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Anaphylaxis pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577270/hidden-causes-of-anaphylaxis
#1
REVIEW
Vivian C Nanagas, James L Baldwin, Keerthi R Karamched
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to review important hidden causes of anaphylaxis in ingestants, non-ingestants, and uncommon settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Multiple new and elusive causes of anaphylaxis have been described over the past 35 years. Further research is required to identify the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical impact of these hidden causes. Although these culprits should be considered in the appropriate clinical scenarios, many remain exceedingly rare...
July 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570220/effects-of-rupatadine-on-platelet-activating-factor-induced-human-mast-cell-degranulation-compared-with-desloratadine-and-levocetirizine-the-maspaf-study
#2
R Munoz-Cano, E Ainsua-Enrich, I Torres-Atencio, M Martin, J Sánchez-Lopez, J Bartra, C Picado, J Mullol, A Valero
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a lipid mediator involved in the pathophysiology of several allergic diseases, for example, in the amplification of mast cell (MC) activation in anaphylaxis. Rupatadine is an antihistamine with a demonstrated anti-PAF effect, although its capacity to inhibit PAF-induced MC degranulation has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: To compare the ability of rupatadine to inhibit PAF-induced MC degranulation with that of desloratadine and levocetirizine and to confirm the dual anti-H1 and anti-PAF activity of rupatadine...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552276/adjuncts-to-blood-component-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-bleeding-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#3
REVIEW
Jerrold H Levy, Kamrouz Ghadimi, Quintin J Quinones, Raquel R Bartz, Ian Welsby
Patients who are critically ill following surgical or traumatic injury often present with coagulopathy as a component of the complex multisystem dysfunction that clinicians must rapidly diagnose and treat in the intensive care environment. Failure to recognize coagulopathy while volume resuscitation with crystalloid or colloid takes place, or an unbalanced transfusion strategy focused on packed red blood cell transfusion can all significantly worsen coagulopathy, leading to increased transfusion requirements and poor outcomes...
April 25, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362039/in-response-to-anaphylaxis-during-cardiac-surgery-for-hypetrophic-cardiomyopathy-pathophysiologic-and-therapeutic-considerations
#4
Marcin Wąsowicz, Kevin Fu Hong Yee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346234/outstanding-animal-studies-in-allergy-i-from-asthma-to-food-allergy-and-anaphylaxis
#5
Erika Jensen-Jarolim, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Franziska Roth-Walter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Animal models published within the past 18 months on asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, all conditions of rising public health concern, were reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: While domestic animals spontaneously develop asthma, food allergy and anaphylaxis, in animal models, divergent sensitization and challenge routes, dosages, intervals and antigens are used to induce asthmatic, food allergic or anaphylactic phenotypes. This must be considered in the interpretation of results...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342911/basophils-high-affinity-ige-receptors-and-ccl2-in-human-anaphylaxis
#6
Peter Korosec, Paul J Turner, Mira Silar, Peter Kopac, Mitja Kosnik, Bernhard F Gibbs, Mohamed H Shamji, Adnan Custovic, Matija Rijavec
BACKGROUND: The role of basophils in anaphylaxis is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether basophils have an important role in human anaphylaxis. METHODS: In an emergency department study we recruited 31 patients with acute anaphylaxis, predominantly to Hymenoptera venom. We measured expression of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD203c); the absolute number of circulating basophils; whole-blood FCER1A, carboxypeptidase A3 (CPA3), and L-histidine decarboxylase (HDC) gene expression; and serum markers (CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, IL-3, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) at 3 time points (ie, during the anaphylactic episode and in convalescent samples 7 and 30 days later)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144845/gastric-vascular-and-motor-responses-to-anaphylactic-hypotension-in-anesthetized-rats-in-comparison-to-those-with-hemorrhagic-or-vasodilator-induced-hypotension
#7
Yuhichi Kuda, Toshishige Shibamoto, Tao Zhang, Wei Yang, Mamoru Tanida, Yasutaka Kurata
