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Mycobacterial disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922242/neck-epidermoid-cyst-mimicking-tuberculosis-at-ultrasound-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#1
Jacopo Cambi, Giovanni Monciatti, Luca Pelliccia, Maria Carla Spinosi, Leopoldo Brindisi
Neck masses in children can be inflammatory, congenital or neoplastic. When a congenital cyst becomes infected repeatedly, it may mimic inflammatory disease and the diagnosis may be challenging with ultrasound. An increasing incidence of infection with non-tuberculous mycobacterial organisms has been observed in recent decades in children with cervical lymphadenopathy. An ultrasound scan performed during the infectious phase of a mass can be misleading and can lead to an incorrect diagnostic hypothesis with the risk of erroneous medical and surgical therapies...
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919693/performance-evaluation-of-xpert-mtb-rif-in-a-moderate-tuberculosis-incidence-compared-with-taqman-mtb-and-trcrapid-m-tb
#2
Kazunari Tsuyuguchi, Hideaki Nagai, Kenji Ogawa, Tomoshige Matsumoto, Kozo Morimoto, Akiko Takaki, Satoshi Mitarai
Xpert MTB/RIF is an automated nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) that can detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) in clinical specimens as well as rifampicin (RIF) resistance resulting from rpoB mutation. Despite its high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) with or without RIF resistance, the clinical performance of the test is variable. In this study, we evaluated the performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in a setting of moderate TB burden and high medical resources...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918379/nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-children-a-focus-on-bloodstream-infections
#3
Laila S Al Yazidi, Ben J Marais, Briony Hazelton, Alexander Outhred, Alison Kesson
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms with variable disease-causing potential. Bloodstream infections caused by NTM in children are poorly described. METHODS: We describe a retrospective case series of children with culture-confirmed mycobacterial disease managed at The Children's Hospital at Westmead from July 2005 - June 2015. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients had 149 positive NTM cultures; 55 (83.0%) episodes in 54 patients were considered clinically significant...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915421/the-frequency-and-treatment-of-pneumothorax-associated-with-pulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-infection
#4
Masaki Ikeda, Koji Takahashi, Teruya Komatsu, Toru Tanaka, Tatsuo Kato, Takuji Fujinaga
OBJECTIVES: Characteristics of pneumothorax associated with nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) infection are rarely reported, especially in terms of surgical treatments. Our objectives were to show the tendency and clinical courses of pneumothorax due to NTM and discuss the way of therapy in our hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 557 patients with NTM infection over a period of 5 years at the Nagara Medical Center. RESULTS: A total of 12 out of the 557 patients (2...
December 3, 2016: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915187/dose-response-models-and-a-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-framework-for-the-mycobacterium-avium-complex-that-account-for-recent-developments-in-molecular-biology-taxonomy-and-epidemiology
#5
REVIEW
Kerry A Hamilton, Mark H Weir, Charles N Haas
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of environmentally-transmitted pathogens of great public health importance. This group is known to be harbored, amplified, and selected for more human-virulent characteristics by amoeba species in aquatic biofilms. However, a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) has not been performed due to the lack of dose response models resulting from significant heterogeneity within even a single species or subspecies of MAC, as well as the range of human susceptibilities to mycobacterial disease...
November 24, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#6
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904808/effect-of-common-and-experimental-anti-tuberculosis-treatments-on-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-growing-as-biofilms
#7
James P Dalton, Benedict Uy, Narisa Phummarin, Brent R Copp, William A Denny, Simon Swift, Siouxsie Wiles
Much is known regarding the antibiotic susceptibility of planktonic cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium responsible for the lung disease tuberculosis (TB). As planktonically-grown M. tuberculosis are unlikely to be entirely representative of the bacterium during infection, we set out to determine how effective a range of anti-mycobacterial treatments were against M. tuberculosis growing as a biofilm, a bacterial phenotype known to be more resistant to antibiotic treatment. Light levels from bioluminescently-labelled M...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893778/mycobacterium-ulcerans-mouse-model-refinement-for-pre-clinical-profiling-of-vaccine-candidates
#8
Angèle Bénard, Claudia Sala, Gerd Pluschke
Buruli Ulcer is a neglected tropical disease leading to extensive disabilities and morbidity in West Africa. In this paper we sought to characterize various strains of Mycobacterium ulcerans (M.ulcerans) with different origins and laboratory passage records while refining a mouse model for Buruli ulcer. We described, compared and followed the kinetics of the histo-pathological outcome of infection of a collection of strains at various anatomical sites of infection in order to find a suitable model for further immunization studies...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893591/endophthalmitis-in-a-patient-treated-with-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-immunotherapy
#9
Julie Vadboncoeur, Sébastien Olivier, Hafid Soualhine, Annie-Claude Labbé, Marie-Lyne Bélair
BACKGROUND: Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation has become one of the mainstays of adjunctive therapy in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Ophthalmologic complications are rare, but few cases are reported in the literature. METHODS: Retrospective observational case report. RESULTS: The authors report a case of unilateral Mycobacterium bovis BCG endophthalmitis after intravesical BCG instillations. Despite appropriate systemic antituberculous and corticosteroid therapy, the patient almost completely lost sight in the affected eye...
