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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646953/nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-in-childhood-update-on-diagnostic-approaches-and-treatment
#1
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis, Marc Tebruegge
Recent studies suggest that the incidence of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in children may be increasing. Nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis, skin and soft tissue infection, and pulmonary disease each present unique challenges in relation to diagnosis and treatment. In this update, we critically review the recent literature on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic approaches and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in children. In addition, we outline key areas warranting further research...
June 2017: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646367/ifn%C3%AE-producing-cd4-t-lymphocytes-the-double-edged-swords-in-tuberculosis
#2
Pawan Kumar
IFNγ-producing CD4(+) T cells (IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells) are the key orchestrators of protective immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Primarily, these cells act by enabling Mtb-infected macrophages to enforce phagosome-lysosome fusion, produce reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNIs), and activate autophagy pathways. However, TB is a heterogeneous disease and a host of clinical and experimental findings has also implicated IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells in TB pathogenesis. High frequency of IFNγ(+)CD4(+) T cells is the most invariable feature of the active disease...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633901/patient-ethnicity-and-causative-species-determine-the-manifestations-of-anti-interferon-gamma-autoantibody-associated-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-a-review
#3
REVIEW
Isano Hase, Kozo Morimoto, Takuro Sakagami, Yoshiki Ishii, Jakko van Ingen
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections involving anti-interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-neutralizing autoantibodies have been described in previously immunocompetent adults. To investigate the factors underlying various disease manifestations, we reviewed 35 articles published between January 2004 and November 2016 and identified 111 NTM patients with anti-IFN-γ autoantibodies. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) accounted for 53% of the isolated species. RGM were predominant among the NTM species isolated from Thai (73%), Chinese (58%) and Filipino (56%) patients, whereas M...
May 18, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628437/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-infections-at-a-provincial-reference-hospital-cambodia
#4
Maryline Bonnet, Kim Chamroeun San, Yati Pho, Chandara Sok, Jean-Philippe Dousset, William Brant, Northan Hurtado, Khun Kim Eam, Elisa Ardizzoni, Seiha Heng, Sylvain Godreuil, Wing-Wai Yew, Cathy Hewison
Prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease is poorly documented in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). We describe prevalence, risk factors, and TB program implications for NTM isolates and disease in Cambodia. A prospective cohort of 1,183 patients with presumptive TB underwent epidemiologic, clinical, radiologic, and microbiologic evaluation, including >12-months of follow-up for patients with NTM isolates. Prevalence of NTM isolates was 10.8% and of disease was 0.9%; 217 (18...
July 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623935/variation-in-susceptibility-of-different-breeds-of-sheep-to-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-paratuberculosis-following-experimental-inoculation
#5
D J Begg, A C Purdie, K de Silva, N K Dhand, K M Plain, R J Whittington
Exposure to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) does not always lead to Johne's disease. Understanding differences in disease susceptibility of individual animals is a key aspect to controlling mycobacterial diseases. This study was designed to examine the susceptibility or resistance of various breeds of sheep to MAP infection. Merino, Suffolk first cross Merino, Border Leicester, and Poll Dorset sheep were orally inoculated with MAP and monitored for 14 months. Clinical disease occurred more frequently in the Merino (42%) and Suffolk first cross Merino (36%) compared to the Border Leicester (12%) and Poll Dorset (11%) breeds...
June 17, 2017: Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621249/tuberculosis-masked-by-immunodeficiency-a-review-of-two-cases-diagnosed-with-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#6
Hikmet Tekin Nacaroğlu, Semiha Bahçeci Erdem, Nesrin Gülez, Canan Şule Ünsal Karkıner, İlker Devrim, Ferah Genel, Mustafa Yavuz Köker, Demet Can
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a genetically heterogeneous primary immunodeficiency that is characterized by recurrent and life-threatening infections resulting from defects in phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase system and granuloma formation due to increased inflammatory response. The most commonly involved organs are the lungs, skin, lymph nodes, and liver due to infection. It may present with recurrent pneumonia, hilar lymphadenopathy, empyema, abscess, reticulonodular patterns, and granulomas due to lung involvement...
