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Mycobacterial disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139157/seronegative-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-presenting-with-multiple-cranial-nerve-palsies
#1
Eunhye Lee, Jynkyun Park, Seung Hong Choi, Sung-Hye Park
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a rare systemic disease characterized by necrotizing granulomas and vasculitis that usually presents in the respiratory tract and renal system. Here, we report a case of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-negative GPA with diagnostic difficulties. Neurologic involvement in GPA is not uncommon, with up to 50% of patients manifesting with neurologic defects; however, it is usually a late event. This patient was a 50-year-old man whose first manifestation was multiple neurologic defects without respiratory or renal symptoms...
November 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134263/diminished-susceptibility-of-african-americans-to-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#2
Jerome M Reich, Jong S Kim
The incidence of three granulomatous response diseases-sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and non-tuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease-differ markedly in African-Americans versus Caucasians. In reviewing a large compendium of non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis, we noted that complicating infection with non-tuberculous mycobacteria was relatively infrequent among individuals of African-American descent, confirming previous observations of their inherent resistance. Disease-specific variance among African-Americans in the efficacy of their granulomatous response suggests a nexus, a mediating, immunological mechanism...
November 13, 2017: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126235/clinical-significance-of-interferon-%C3%AE-neutralizing-autoantibodies-against-disseminated-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#3
Ami Aoki, Takuro Sakagami, Kazutaka Yoshizawa, Kenjiro Shima, Mio Toyama, Yoshinari Tanabe, Hiroshi Moro, Nobumasa Aoki, Satoshi Watanabe, Toshiyuki Koya, Takashi Hasegawa, Kozo Morimoto, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Yoshihiko Hoshino, Bruce C Trapnell, Toshiaki Kikuchi
Background: Interferon-γ neutralizing autoantibodies (nIFNγ-autoAb) are reported in patients with disseminated nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection and may function by increasing the infection risk. Notwithstanding, the prevalence of nIFNγ-autoAb as well as the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and natural history, of disseminated NTM infection in these patients is poorly understood. Methods: In this retrospective observational study, data and sera for 331 Japanese subjects with mycobacterial infection were collected and analyzed...
November 8, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116639/dna-replication-fidelity-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#4
Digby F Warner, Jeremy M Rock, Sarah M Fortune, Valerie Mizrahi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is genetically isolated, with no evidence for horizontal gene transfer or the acquisition of episomal genetic information in the modern evolution of strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. When considered in the context of the specific features of the disease M. tuberculosis causes (e.g., transmission via cough aerosol, replication within professional phagocytes, subclinical persistence, and stimulation of a destructive immune pathology), this implies that to understand the mechanisms ensuring preservation of genomic integrity in infecting mycobacterial populations is to understand the source of genetic variation, including the emergence of microdiverse sub-populations that may be linked to the acquisition of drug resistance...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116632/the-biology-and-epidemiology-of-mycobacterium-africanum
#5
Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Bouke C de Jong, Florian Gehre
West Africa is the only region in the world where six out of seven mycobacterial lineages of human importance are endemic. In particular, two evolutionary ancient lineages, Mycobacterium africanum West Africa 1 (MTBC Lineage 5) and M. africanum West Africa 2 (MTBC Lineage 6) are of interest as they cause up to 40% of all pulmonary TB cases in some West African countries. Although these M. africanum lineages are closely related to M. tuberculosis sensu stricto lineages, they differ significantly in respect to biology, epidemiology and in their potential to cause disease in humans...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116629/the-evolution-of-strain-typing-in-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-complex
#6
Matthias Merker, Thomas A Kohl, Stefan Niemann, Philip Supply
Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease with a complex epidemiology. Therefore, molecular typing (genotyping) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) strains is of primary importance to effectively guide outbreak investigations, define transmission dynamics and assist global epidemiological surveillance of the disease. Large-scale genotyping is also needed to get better insights into the biological diversity and the evolution of the pathogen. Thanks to its shorter turnaround and simple numerical nomenclature system, mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) typing, based on 24 standardized plus 4 hypervariable loci, optionally combined with spoligotyping, has replaced IS6110 DNA fingerprinting over the last decade as a gold standard among classical strain typing methods for many applications...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109708/differential-identification-of-mycobacterial-species-using-high-resolution-melting-analysis
#7
Azar D Khosravi, Mohammad Hashemzadeh, Abdolrazagh Hashemi Shahraki, Ali Teimoori
Infections caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is increasing wordwide. Due to the difference in treatment of NTM infections and tuberculosis, rapid species identification of mycobacterial clinical isolates is necessary for the effective management of mycobacterial diseases treatment and their control strategy. In this study, a cost-effective technique, real-time PCR coupled with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis, was developed for the differentiation of Mycobacterial species using a novel rpoBC sequence...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106587/tracking-and-responding-to-an-outbreak-of-tuberculosis-using-miru-vntr-genotyping-and-whole-genome-sequencing-as-epidemiological-tools