November 23, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887611/the-performance-of-interferon-gamma-release-assay-in-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-diseases-a-retrospective-study-in-china
#10
Mao-Shui Wang, Jun-Li Wang, Xin-Feng Wang
BACKGROUND: The interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) is more specific than the tuberculin skin test to discriminate between tuberculosis (TB) and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases. Here we performed a retrospective study to evaluate the performance of the T-SPOT.TB in patients with NTM diseases. METHODS: Between March, 2013 and Nov, 2015, a total of 58 patients with NTM diseases had a T-SPOT.TB performed were enrolled, 30 patients had definite NTM diseases, 28 had probable diseases...
November 25, 2016: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883091/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-triggered-hippo-pathway-orchestrates-cxcl1-2-expression-to-modulate-host-immune-responses
#11
Monoranjan Boro, Vikas Singh, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy Balaji
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenesis encompasses a plethora of finely regulated alterations within the host which eventually coin the outcome of infection. Chemokines are important components in directing immune cell recruitment to the site of infection, and shaping the disease progression. Here, we demonstrate that Hippo (mammalian sterile 20-like 1 and 2 kinases, MST1/2, in mammals), is activated during mycobacterial infection in a toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-interleukin receptor-1 associated kinases (IRAK1/4)-dependent manner...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881839/a-polymorphism-in-human-mr1-is-associated-with-mrna-expression-and-susceptibility-to-tuberculosis
#12
C Seshadri, N T T Thuong, N T H Mai, N D Bang, T T H Chau, D M Lewinsohn, G E Thwaites, S J Dunstan, T R Hawn
The MR1 antigen-presenting system is conserved among mammals and enables T cells to recognize small molecules produced by bacterial pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb). However, it is not known whether MR1-mediated antigen presentation is important for protective immunity against mycobacterial disease. We hypothesized that genetic control of MR1 expression correlates with clinical outcomes of tuberculosis infection. We performed an MR1 candidate gene association study and identified an intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs1052632) that was significantly associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in a discovery and validation cohort of Vietnamese adults with tuberculosis...
November 24, 2016: Genes and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876856/the-trend-and-the-disease-prediction-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-placenta-growth-factor-in-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-lung-disease
#13
Chou-Han Lin, Chin-Chung Shu, Chia-Lin Hsu, Shih-Lung Cheng, Jann-Yuan Wang, Chong-Jen Yu, Li-Na Lee
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)-lung disease (LD) is an increasing health problem worldwide. The diagnosis of this disease remains difficult, however the application of placenta growth factor (PlGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has not yet been studied. We screened patients with Mycobacterium avium complex or M. abscessus isolated from sputum, and enrolled 32 patients with NTM-LD and 93 with NTM pulmonary colonization. The NTM-LD group had a lower body mass index, higher proportion of bronchiectasis, more respiratory symptoms and pulmonary lesions, and higher titers of sputum acid-fast stain than the NTM pulmonary colonization group...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868075/novel-mutation-of-interferon-%C3%AE-receptor-1-gene-presenting-as-early-life-mycobacterial-bronchial-disease
#14
Maria J Gutierrez, Neelu Kalra, Alexandra Horwitz, Gustavo Nino
Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) are a spectrum of inherited disorders characterized by localized or disseminated infections caused by atypical mycobacteria. Interferon-γ receptor 1 (IFNGR1) deficiency was the first identified genetic disorder recognized as MSMD. Mutations in the genes encoding IFNGR1 can be recessive or dominant and cause complete or partial receptor deficiency. We present the case of a 2½-year-old boy with a history of recurrent wheezing, diagnosed with endobronchial mycobacterial infection...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867565/changes-in-cholesterol-level-correlate-with-the-course-of-pulmonary-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-disease
#15
Ji Young Hong, Go Eun Yang, Yousang Ko, Yong Bum Park, Yun Su Sim, Sung Hoon Park, Chang Youl Lee, Ki-Suck Jung, Myung Goo Lee
BACKGROUND: Nutritional assessment is important in patients with pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial (PNTM) disease. The therapeutic effect of a cholesterol-rich diet in tuberculosis (TB) patients has been demonstrated, but the role of cholesterol in PNTM disease is unclear. This study evaluated the sequential changes in nutritional markers, including cholesterol, total lymphocyte count and visceral fat volume, according to the PNTM disease course. METHODS: This was an age-, sex- and number of comorbid diseases-matched case-control analysis of 89 patients with PNTM disease and 356 controls, who were participants in a Korean national survey...
