutionary biology and ecology, and rational antivenom production. Advances in "-omics" technologies have allowed the characterization of an increasing number of animal venoms, but the methodology currently available is suboptimal for large-scale comparisons of venom profiles. Here, we describe a fast, reproducible and semi-automated protocol for investigating snake venom variability, especially at the intraspecific level, using the Agilent Bioanalyzer on-chip technology...
May 28, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534833/coagulating-colubrids-evolutionary-pathophysiological-and-biodiscovery-implications-of-venom-variations-between-boomslang-dispholidus-typus-and-twig-snake-thelotornis-mossambicanus
#18
Jordan Debono, James Dobson, Nicholas R Casewell, Anthony Romilio, Bin Li, Nyoman Kurniawan, Karine Mardon, Vera Weisbecker, Amanda Nouwens, Hang Fai Kwok, Bryan G Fry
Venoms can deleteriously affect any physiological system reachable by the bloodstream, including directly interfering with the coagulation cascade. Such coagulopathic toxins may be anticoagulants or procoagulants. Snake venoms are unique in their use of procoagulant toxins for predatory purposes. The boomslang (Dispholidus typus) and the twig snakes (Thelotornis species) are iconic African snakes belonging to the family Colubridae. Both species produce strikingly similar lethal procoagulant pathologies. Despite these similarities, antivenom is only produced for treating bites by D...
May 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528176/production-and-preclinical-assessment-of-camelid-immunoglobulins-against-echis-sochureki-venom-from-desert-of-rajasthan-india
#19
P D Tanwar, S K Ghorui, S K Kochar, Raghvendar Singh, N V Patil
Snakebite is a significant cause of death and disability in subsistent farming populations of rural India. Antivenom is the most effective treatment of envenoming and is manufactured from IgG of venom-immunised horses. Because of complex fiscal reasons, the production, testing and delivery of antivenoms designed to treat envenoming by the most medically-important snakes in the region has been questioned time to time. In this study, we report successful immunisation of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) against the venom of Indian saw-scaled Viper- Echis carinatus sochureki...
May 17, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527998/molecular-cloning-and-structural-modelling-of-gamma-phospholipase-a2-inhibitors-from-bothrops-atrox-and-micrurus-lemniscatus-snakes
#20
Carina G Picelli, Rafael J Borges, Carlos A H Fernandes, Fabio M Matioli, Carla F C Fernandes, Juliana C Sobrinho, Rudson J Holanda, Luiz S Ozaki, Anderson M Kayano, Leonardo A Calderon, Marcos R M Fontes, Rodrigo G Stábeli, Andreimar M Soares
Phospholipases A2 inhibitors (PLIs) produced by venomous and non-venomous snakes play essential role in this resistance. These endogenous inhibitors may be classified by their fold in PLIα, PLIβ and PLIγ. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) develop myonecrosis in snake envenomation, a consequence that is not efficiently neutralized by antivenom treatment. This work aimed to identify and characterize two PLIs from Amazonian snake species, Bothrops atrox and Micrurus lemniscatus. Liver tissues RNA of specimens from each species were isolated and amplified by RT-PCR using PCR primers based on known PLIγ gene sequences, followed by cloning and sequencing of amplified fragments...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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