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Anaphylaxis pathophysiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895892/sexual-dimorphism-in-the-mast-cell-transcriptome-and-the-pathophysiological-responses-to-immunological-and-psychological-stress
#1
Emily Mackey, Saravanan Ayyadurai, Calvin S Pohl, Susan D' Costa, Yihang Li, Adam J Moeser
BACKGROUND: Biological sex plays a prominent role in the prevalence and severity of a number of important stress-related gastrointestinal and immune-related diseases including IBS and allergy/anaphylaxis. Despite the establishment of sex differences in these diseases, the underlying mechanisms contributing to sex differences remain poorly understood. The objective of this study was to define the role of biological sex on mast cells (MCs), an innate immune cell central to the pathophysiology of many GI and allergic disorders...
2016: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822074/diagnosis-of-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-current-insights
#2
REVIEW
Valerio Pravettoni, Cristoforo Incorvaia
Exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) is defined as the occurrence of anaphylactic symptoms (skin, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular symptoms) after physical activity. In about a third of cases, cofactors, such as food intake, temperature (warm or cold), and drugs (especially nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) can be identified. When the associated cofactor is food ingestion, the correct diagnosis is food-dependent EIAn (FDEIAn). The literature describes numerous reports of FDEIAn after intake of very different foods, from vegetables and nuts to meats and seafood...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758758/effects-of-rupatadine-on-platelet-activating-factor-paf-induced-human-mast-cell-degranulation-compared-with-desloratadine-and-levocetirizine-the-maspaf-study
#3
R Muñoz-Cano, E Ainsua-Enrich, I Torres-Atencio, M Martin, J Sánchez-Lopez, J Bartra, C Picado, J Mullol, A Valero
RATIONALE: Platelet activating factor (PAF) is a lipid mediator involved in the pathophysiology of several allergic diseases, such as the amplification of mast cell (MC) activation in anaphylaxis. Rupatadine is an antihistamine with demonstrated anti-PAF effect but its capacity to inhibit PAF-induced MC degranulation has not been fully evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of rupatadine to inhibit PAF-induced MC degranulation compared with desloratadine and levocetirizine, to confirm dual rupatadine anti-H1 and anti-PAF activities...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745988/adverse-reactions-to-contrast-material-a-canadian-update
#4
Alexander Morzycki, Anuj Bhatia, Kieran Murphy
Imaging techniques frequently employ contrast agents to improve image resolution and enhance pathology detection. These gadolinium- and iodine-based media, although generally considered safe, are associated with a number of adverse effects ranging from mild to severe. Reactions are classified as either anaphylactoid ("anaphylaxis-like") or nonanaphylactoid, depending on a number of elements that will be reviewed. Herein, we have summarized predisposing risk factors for adverse events resulting from the use of contrast, their associated pathophysiological mechanisms as well as known prophylaxis for the antitreatment of high-risk patients...
October 13, 2016: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719658/aspirin-intolerance-experimental-models-for-bed-to-bench
#5
Masamichi Yamashita
Aspirin is the oldest non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and it sometimes causes asthma-like symptoms known as aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), which can be serious. Unwanted effects of aspirin (aspirin intolerance) are also observed in patients with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, a type I allergy disease, and aspirin-induced urticaria (AIU). However the target and the mechanism of the aspirin intolerance are still unknown. There is no animal or cellular model of AERD, because its pathophysiological mechanism is still unknown, but it is thought that inhibition of cyclooxygenase by causative agents lead to an increase of free arachidonic acid, which is metabolized into cysteinyl leukotrienes (cysLTs) that provoke airway smooth muscle constriction and asthma symptoms...
October 5, 2016: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692840/clinical-mimics-an-emergency-medicine-focused-review%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-sepsis-mimics
#6
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a common clinical condition, and mortality and morbidity may be severe. The current definition of sepsis involves systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, which is met by many conditions. OBJECTIVE: This review evaluates the SIRS continuum, signs and symptoms of sepsis, mimics of sepsis, and an approach to management for sepsis mimics. DISCUSSION: The current emergency medicine definition of sepsis includes SIRS, a definition that may be met by many conditions...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689430/anaphylaxis-and-cardiac-surgery-for-hypertrophic-obstructive-cardiomyopathy-a-case-report-and-review-of-anaesthetic-management
#7
Kevin Fu Hong Yee, Marcin Wasowicz
BACKGROUND: The aim of this paper is to describe clinical management in a situation where a patient has experienced anaphylaxis while undergoing surgical septal myectomy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). CASE REPORT: A 40-yr-old female was scheduled to undergo surgical septal myectomy for the treatment of HOCM. After induction, the patient developed refractory hypotension that did not respond to escalating doses of vasopressors and volume therapy...
