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Mycobacterial disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346488/comparison-of-chest-ct-findings-in-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-diseases-vs-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-lung-disease-in-hiv-negative-patients-with-cavities
#1
Cherry Kim, So Hee Park, Sang Young Oh, Sung-Soo Kim, Kyung-Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim, Mi Young Kim
OBJECTIVES: This article focuses on the differences between CT findings of HIV-negative patients who have cavities with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) disease and those with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections (TB). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 128 NTM disease patients (79 males and 49 females) with cavities in chest CT, matched for age and gender with 128 TB patients in the same period. Sputum cultures of all patients were positive for pathogens. Two independent chest radiologists evaluated the characteristics of the largest cavity and related factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344532/atypical-mycobacterial-infections-of-the-upper-extremity-becoming-more-atypical
#2
Mariela Lopez, Julie Croley, Kevin D Murphy
Background: Atypical mycobacterial infections are uncommon and characterized by a chronic, indolent course before diagnosis. Historically, these infections are associated with marine-related injury and/or immune dysfunction. Our institution has successfully diagnosed and treated an increasing number of these infections. The objective of this study is to review our experience with these rare infections and verify the developing trends encountered. Methods: A retrospective review was performed for patients with positive nontuberculous mycobacterial cultures of the upper extremity from 2000 to 2013...
March 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344056/chronic-cutaneous-mycobacterial-ulcers-due-to-mycobacterium-ulcerans-buruli-ulcer-the-first-indigenous-case-report-from-jordan-and-a-literature-review
#3
Jamal Wadi Al Ramahi, Hassan Annab, Mutaz Al Karmi, Basel Kirresh, Mahmoud Wreikat, Rami Batarseh, Muhannad Yacoub, Mais Kaderi
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer is the third most common mycobacterial infection worldwide. It is endemic in tropical, subtropical, and temperate climates. It causes devastating disease with morbidity and mortality. The treatment duration is long and the regimens considered are limited. Chronic cutaneous ulcers of mycobacterial etiology have been reported previously in Amman, but these were not associated with Mycobacterium ulcerans infection. METHODS: The case patient's initial diagnosis was based on chronological and morphological features, combined with appropriate diagnostic tests...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332618/the-chemokine-receptor-cxcr4-promotes-granuloma-formation-by-sustaining-a-mycobacteria-induced-angiogenesis-programme
#4
Vincenzo Torraca, Claudia Tulotta, B Ewa Snaar-Jagalska, Annemarie H Meijer
CXC chemokine receptor 4 plays a critical role in chemotaxis and leukocyte differentiation. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that links this receptor to angiogenesis. Using the well-established zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum model for tuberculosis, angiogenesis was recently found to be important for the development of cellular aggregates called granulomas that contain the mycobacteria and are the hallmark of tuberculosis disease. Here, we found that initiation of the granuloma-associated proangiogenic programme requires CXCR4 signalling...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330178/emergence-of-mixed-infection-of-beijing-non-beijing-strains-among-multi-drug-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-pakistan
#5
Samar Mustafa, Hasnain Javed, Jawairia Hashmi, Nazia Jamil, Zarfishan Tahir, Abdul Majeed Akhtar
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the deadliest diseases after HIV globally with 95 % of deaths confined to low-and-middle income countries. Pakistan is fifth among the 22 high-burden TB countries with the incidence rate of 230/100,000 persons, however, studies related to prevalent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and their spread, drug resistance pattern and evolutionary genetics are inadequate. The present study was undertaken to highlight the circulation of M. tuberculosis strains causing drug resistant TB in our community by targeting the molecular marker IS6110 and then characterization of these strains as Beijing and Non-Beijing genotypes...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326308/infection-sources-of-a-common-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-pathogen-mycobacterium-avium-complex
#6
REVIEW
Yukiko Nishiuchi, Tomotada Iwamoto, Fumito Maruyama
Numerous studies have revealed a continuous increase in the worldwide incidence and prevalence of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) diseases, especially pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) diseases. Although it is not clear why NTM diseases have been increasing, one possibility is an increase of mycobacterial infection sources in the environment. Thus, in this review, we focused on the infection sources of pathogenic NTM, especially MAC. The environmental niches for MAC include water, soil, and dust...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321419/pvaxhsp65-vaccination-primes-for-high-il-10-production-and-decreases-experimental-encephalomyelitis-severity
#7
Sofia Fernanda Gonçalves Zorzella-Pezavento, Fernanda Chiuso-Minicucci, Thais Graziela Donegá França, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Larissa Camargo da Rosa, Priscila Maria Colavite, Bianca Balbino, Camila Marques, Maura Rosane Valerio Ikoma, Ana Paula Masson, Célio Lopes Silva, Alexandrina Sartori
