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Mast cell biomarker

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489286/sustained-activation-of-erk1-2-mapk-in-schwann-cells-causes-corneal-neurofibroma
#1
Paola Bargagna-Mohan, Akihiro Ishii, Ling Lei, Daniel Sheehy, Saagar Pandit, Grace Chan, Rashmi Bansal, Royce Mohan
Recent studies have shown that constitutive activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in Schwann cells (SCs) increases myelin thickness in transgenic mice. In this secondary analysis, we report that these transgenic mice develop a postnatal corneal neurofibroma with the loss of corneal transparency by age six months. We show that expansion of non-myelinating SCs, under the control of activated ERK1/2, also drive myofibroblast differentiation that derives from both SC precursors and resident corneal keratocytes...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474352/airway-basophils-are-increased-and-activated-in-eosinophilic-asthma
#2
Yoshihiro Suzuki, Keiko Wakahara, Tomoko Nishio, Satoru Ito, Yoshinori Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: The impact of basophils on asthma pathogenesis remains largely unexplored, particularly in humans. Here, we evaluated the frequencies and activation status of basophils in the sputum of adult asthmatic patients and related our findings to other parameters of eosinophilic airway inflammation. METHODS: We enrolled 44 adult asthmatic patients who were being treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Analysis of the induced sputum, exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) measurement, and Asthma Control Test (ACT) were carried out together with standard blood and pulmonary function tests...
May 5, 2017: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445977/serglycin-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-glioma-association-of-serglycin-expression-extent-of-mast-cell-recruitment-and-glioblastoma-progression
#3
Ananya Roy, Sanaz Attarha, Holger Weishaupt, Per-Henrik Edqvist, Fredrik J Swartling, Michael Bergqvist, Florian A Siebzehnrubl, Anja Smits, Fredrik Pontén, Elena Tchougounova
Serglycin is an intracellular proteoglycan with a unique ability to adopt highly divergent structures by glycosylation with variable types of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) when expressed by different cell types. Serglycin is overexpressed in aggressive cancers suggesting its protumorigenic role. In this study, we explored the expression of serglycin in human glioma and its correlation with survival and immune cell infiltration. We demonstrate that serglycin is expressed in glioma and that increased expression predicts poor survival of patients...
April 11, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411167/mast-cells-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-friends-or-foes
#4
REVIEW
Felice Rivellese, Alessandra Nerviani, Francesca Wanda Rossi, Gianni Marone, Marco Matucci-Cerinic, Amato de Paulis, Costantino Pitzalis
Mast cells are tissue-resident cells of the innate immunity, implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They are present in synovia and their activation has been linked to the potentiation of inflammation in the course of RA. However, recent investigations questioned the role of mast cells in arthritis. In particular, animal models generated conflicting results, so that many of their pro-inflammatory, i.e. pro-arthritogenic functions, even though supported by robust experimental evidence, have been labelled as redundant...
April 12, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408397/the-il-31-il-31-receptor-axis-general-features-and-role-in-tumor-microenvironment
#5
REVIEW
Elisa Ferretti, Anna Corcione, Vito Pistoia
IL-31 is a recently identified cytokine with a well-defined role in the pathogenesis of pruritus. IL-31, whose production is induced by IL-4 and IL-33, binds a heterodimeric receptor (R) composed of the exclusive IL-31RA chain and the shared oncostatin M R. Signaling through the IL-31R involves the MAPK, PI3K/AKT and Jak/STAT pathways. Different variants and isoforms of IL-31RA with different signaling activities have been identified. IL-31 is produced predominantly by circulating Th2 lymphocytes and skin-homing CLA(+)CD45RO(+) T cells...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403520/study-of-gene-expression-alteration-in-male-androgenetic-alopecia-evidence-of-predominant-molecular-signaling-pathways
#6
L Michel, P Reygagne, P Benech, F Jean-Louis, S Scalvino, S Ly Ka So, Z Hamidou, S Bianovici, J Pouch, B Ducos, M Bonnet, A Bensussan, A Patatian, E Lati, J Wdzieczak-Bakala, J-C Choulot, E Loing, M Hocquaux
BACKGROUND: Male androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common form of hair loss in men and is characterized by a distinct pattern of progressive hair loss starting from the frontal area and the vertex of the scalp. Although several genetic risk loci have been identified, relevant genes for AGA remain to be defined. OBJECTIVES: Herein, molecular biomarkers associated with premature AGA were identified through gene expression analysis using cDNA generated from scalp vertex biopsies of hairless/bald men with premature AGA and healthy volunteers...