September 30, 2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621657/reslizumab-in-the-management-of-poorly-controlled-asthma-the-data-so-far
#8
REVIEW
Diego Jose Maselli, Maria Ines Velez, Linda Rogers
Interleukin-5, an important cytokine in the pathophysiology of asthma, participates in terminal maturation and increases chemotaxis, endothelial adhesion, and activation of eosinophils. Blockade of interleukin-5 activity with monoclonal antibodies have been successful in decreasing eosinophil counts. Reslizumab, a monoclonal antibody that targets interleukin-5, has been studied for the treatment of severe asthma. Several studies have shown that reslizumab can effectively treat severe asthma with an eosinophilic phenotype...
2016: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591544/diagnosis-of-anaphylactic-death-in-forensics-review-and-future-perspectives
#9
REVIEW
Rossana Cecchi
The diagnosis of anaphylaxis in a pre- or post-mortal phase involves the formulation of problems not yet solved by the international scientific literature, due to the complexity of pathogenic factors and pathophysiological processes that characterizes it. For forensic autopsies, further problems of differential diagnosis arise and often leave the forensic pathologist unable to express an opinion of certainty, as a result of lack of case history, circumstantial and autoptical-histopathological data. Nevertheless, in routine cases the postmortem diagnosis of anaphylactic death continues to be based on exclusion and circumstantial evidence...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27545856/ischemic-stroke-after-wasp-sting
#10
Ashish Kulhari, Ashley Rogers, Han Wang, Vishakhadatta Mathur Kumaraswamy, Wei Xiong, Michael DeGeorgia
BACKGROUND: Despite the common occurrence of hymenopteran stings worldwide, primary neurologic manifestations including stroke are rare. We report a case of a healthy male who developed a right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory ischemic stroke after getting stung by a wasp. CASE REPORT: A 44-year-old man with hypertension presented to the hospital with sudden-onset left hemiparesis, left facial weakness, and dysarthria after being stung by a wasp. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) scans of the brain revealed a right MCA territory infarct and a lack of flow in the distal right internal carotid artery and MCA...
October 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469392/new-insights-into-the-stereochemical-requirements-of-the-bradykinin-b1-receptor-antagonists-binding
#11
Cecylia S Lupala, Patricia Gomez-Gutierrez, Juan J Perez
Bradykinin (BK) is a nonapeptide involved in several pathophysiological conditions including among others, septic and haemorrhagic shock, anaphylaxis, arthritis, rhinitis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease. Accordingly, BK antagonists have long been sought after for therapeutic intervention. Action of BK is mediated through two different G-protein coupled receptors known as B1 and B2. Although there are several B1 antagonists reported in literature, their pharmacological profile is not yet optimal so that new molecules need to be discovered...
July 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27458609/reslizumab-maintenance-treatment-for-eosinophilic-asthma-inadequately-controlled-on-corticosteroids
#12
D M Paton
The starting point for this drug was the growing realization that eosinophils appeared to be associated with a severe form of asthma in which patients were subject to exacerbations of their condition that could not be adequately managed using inhaled and/or oral corticosteroids. Studies of the pathophysiology of eosinophils revealed that they produce many bioactive compounds that contribute to the pathophysiology of a number of diseases including asthma. Interleukin-5 (IL-5) in particular is an important factor in some forms of severe asthma...
June 2016: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27429521/non-infectious-complications-related-to-blood-transfusion-an-11%C3%A2-year-retrospective-analysis-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#13
J Philip, A Pawar, T Chatterjee, R S Mallhi, A K Biswas, U Dimri
In India transmission of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) has shown a relative decrease as a result of mandatory screening of donated blood for TTI's. However, reducing the incidence of non infectious complications poses a major challenge, mainly due to the fact that a number of adverse reactions go unreported. Blood transfusion reaction, can be categorized based on the time interval between transfusion of blood products and the presentation of adverse reactions as acute i.e. those presenting during or within 24 h and as delayed i...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Hematology & Blood Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27362320/angioedema-associated-with-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs
#14
Pedro Giavina-Bianchi, Marcelo Vivolo Aun, Edgardo José Jares, Jorge Kalil
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review critically assesses the different phenotypes of angioedemas associated with NSAIDs. Angioedemas exacerbated or induced by NSAIDs have high morbidity and, when they affect the larynx, can lead to death by asphyxiation. RECENT FINDINGS: Angioedema can present as a manifestation of a syndrome such as anaphylaxis or it can be a separate entity, which comprises different forms that can be diagnosed based on specific criteria. NSAIDs are the drugs most used worldwide and they are also one of the leading causes of angioedema...