#8
Anne T Black, Esther L Hamblion, Helen Buttivant, Sarah R Anderson, Madeline Stone, Nicola Casali, Francis Drobniewski, Francisca Nwoguh, Ben G Marshall, Linda Booth
Background: We describe an outbreak that contributed to a near doubling of the incidence of tuberculosis in Southampton, UK. We examine the importance of 24 locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit variable number tandem repeat (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping in its identification and management and the role of whole genome sequencing (WGS) in tracing the spread of the strain. Methods: Outbreak cases were defined as those diagnosed between January and December 2011 with indistinguishable 24 locus-MIRU-VNTR genotypes or, cases linked epidemiologically...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100055/extracellular-isg15-signals-cytokine-secretion-through-the-lfa-1-integrin-receptor
#9
Caleb D Swaim, Ariella F Scott, Larissa A Canadeo, Jon M Huibregtse
ISG15 is a ubiquitin-like protein that functions in innate immunity both as an intracellular protein modifier and as an extracellular signaling molecule that stimulates IFN-γ secretion. The extracellular function, important for resistance to mycobacterial disease, has remained biochemically uncharacterized. We have established an NK-92 cell-based assay for IFN-γ release, identified residues critical for ISG15 signaling, and identified the cell surface receptor as LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18; αLβ2 integrin). LFA-1 inhibition blocked IFN-γ secretion, splenocytes from CD11a(-/-) mice did not respond to ISG15, and ISG15 bound directly to the αI domain of CD11a in vitro...
November 2, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092717/routinely-detected-indicators-in-plasma-have-a-predictive-effect-on-the-identification-of-hiv-infected-patients-with-non-tuberculous-mycobacterial-and-tuberculous-infections
#10
Ren-Tian Cai, Feng-Xue Yu, Zhen Tao, Xue-Qin Qian, Jun Chen, Hong-Zhou Lu
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to quickly distinguish non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection from tuberculosis (TB) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients because of many similarities between these diseases. A simple and effective way to determine the differences using routine blood tests is necessary in developing countries. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to recruit HIV-infected patients with either NTM infection or TB infection diagnosed for the first time according to mycobacterial culture and microscopic identification from May 2010 to March 2016...
November 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075255/il-17-production-from-t-helper-17-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-and-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-cells-in-tuberculosis-infection-and-disease
#11
Felicity Coulter, Amy Parrish, Declan Manning, Beate Kampmann, Joseph Mendy, Mathieu Garand, David M Lewinsohn, Eleanor M Riley, Jayne S Sutherland
IL-17-producing cells have been shown to be important in the early stages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in animal models. However, there are very little data on the role of IL-17 in human studies of tuberculosis (TB). We recruited TB patients and their highly exposed contacts who were further categorized based on results from an IFN-γ-release assay (IGRA): (1) IGRA positive (IGRA(+)) at recruitment (latently TB infected), (2) IGRA negative (IGRA(-)) at recruitment and 6 months [non-converters (NC)], and (3) IGRA(-) at recruitment and IGRA(+) at 6 months (converters)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072797/a-versatile-synthesis-of-pentacosafuranoside-subunit-reminiscent-of-mycobacterial-arabinogalactan-employing-one-strategic-glycosidation-protocol
#12
Sandip Pasari, Sujit Manmode, Gulab Walke, Srinivas Hotha
Oligosaccharides are involved in myriad of biological phenomena. Many glycobiological experiments can be undertaken if homogenous and well defined oligosaccharides are accessible. Mycobacterial cell wall contains arabinogalactan as one of the major constituents that is challenging for the chemical synthesis. Therefore, the major aim of this investigation is to synthesize a major oligosaccharide portion of the arabinogalactan. The pentacosafuranoside (25mer) synthesis involved installation of several arabinofuranosidic linkages through the neighbouring group participation for 1, 2-trans linkages and oxidation-reduction method for the 1, 2-cis Araf respectively...
October 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071482/-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infections
#13
REVIEW
A Nowag, M Platten, G Plum, P Hartmann
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) are found ubiquitously in the environment and are usually of low pathogenicity. Infection occurs via inhalation of aerosols, and some species may cause severe infections. The incidence of NTM infections is rising worldwide. The risk of developing NTM disease depends on the susceptibility of the host as well as the frequency and duration of exposure. In addition to congenital immune deficiencies and immunosuppressive therapy, structural lung and systemic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are associated with an increased risk for NTM infections...
November 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069284/molecular-epidemiology-of-tuberculosis-in-british-columbia-canada-a-10-year-retrospective-study
#14
Jennifer L Guthrie, Clare Kong, David Roth, Danielle Jorgensen, Mabel Rodrigues, Linda Hoang, Patrick Tang, Victoria Cook, James Johnston, Jennifer L Gardy
Background: Understanding regional molecular epidemiology allows for the development of more efficient tuberculosis (TB) prevention strategies in low-incidence settings. Methods: We analyzed 24-locus Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (MIRU-VNTR) genotyping for 2,290 Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) clinical isolates collected in the province of British Columbia, Canada (2005-2014). Laboratory data for each isolate was linked to case-level clinical and demographic data...