March 2017: Tüberküloz Ve Toraks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619159/original-mycobacterial-sin-a-consequence-of-highly-homologous-antigens
#7
REVIEW
A O Jenkins, A Michel, V Rutten
The role of antigens shared between Mycobacteria in in-vivo cross-reactive immune responses in host animals, have been reported to be responsible for reduced BCG vaccination efficacy as well reduced specificity of routine immunological diagnostic tests. This presents with significant disease control challenges in humans and animals. The present review highlights the results of previous studies on the effect of pre-sensitization to environmental mycobacteria on either pathogenic mycobacteria and/or M. bovis BCG, in experimental animals...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610790/mir-30c-is-specifically-repressed-in-patients-with-active-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
Silvana V Spinelli, Rocío Del V Fernández, Luciana Zoff, Bettina Bongiovanni, Ariana Díaz, Luciano D'Attilio, Natalia Santucci, Tomás Alvarez, Marcela M Marchesini, Cristina Bogue, Maria L Bay, Oscar A Bottasso
Tuberculous pleurisy (PLTB) is a common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. It often resolves without chemotherapy being hence considered a rather benign manifestation of the disease. Patients with PLTB mount an effective anti-mycobacterial response, unlike those with active pulmonary TB (pTB) that were shown to present an imbalance in plasma immune and endocrine mediators. In this work, we explored whether expression of the active isoform of the glucocorticoid receptor (hGRα) in the context of the inflammatory-anti-inflammatory responses of TB patients may be associated to microRNA levels...
July 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602386/respiratory-infections-associated-with-anti-tnf%C3%AE-agents
#9
REVIEW
E Blanchard, M-E Truchetet, I Machelart, J Séneschal, C Raherison-Semjen
Anti-TNFα agents have proved effective in the treatment of various inflammatory, rheumatologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal diseases. Severe respiratory tract infections of bacterial or fungal origin have emerged as important complications in patients receiving such treatments. The risk of infection due to anti-TNFα therapy is difficult to assess in these patients who are immunocompromised because of the underlying disease itself and of previous or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. This excessive infection risk seems real, particularly in the first six months following treatment initiation, and higher for patients receiving anti-TNFα monoclonal antibodies than for those receiving soluble TNFα receptor...
June 8, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600763/mycobacterial-load-assay
#10
Stephen H Gillespie, Wilber Sabiiti, Katarina Oravcova
Tuberculosis is a difficult disease to treat, a process made more harder as tools to monitor treatment response only provide a result long after the patient has provided a sample. The mycobacterial load assay (MBLA) provides a simple molecular test to quantify and determine the viability of M. tuberculosis in human or other samples.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600575/altered-humoral-immunity-to-mycobacterial-antigens-in-japanese-patients-affected-by-inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#11
Davide Cossu, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Yuji Tomizawa, Eiichi Momotani, Nobutaka Hattori
Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) have been associated to several human autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), but there are conflicting evidence on the issue. The objective of this study is to evaluate their role in Japanese patients affected by inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system (IDDs). A total of 97 IDDs subjects including 51 MS and 46 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) patients, and 34 healthy controls (HCs) were tested for the detection of IgG, IgM and IgA against mycobacterial antigens by indirect ELISA...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594574/a-geospatial-epidemiologic-analysis-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection-an-ecological-study-in-colorado
#12
Ettie M Lipner, David Knox, Joshua French, Jordan Rudman, Michael Strong, James L Crooks
RATIONALE: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous environmental microorganisms. Infection is thought to result primarily from exposure to soil and/or water sources. NTM disease prevalence varies greatly by geographic region, but the geospatial factors influencing this variation remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To identify socio-demographic and environmental ecologic risk factors associated with NTM infection and disease in Colorado. METHODS: We conducted an ecological study combining data from patients with a diagnosis of NTM disease from National Jewish Health's Electronic Medical Record database and zip code-level socio-demographic and environmental exposure data obtained from the U...
June 8, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592925/second-generation-multiple-reaction-monitoring-assays-for-enhanced-detection-of-ultra-low-abundance-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-peptides-in-human-serum
#13
Carolina Mehaffy, Karen M Dobos, Payam Nahid, Nicole A Kruh-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the causative agent of Tuberculosis (TB), the number one cause of death due to an infectious disease. TB diagnosis is performed by microscopy, culture or PCR amplification of bacterial DNA, all of which require patient sputum or the biopsy of infected tissue. Detection of mycobacterial products in serum, as biomarkers of diagnosis or disease status would provide an improvement over current methods. Due to the low-abundance of mycobacterial products in serum, we have explored exosome enrichment to improve sensitivity...
2017: Clinical Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589069/looks-can-be-deceiving-a-case-report-on-multicentric-reticulohistiocytosis-successfully-treated-with-rituximab
#14
Khin Lim, Jason D'Souza, Jonathan B Vasquez, Sujatha Vuyyuru
Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH) is an idiopathic multisystemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetric erosive polyarthritis and typical papulonodular skin lesions. MRH can be associated with autoimmune diseases, malignancy, mycobacterial infections, and hyperlipidemia, and it is important to consider appropriate screening in this population. There is no specific diagnostic laboratory test for MRH. The gold standard for diagnosis is skin or synovial biopsy, which shows characteristic multinucleated non-Langerhans giant cells and ground glass eosinophilic cytoplasm...