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a demyelinating pathology of the central nervous system (CNS) used as a model to study multiple sclerosis immunopathology. EAE has also been extensively employed to evaluate potentially therapeutic schemes. Considering the presence of an immune response directed to heat shock proteins (hsps) in autoimmune diseases and the immunoregulatory potential of these molecules, we evaluated the effect of a previous immunization with a genetic vaccine containing the mycobacterial hsp65 gene on EAE development...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317809/treatment-outcome-in-children-with-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lymphadenitis-a-retrospective-follow-up-study
#8
Annicka Reuss, Sarah Drzymala, Barbara Hauer, Rüdiger von Kries, Walter Haas
INTRODUCTION: Information on the long-term treatment outcome following nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) lymphadenitis is very limited. We performed a study to (a) compare cure rates following different initial treatment courses, (b) describe subsequent treatment courses and their outcomes, and (c) determine the occurrence of late sequelae in immunocompetent children with NTM lymphadenitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2011, we conducted a retrospective follow-up study in 71 parents whose children had been hospitalized with NTM disease 2002-2005...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317808/isolation-and-characterization-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-from-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-ghana
#9
Isaac Darko Otchere, Adwoa Asante-Poku, Stephen Osei-Wusu, Samuel Yaw Aboagye, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) species are assuming public health importance in pulmonary diseases; they are increasingly being isolated, and importantly, most NTMs do not respond to routine tuberculosis (TB) drugs. This study aimed to identify NTMs isolated from pulmonary TB cases and also determine their susceptibility to streptomycin (STR), isoniazid (INH), and rifampicin (RIF). METHODS: A total of 1755 mycobacterial isolates, obtained between August 2012 and July 2014, from 2036 smear-positive pulmonary cases were identified using polymerase chain reaction amplification of IS6110, and hsp65 gene sequencing analysis...
January 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317629/mycobacterium-kansasii-infection-in-a-patient-receiving-biologic-therapy-not-all-reactive-interferon-gamma-release-assays-are-tuberculosis
#10
Nasir Saleem, Raya Saba, Srikanth Maddika, Mitchell Weinstein
Mycobacterium kansasii, a nontuberculous mycobacterium, can lead to lung disease similar to tuberculosis. Immunotherapeutic biologic agents predispose to infections with mycobacteria, including M kansasii. T-cell-mediated interferon gamma release assays like QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test (QFT) are widely used by clinicians for the diagnosis of infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis; however, QFT may also show positive result with certain nontuberculous mycobacterial infections. We report a case of M kansasii pulmonary infection, with a positive QFT, in an immunocompromised patient receiving prednisone, leflunomide and tocilizumab, a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody...
April 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317028/mycobacterial-caseinolytic-protease-gene-regulator-clgr-is-a-substrate-of-caseinolytic-protease
#11
Yoshiyuki Yamada, Thomas Dick
The mycobacterial caseinolytic protease ClpP1P2 is a degradative protease that recently gained interest as a genetically and pharmacologically validated drug target for tuberculosis. The first whole-cell active ClpP1P2 inhibitor, the human proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, is currently undergoing lead optimization to introduce selectivity for the bacterial target. How inhibition of ClpP1P2 translates into whole-cell antimicrobial activity is little understood. Previous work has shown that the caseinolytic protease gene regulator ClgR is an activator of the clpP1P2 genes and also suggested that this transcription factor may be a substrate of the protease...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296245/immunodominant-protein-mip_05962-from-mycobacterium-indicus-pranii-displays-chaperone-activity
#12
Ashish Sharma, M A Equbal, S Pandey, Javaid A Sheikh, Nasreen Z Ehtesham, Seyed E Hasnain, Tapan K Chaudhuri
Tuberculosis, a contagious disease of infectious origin is currently a major cause of deaths worldwide. Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP), a saprophytic non-pathogen and a potent immunomodulator is currently being investigated as an intervention against tuberculosis along with many other diseases with positive outcome. The apparent paradox of multiple chaperones in mycobacterial species and enigma about the cellular functions of the client proteins of these chaperones need to be explored. Chaperones are the known immunomodulators thus there is need to exploit the proteome of MIP for identification and characterization of putative chaperones...
March 10, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294596/the-macrolide-toxin-mycolactone-promotes-bim-dependent-apoptosis-in-buruli-ulcer-through-inhibition-of-mtor
#13
Raphael Bieri, Nicole Scherr, Marie-Thérèse Ruf, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Philipp Gersbach, Matthias Gehringer, Karl-Heinz Altmann, Gerd Pluschke
Mycolactone, the macrolide exotoxin produced by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is central to the pathogenesis of the chronic necrotizing skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU). Here we show that mycolactone acts as an inhibitor of the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by interfering with the assembly of the two distinct mTOR protein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate different cellular processes. Inhibition of the assembly of the rictor containing mTORC2 complex by mycolactone prevents phosphorylation of the serine/threonine protein kinase Akt...