October 21, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067283/small-molecule-mediated-restoration-of-mitochondrial-function-augments-anti-mycobacterial-activity-of-human-macrophages-subjected-to-cholesterol-induced-asymptomatic-dyslipidemia
#15
Suman Asalla, Krishnaveni Mohareer, Sharmistha Banerjee
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection manifests into tuberculosis (TB) in a small fraction of the infected population that comprises the TB susceptible group. Identifying the factors potentiating susceptibility to TB persistence is one of the prime agenda of TB control programs. Recently, WHO recognized diabetes as a risk factor for TB disease progression. The closely related pathological state of metabolic imbalance, dyslipidemia, is yet another emerging risk factor involving deregulation in host immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065139/clec9a-modulates-macrophage-mediated-neutrophil-recruitment-in-response-to-heat-killed-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-h37ra
#16
An-Chieh Cheng, Kuang-Yao Yang, Nien-Jung Chen, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Ruwen Jou, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Ping-Hui Tseng
Tuberculosis is a fatal human infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) that is prevalent worldwide. Mycobacteria differ from other bacteria in that they have a cell wall composed of specific surface glycans that are the major determinant of these organisms' pathogenicity. The interaction of M. tuberculosis with pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), in particular C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), on the surface of macrophages plays a central role in initiating innate and adaptive immunity, but the picture as a whole remains a puzzle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062247/frequency-of-mycobacterium-bovis-and-mycobacteria-in-primary-immunodeficiencies
#17
Ezgi Ulusoy, Neslihan Edeer Karaca, Güzide Aksu, Cengiz Çavuşoğlu, Necil Kütükçüler
AIM: Susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases is observed in some primary immunodeficiency diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate mycobacterial infections in primary immunodeficiency diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients under follow-up by Ege University Pediatric Immunology Department for severe combined and combined immunodeficiencies, interleukin 12/ interferon gamma receptor deficiency, nuclear factor kappa-beta essential modulator deficiency and chronic granulomatosis disease were evaluated retrospectively in terms of the frequency and characteristics of mycobacterial infections using a questionnaire form for demographic properties, clinical features and laboratory tests...
September 2017: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061739/impact-of-rifabutin-or-rifampin-on-bedaquiline-safety-tolerability-and-pharmacokinetics-a-randomized-clinical-trial-in-healthy-adult-volunteers
#18
Amanda M Healan, J McLeod Griffiss, Howard M Proskin, Mary Ann O'Riordan, Wesley A Gray, Robert A Salata, Jeffrey L Blumer
Bedaquiline is a diarylquinoline that specifically inhibits mycobacterial adenosine triphosphate synthase. Bedaquiline has effectively treated disease caused by susceptible and drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). Rifamycins are a cornerstone of combination drug regimens for the treatment of TB. This Phase 1, open label, randomized, controlled trial evaluated the effect of steady-state dosing of rifabutin or rifampin on the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of bedaquiline given as a single dose...
October 23, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059250/causative-species-of-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease-and-comparative-investigation-on-clinical-features-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-complex-disease-a-retrospective-analysis-for-two-major-hospitals-in-a-subtropical-region-of-japan
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Hiroaki Nagano, Takeshi Kinjo, Yuichiro Nei, Shin Yamashiro, Jiro Fujita, Tomoo Kishaba
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) lung disease is increasing globally. Although the etiological epidemiology of NTM is different across regions, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the leading cause of NTM lung disease in most countries, including mainland Japan. Okinawa is located in the southernmost region of Japan and is the only prefecture categorized as a subtropical region in Japan, it is therefore likely the etiological epidemiology of NTM lung disease is different from mainland Japan. From 2009 to 2015, the medical records of patients, with respiratory specimens positive for NTMs, visiting or admitted to two Okinawan hospitals, were retrospectively analyzed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054908/strange-case-of-dimorphic-skin-rash-in-a-patient-with-cirrhosis-atypical-herpes-simplex-and-sweet-s-syndrome
#20
Cyriac Abby Philips, Rajaguru Paramaguru, Philip Augustine
A middle-aged man with decompensated cirrhosis and a dimorphic multisite skin rash is diagnosed with rare atypical herpes simplex infection, manifesting Sweet's syndrome (SS) in the absence of other described associations. SS, an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, has three common forms-classical or idiopathic, malignancy associated and drug induced. Systemic autoimmune, connective tissue diseases and infections are also strong associations. The latter is commonly described in Gram-positive bacteria, salmonellosis and Yersinia Herpes infections are a rare cause of SS, reported only thrice in literature, one with concomitant lupus, the second with associated mycobacterial infection and third, in metastatic breast disease in contrast to our patient...
October 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
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