May 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581888/il17a-augments-autophagy-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infected-monocytes-from-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-in-association-with-the-severity-of-the-disease
#15
Nancy Liliana Tateosian, Joaquín Miguel Pellegrini, Nicolás Oscar Amiano, Agustín Rolandelli, Nicolás Casco, Domingo Juan Palmero, María Isabel Colombo, Verónica Edith García
During mycobacterial infection, macroautophagy/autophagy, a process modulated by cytokines, is essential for mounting successful host responses. Autophagy collaborates with human immune responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) in association with specific IFNG secreted against the pathogen. However, IFNG alone is not sufficient to the complete bacterial eradication, and other cytokines might be required. Actually, induction of Th1 and Th17 immune responses are required for protection against Mt. Accordingly, we showed that IL17A and IFNG expression in lymphocytes from tuberculosis patients correlates with disease severity...
June 5, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579973/conflicting-role-of-mycobacterium-species-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
Davide Cossu, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Nobutaka Hattori
Mycobacterium is a genus of aerobic and acid-fast bacteria, which include several pathogenic organisms that cause serious diseases in mammals. Previous studies have associated the immune response against mycobacteria with multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system with unknown etiology. The role of mycobacteria in the pathological process has been controversial and often conflicting. We provide a detailed review of the mycobacteria that have been linked to MS over the last three decades, with a focus on Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine for human and oral exposure to Mycobacterium avium subsp...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575238/does-disseminated-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease-cause-false-positive-determine-b-lam-lateral-flow-assay-results-a-retrospective-review
#17
Jeremy S Nel, Christopher K Lippincott, Rebecca Berhanu, David C Spencer, Ian M Sanne, Prudence Ive
We retrospectively reviewed the Determine TB-LAM lateral flow assay (LF-LAM) results among HIV-infected patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease. LF-LAM was positive in 19/21 patients without evidence of tuberculosis coinfection. Although tuberculosis-NTM coinfection may have been underdiagnosed, our results suggest that disseminated NTM disease may cause false-positive LF-LAM results.
June 2, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575173/health-care-associated-mycobacterium-bovis-bcg-infection-in-cancer-patients-without-prior-bcg-instillation
#18
Y Meije, J Martínez-Montauti, J A Caylà, J Loureiro, L Ortega, M Clemente, X Sanz, M Ricart, M J Santomà, P Coll, M Sierra, M Calsina, M Vaqué, I Ruiz-Camps, C López-Sánchez, M Montes, A Ayestarán, J Carratalà, A Orcau
Background: Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, is widely used as adjunctive therapy for superficial bladder cancer. Intravesical administration of BCG has been associated with systemic infection. Disseminated infection due to M. bovis is otherwise uncommon. Methods: After identification of three patients with health-care associated BCG infection (HCBCGI) who had never received intravesical BCG administration, an epidemiologic study was performed...
May 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574018/genetic-diversity-drug-sensitivity-profiles-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-isolates-from-two-slums-of-jaipur-city-rajasthan-india
#19
Bharti Malhotra, Deepti Dashora, Vipin Kumar, Sumit Goyal, Bhavana Sharma, Madhu Kumar, Kailash Narayan Gupta, Vishnu Dutt Sharma, D S Chauhan, Kiran Katoch, Vishwa Mohan Katoch
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Slums are considered as hotspots of tuberculosis (TB). The study of genetic diversity and drug susceptibility profile of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) will help understand the transmission dynamics and can be used for better prevention and control of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the drug susceptibility profiles and genetic diversity using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU VNTR) of MTB isolates from sputum samples of pulmonary TB patients residing in the two slums of Jaipur city in Rajasthan, India...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570933/the-goldilocks-model-of-immune-symbiosis-with-mycobacteria-and-candida-colonizers
#20
REVIEW
Richard T Robinson, Anna R Huppler
Mycobacteria and Candida species include significant human pathogens that can cause localized or disseminated infections. Although these organisms may appear to have little in common, several shared pathways of immune recognition and response are important for both control and infection-related pathology. In this article, we compare and contrast the innate and adaptive components of the immune system that pertain to these infections in humans and animal models. We also explore a relatively new concept in the mycobacterial field: biological commensalism...
May 29, 2017: Cytokine
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