March 27, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284662/effect-of-a-150%C3%A2-mg-dose-of-rifabutin-on-serum-itraconazole-levels-in-patients-with-coexisting-chronic-pulmonary-aspergillosis-and-mycobacterium-avium-complex-lung-disease
#14
Seong Mi Moon, Byung Woo Jhun, Hyun Lee, Hye Yun Park, Kyeongman Jeon, Soo-Youn Lee, Won-Jung Koh
Patients with coexisting chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease may undergo treatment with both the antifungal itraconazole and the antimycobacterial rifamycin. However, rifamycins interact with itraconazole. We examined the effects of a 150 mg dose of rifabutin on serum itraconazole levels and found significantly lower levels in 28 patients receiving itraconazole with rifabutin (median, 0.65 μg/ml) compared with 65 patients receiving itraconazole alone (median 3.45 μg/ml, P < 0...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282458/transcriptome-analysis-of-mycobacteria-in-sputum-samples-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients
#15
Sumedha Sharma, Michelle B Ryndak, Ashutosh N Aggarwal, Rakesh Yadav, Sunil Sethi, Shet Masih, Suman Laal, Indu Verma
Pulmonary tuberculosis, the disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, still retains a top rank among the deadliest communicable diseases. Sputum expectorated during the disease continues to be a primary diagnostic specimen and also serves as a reservoir of bacteria. The expression pattern of mycobacteria in sputum will lead to an insight into bacterial adaptation at the most highly transmissible stage of infection and can also help in identifying newer diagnostic as well as drug targets. Thus, in the present study, a whole genome microarray of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was used to elucidate the transcriptional profile of mycobacteria in the sputum samples of smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282341/new-developments-in-the-management-of-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer
#16
Mark D Tyson, Daniel Lee, Peter Clark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we summarize the core principles in the management of nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) with an emphasis on new developments that have emerged over the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: NMIBC has a propensity to recur and progress. Risk stratification has facilitated appropriate patient selection for treatment but improved tools, including biomarkers, are still needed. Enhanced cystoscopy with photodynamic imaging and narrow band imaging show promise for diagnosis, risk stratification, and disease monitoring and has been formally recommended this year by the American Urological Association...
March 9, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281441/miliary-tuberculosis
#17
Surendra K Sharma, Alladi Mohan
Miliary tuberculosis (TB) results from a massive lymphohematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli and is characterized by tiny tubercles evident on gross pathology resembling millet seeds in size and appearance. The global HIV/AIDS pandemic and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and biologicals have altered the epidemiology of miliary TB. Considered to be predominantly a disease of infants and children in the pre-antibiotic era, miliary TB is increasingly being encountered in adults as well...
March 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275073/rapid-detection-of-cell-free-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dna-in-tuberculous-pleural-effusion
#18
Nanying Che, Xinting Yang, Zichen Liu, Kun Li, Xiaoyou Chen
Tuberculous pleurisy is one of the most common extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, but its diagnosis remains to be difficult. In this study, we for the first time report detection of cell-free Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in pleural effusion and evaluation of this newly developed molecular assay. A total of 78 patients with pleural effusion, 60 patients with tuberculous pleurisy and 18 patients with alternative diseases, were included in this study. Mycobacterial culture, Xpert MTB/RIF assay, adenosine deaminase assay, T-SPOT...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271647/mycobacterium-kansasii-pneumonia-with-mediastinal-lymphadenitis-in-a-patient-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia-successful-treatment-to-stem-cell-transplantation
#19
Yeon Geun Choi, Sung Yeon Cho, Dong Gun Lee, Eunjung Yim, Hyonsoo Joo, Seongyul Ryu, Jae Ki Choi, Hee Je Kim
Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease is a relatively rare cause of neutropenic fever in patients with hematologic malignancies. During the neutropenic period, performing invasive procedures for microbiological or pathological confirmation is difficult. In addition, the optimal treatment duration for NTM disease in patients with leukemia, especially prior to stem cell transplantation (SCT), has not been documented. Therefore, we report a case of pneumonia with necrotizing lymphadenitis caused by Mycobacterium kansasii diagnosed during chemotherapy being performed for acute myeloid leukemia...
January 19, 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271562/erythema-nodosum-in-association-with-idiopathic-granulomatous-mastitis-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
R Fruchter, C Castilla, E Ng, M K Pomeranz, A N Femia
Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by tender, erythematous, indurated breast plaques with associated edema, drainage, and scar formation.(1) IGM is often mistaken for breast carcinoma or infectious mastitis.(1,2) Histopathology readily distinguishes IGM from breast carcinoma, as the primary finding in IGM is granulomas centered around mammary lobules.(3) Nevertheless, differentiating IGM from bacterial mastitis and other mimickers, such as atypical mycobacterial infections or sarcoidosis, can be more difficult...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
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