Anaphylactic shock is life-threatening, but pathophysiology of the stomach lesion remains unclear. We determined gastric hemodynamics and gastric functions during anaphylactic hypotension, as compared to hypotension induced by hemorrhage or sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in anesthetized and ovalbumin-sensitized Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic arterial pressure, portal venous pressure, and gastric arterial blood flow were measured, and gastric vascular resistance (GVR) was determined. Separately, the intragastric pressure (IGP) and gastric effluent, as a measure of gastric flux, were continuously measured...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895892/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-mast-cell-transcriptome-and-the-pathophysiological-responses-to-immunological-and-psychological-stress
#8
Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S Pohl, Susan D' Costa, Yihang Li, Adam J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the establishment of sex differences in these diseases, the underlying mechanisms contributing to sex differences remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to define the role of biological sex on mast cells (MCs), an innate immune cell central to the pathophysiology of many GI and allergic disorders...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822074/diagnosis-of-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-current-insights
#9
REVIEW
Valerio Pravettoni, Cristoforo Incorvaia
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is defined as the occurrence of anaphylactic symptoms (skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms) after physical activity. In about a third of cases, cofactors, such as food intake, temperature (warm or cold), and drugs (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be identified. When the associated cofactor is food ingestion, the correct diagnosis is food-dependent EIAn (FDEIAn). The literature describes numerous reports of FDEIAn after intake of very different foods, from vegetables and nuts to meats and seafood...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758758/effects-of-rupatadine-on-platelet-activating-factor-induced-human-mast-cell-degranulation-compared-with-desloratadine-and-levocetirizine-the-maspaf-study
#10
R Munoz-Cano, E Ainsua-Enrich, I Torres-Atencio, M Martin, J Sánchez-Lopez, J Bartra, C Picado, J Mullol, A Valero
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a lipid mediator involved in the pathophysiology of several allergic diseases, for example, in the amplification of mast cell (MC) activation in anaphylaxis. Rupatadine is an antihistamine with a demonstrated anti-PAF effect, although its capacity to inhibit PAF-induced MC degranulation has not been fully evaluated. Objectives: To compare the ability of rupatadine to inhibit PAF-induced MC degranulation with that of desloratadine and levocetirizine and to confirm the dual anti-H1 and anti-PAF activity of rupatadine...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745988/adverse-reactions-to-contrast-material-a-canadian-update
#11
REVIEW
Alexander Morzycki, Anuj Bhatia, Kieran J Murphy
Imaging techniques frequently employ contrast agents to improve image resolution and enhance pathology detection. These gadolinium- and iodine-based media, although generally considered safe, are associated with a number of adverse effects ranging from mild to severe. Reactions are classified as either anaphylactoid ("anaphylaxis-like") or nonanaphylactoid, depending on a number of elements that will be reviewed. Herein, we have summarized predisposing risk factors for adverse events resulting from the use of contrast, their associated pathophysiological mechanisms as well as known prophylaxis for the antitreatment of high-risk patients...
May 2017: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719658/aspirin-intolerance-experimental-models-for-bed-to-bench
#12
Masamichi Yamashita
Aspirin is the oldest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and it sometimes causes asthma-like symptoms known as aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which can be serious. Unwanted effects of aspirin (aspirin intolerance) are also observed in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, a type I allergy disease, and aspirin-induced urticaria (AIU). However the target and the mechanism of the aspirin intolerance are still unknown. There is no animal or cellular model of AERD, because its pathophysiological mechanism is still unknown, but it is thought that inhibition of cyclooxygenase by causative agents leads to an increase of free arachidonic acid, which is metabolized into cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) that provoke airway smooth muscle constriction and asthma symptoms...
2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692840/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-sepsis-mimics
#13
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a common clinical condition, and mortality and morbidity may be severe. The current definition of sepsis involves systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, which is met by many conditions. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates the SIRS continuum, signs and symptoms of sepsis, mimics of sepsis, and an approach to management for sepsis mimics. DISCUSSION: The current emergency medicine definition of sepsis includes SIRS, a definition that may be met by many conditions...