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865390/alternative-bcg-delivery-strategies-improve-protection-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-non-human-primates-protection-associated-with-mycobacterial-antigen-specific-cd4-effector-memory-t-cell-populations
#16
S Sharpe, A White, C Sarfas, L Sibley, F Gleeson, A McIntyre, R Basaraba, S Clark, G Hall, E Rayner, A Williams, P D Marsh, M Dennis
Intradermal (ID) BCG injection provides incomplete protection against TB in humans and experimental models. Alternative BCG vaccination strategies may improve protection in model species, including rhesus macaques. This study compares the immunogenicity and efficacy of BCG administered by ID and intravenous (IV) injection, or as an intratracheal mucosal boost (ID + IT), against aerosol challenge with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman strain. Disease pathology was significantly reduced, and survival improved, by each BCG vaccination strategy, relative to unvaccinated animals...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863623/tuberculous-lymphadenitis-of-the-head-and-neck-in-canadian-children-experience-from-a-low-burden-region
#17
Jason J Xu, Shazia Peer, Blake C Papsin, Ian Kitai, Evan J Propst
BACKGROUND: Children are more likely than adults to develop extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), which often presents as cervical lymphadenopathy. The role of surgery in management is uncertain. We reviewed all head and neck EPTB cases presenting to our tertiary care pediatric institution over a twelve-year period. METHODS: All children 18 years of age and younger with EPTB involving the head and neck were included. We recorded clinical data and age at diagnosis, birth country, BCG vaccination status, as well as radiographic, surgical, histological, and microbiological results...
December 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857518/the-impact-of-immune-disturbances-on-the-failure-of-antituberculosis-treatment
#18
Evelina Lesnic, Serghei Ghinda, Carmen Monica Pop
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, with an evolution and treatment outcome determined by the interaction between the mycobacterial and human genotypes. Various deficiencies of innate immune response starting from the first encounter of M. tuberculosis with lung cells endanger host infection control due to decreased triggering of cellular immune resistance and disturbed humoral immunity. Disturbed cell mediated immunity, known as the basic immune response in tuberculous infection, contributes to the deficient generation of central necrosis granuloma, consequently being responsible for severe clinical aspects and low final outcome...
2016: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856304/a-heterozygous-dominant-negative-mutation-in-the-coiled-coil-domain-of-stat1-is-the-cause-of-autosomal-dominant-mendelian-susceptibility-to-mycobacterial-diseases
#19
Masahiro Ueki, Masafumi Yamada, Kenta Ito, Yusuke Tozawa, Saeko Morino, Yuho Horikoshi, Hidetoshi Takada, Shimaa Said Mohamed Ali Abdrabou, Shunichiro Takezaki, Ichiro Kobayashi, Tadashi Ariga
Heterozygous dominant-negative mutations of STAT1 are responsible for autosomal-dominant Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (AD-MSMD). So far, only 7 mutations have been previously described and are localized to 3 domains: the DNA-binding domain, the SH2 domain, and the tail segment. In this study, we demonstrated the first coiled-coil domain (CCD) mutation of c.749G>C, p.G250A (G250A) in STAT1 as a genetic cause of AD-MSMD in a patient with mycobacterial multiple osteomyelitis. This de novo heterozygous mutation was shown to have a dominant-negative effect on the gamma-activated sequence (GAS) transcriptional activity following IFN-γ stimulation, which could be attributable to the abolished phosphorylation of STAT1 from the wild-type (WT) allele...
November 14, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853279/controlled-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-mice-under-treatment-with-anti-il-17a-or-il-17f-antibodies-in-contrast-to-tnf%C3%AE-neutralization
#20
Noria Segueni, Elaine Tritto, Marie-Laure Bourigault, Stéphanie Rose, François Erard, Marc Le Bert, Muazzam Jacobs, Franco Di Padova, Daniel P Stiehl, Pierre Moulin, Dominique Brees, Salah-Dine Chibout, Bernhard Ryffel, Michael Kammüller, Valerie F Quesniaux
Antibodies targeting IL-17A or its receptor IL-17RA show unprecedented efficacy in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis. These therapies, by neutralizing critical mediators of immunity, may increase susceptibility to infections. Here, we compared the effect of antibodies neutralizing IL-17A, IL-17F or TNFα on murine host responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by evaluating lung transcriptomic, microbiological and histological analyses. Coinciding with a significant increase of mycobacterial burden and pathological changes following TNFα blockade, gene array analyses of infected lungs revealed major changes of inflammatory and immune gene expression signatures 4 weeks post-infection...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
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