August 2016: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339828/a-rapid-and-sensitive-assay-based-on-particle-analysis-for-cell-degranulation-detection-in-basophils-and-mast-cells
#15
Lufen Huang, Jiang Pi, Jianlin Wu, Hua Zhou, Jiye Cai, Ting Li, Liang Liu
The degranulation of mast cells and basophils is often initiated by a number of pathophysiological responses, especially in allergic and inflammatory conditions. Efficient techniques and methods for determining the level of such degranulation are highly demanded for laboratory and clinical studies. In this work, a rapid and sensitive assay based on the particle analysis of granules in RBL-2H3 cells, a cell line widely used as a convenient model system to study the degranulation of mast cells and basophils, was developed to detect cell degranulation using a Nanosight NS300 in light scatter mode and dynamic light scattering (DLS) on a Malvern Zetasizer Nano-ZS instrument...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27333777/lipid-mediators-of-allergic-disease-pathways-treatments-and-emerging-therapeutic-targets
#16
REVIEW
Eric Schauberger, Miriam Peinhaupt, Tareian Cazares, Andrew W Lindsley
Bioactive lipids are critical regulators of inflammation. Over the last 75 years, these diverse compounds have emerged as clinically-relevant mediators of allergic disease pathophysiology. Animal and human studies have demonstrated the importance of lipid mediators in the development of asthma, allergic rhinitis, urticaria, anaphylaxis, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Lipids are critical participants in cell signaling events which influence key physiologic (bronchoconstriction) and immune phenomena (degranulation, chemotaxis, sensitization)...
July 2016: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139131/complements-are-not-always-a-good-thing-novel-therapies-for-angioedema
#17
Abby Mynatt Bailey, Brittany S Reed, Kyle A Weant, Stephanie Baker Justice
Hereditary angioedema attacks are rare, but emergency care providers must be aware of the clinical presentation and treatment of these patients because the emergency department remains the most common setting where these patients seek treatment. If providers are not aware of the past medical history of these patients, they are likely to receive standard therapies for respiratory distress and anaphylaxis including antihistamines, corticosteroids, and epinephrine. However, these medications may not work in these patients, given the pathophysiology of their underlying disease...
April 2016: Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26995210/prospective-consecutive-case-series-of-158-snakebite-patients-treated-at-savannakhet-provincial-hospital-lao-people-s-democratic-republic-with-high-incidence-of-anaphylactic-shock-to-horse-derived-f-ab-2-antivenom
#18
Inthanomchanh Vongphoumy, Phankham Chanthilat, Phongmany Vilayvong, Joerg Blessmann
Snakebites are a seriously neglected public health problem in Lao PDR. Community-based cross-sectional surveys in two districts of Savannakhet province in Southern Laos revealed an incidence of up to 1105 snakebites per 100,000 persons per year. In contrast the number of snakebite patients treated in district and provincial hospitals are low. In order to improve health care for snakebite victims, antivenom was introduced to Savannakhet provincial hospital in July 2013 and medical staff has been trained in management of venomous snakebites at the same time...
July 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26963393/anaphylaxis-imaging-non-invasive-measurement-of-surface-body-temperature-and-physical-activity-in-small-animals
#19
Krisztina Manzano-Szalai, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Durga Krishnamurthy, Caroline Stremnitzer, Ingo Flaschberger, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26779180/mast-cell-a-multi-functional-master-cell
#20
REVIEW
Melissa Krystel-Whittemore, Kottarappat N Dileepan, John G Wood
Mast cells are immune cells of the myeloid lineage and are present in connective tissues throughout the body. The activation and degranulation of mast cells significantly modulates many aspects of physiological and pathological conditions in various settings. With respect to normal physiological functions, mast cells are known to regulate vasodilation, vascular homeostasis, innate and adaptive immune responses, angiogenesis, and venom detoxification. On the other hand, mast cells have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases, including allergy, asthma, anaphylaxis, gastrointestinal disorders, many types of malignancies, and cardiovascular diseases...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
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