January 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689430/anaphylaxis-and-cardiac-surgery-for-hypertrophic-obstructive-cardiomyopathy-a-case-report-and-review-of-anaesthetic-management
#14
Kevin Fu Hong Yee, Marcin Wasowicz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to describe clinical management in a situation where patient has experienced anaphylaxis while undergoing surgical septal myectomy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). CASE REPORT: A 40-yr-old female was scheduled to undergo surgical septal myectomy for the treatment of HOCM. After induction, the patient developed refractory hypotension that did not respond to escalating doses of vasopressors and volume therapy...
2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621657/reslizumab-in-the-management-of-poorly-controlled-asthma-the-data-so-far
#15
REVIEW
Diego Jose Maselli, Maria Ines Velez, Linda Rogers
Interleukin-5, an important cytokine in the pathophysiology of asthma, participates in terminal maturation and increases chemotaxis, endothelial adhesion, and activation of eosinophils. Blockade of interleukin-5 activity with monoclonal antibodies have been successful in decreasing eosinophil counts. Reslizumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets interleukin-5, has been studied for the treatment of severe asthma. Several studies have shown that reslizumab can effectively treat severe asthma with an eosinophilic phenotype...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591544/diagnosis-of-anaphylactic-death-in-forensics-review-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Rossana Cecchi
The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in a pre- or post-mortal phase involves the formulation of problems not yet solved by the international scientific literature, due to the complexity of pathogenic factors and pathophysiological processes that characterizes it. For forensic autopsies, further problems of differential diagnosis arise and often leave the forensic pathologist unable to express an opinion of certainty, as a result of lack of case history, circumstantial and autoptical-histopathological data. Nevertheless, in routine cases the postmortem diagnosis of anaphylactic death continues to be based on exclusion and circumstantial evidence...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545856/ischemic-stroke-after-wasp-sting
#17
Ashish Kulhari, Ashley Rogers, Han Wang, Vishakhadatta Mathur Kumaraswamy, Wei Xiong, Michael DeGeorgia
BACKGROUND: Despite the common occurrence of hymenopteran stings worldwide, primary neurologic manifestations including stroke are rare. We report a case of a healthy male who developed a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory ischemic stroke after getting stung by a wasp. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old man with hypertension presented to the hospital with sudden-onset left hemiparesis, left facial weakness, and dysarthria after being stung by a wasp. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) scans of the brain revealed a right MCA territory infarct and a lack of flow in the distal right internal carotid artery and MCA...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469392/new-insights-into-the-stereochemical-requirements-of-the-bradykinin-b1-receptor-antagonists-binding
#18
Cecylia S Lupala, Patricia Gomez-Gutierrez, Juan J Perez
Bradykinin (BK) is a nonapeptide involved in several pathophysiological conditions including among others, septic and haemorrhagic shock, anaphylaxis, arthritis, rhinitis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease. Accordingly, BK antagonists have long been sought after for therapeutic intervention. Action of BK is mediated through two different G-protein coupled receptors known as B1 and B2. Although there are several B1 antagonists reported in literature, their pharmacological profile is not yet optimal so that new molecules need to be discovered...
July 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458609/reslizumab-maintenance-treatment-for-eosinophilic-asthma-inadequately-controlled-on-corticosteroids
#19
REVIEW
D M Paton
The starting point for this drug was the growing realization that eosinophils appeared to be associated with a severe form of asthma in which patients were subject to exacerbations of their condition that could not be adequately managed using inhaled and/or oral corticosteroids. Studies of the pathophysiology of eosinophils revealed that they produce many bioactive compounds that contribute to the pathophysiology of a number of diseases including asthma. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) in particular is an important factor in some forms of severe asthma...
June 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429521/non-infectious-complications-related-to-blood-transfusion-an-11%C3%A2-year-retrospective-analysis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#20
J Philip, A Pawar, T Chatterjee, R S Mallhi, A K Biswas, U Dimri
In India transmission of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) has shown a relative decrease as a result of mandatory screening of donated blood for TTI's. However, reducing the incidence of non infectious complications poses a major challenge, mainly due to the fact that a number of adverse reactions go unreported. Blood transfusion reaction, can be categorized based on the time interval between transfusion of blood products and the presentation of adverse reactions as acute i.e. those presenting during or within 24 h and as delayed i...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
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