April 12, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391486/etiology-pathophysiology-and-biomarkers-of-interstitial-cystitis-painful-bladder-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Sourav Sanchit Patnaik, Antonio Simone Laganà, Salvatore Giovanni Vitale, Salvatore Butticè, Marco Noventa, Salvatore Gizzo, Gaetano Valenti, Agnese Maria Chiara Rapisarda, Valentina Lucia La Rosa, Carlo Magno, Onofrio Triolo, Vani Dandolu
PURPOSE: Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic pain syndrome and a chronic inflammatory condition prevalent in women that leads to urgency, sleep disruption, nocturia and pain in the pelvic area, to the detriment of the sufferer's quality of life. The aim of this review is to highlight the newest diagnostic strategies and potential therapeutic techniques. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed on MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases gathering all literature about "Interstitial cystitis" and "Painful Bladder Syndrome"...
April 8, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321810/overview-of-basic-immunology-for-clinical-investigators
#8
Bettzy Stephen, Joud Hajjar
Tumor exists as a complex network of structures with an ability to evolve and evade the host immune surveillance mechanism. The immune milieu which includes macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, neutrophils, mast cells, B cells, and T cells are found in the core, the invasive margin, or the adjacent stromal or lymphoid component of the tumor. The immune infiltrate is heterogeneous and varies within a patient and between patients of the same tumor histology. The location, density, functionality, and the cross talk between the immune cells in the tumor microenvironment influence the nature of immune response, prognosis, and treatment outcomes in cancer patients...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316762/mesalazine-has-no-effect-on-mucosal-immune-biomarkers-in-patients-with-diarrhea-dominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-referred-to-shariati-hospital-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Mohammad Reza Ghadir, Mehri Poradineh, Masoud Sotodeh, Reza Ansari, Shadi Kolahdoozan, Ahmad Hormati, Mohammad Hosein Yousefi, Samaneh Mirzaei, Homayoon Vahedi
BACKGROUND Intestinal mast cells may cause gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of mesalazine on the number of lamina propria mast cells and clinical manifestations of patients with diarrhea-dominant IBS referred to Shariati Hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. METHODS This was a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial conducted on 49 patients with diarrhea-dominant IBS...
January 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258478/in-vitro-diagnosis-of-immediate-drug-hypersensitivity-anno-2017-potentials-and-limitations
#10
REVIEW
I I Decuyper, E A Mangodt, A L Van Gasse, K Claesen, A Uyttebroek, M Faber, V Sabato, C H Bridts, C Mertens, M M Hagendorens, L S De Clerck, Didier G Ebo
BACKGROUND: For most physicians, quantification of drug-specific immunoglobulin E (drug-sIgE) antibodies constitutes the primary in vitro measure to document immediate drug hypersensitivity reactions (IDHR). Unfortunately, this is often insufficient to correctly identify patients with IgE-mediated IDHR and impossible for non-IgE-mediated IDHR that result from alternative routes of basophil and mast cell activation. In these difficult cases, diagnosis might benefit from cellular tests such as basophil activation tests (BAT)...
March 4, 2017: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240764/allergic-rhinitis-and-cxcr3-chemokines
#11
REVIEW
V Mazzi, P Fallahi
The underlying mechanism of allergic rhinitis involves IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells. Cytokines are very important in this process. Many data suggest a systemic shift to more intensely type 1-dominated immune responses in non-allergic individuals and, conversely, to more type 2-dominated responses in allergic individuals upon natural re-exposure to grass pollen. However other studies have found that chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)10/ interferon (IFN)-γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10) and CXCL9/monokine induced by IFN-γ (MIG) concentrations are elevated in nasal lavages from allergic patients suggesting that these chemokines may play a role in chronic allergic inflammation...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238741/microparticles-in-nasal-lavage-fluids-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-potential-biomarkers-for-diagnosis-of-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#12
Toru Takahashi, Atsushi Kato, Sergejs Berdnikovs, Whitney W Stevens, Lydia A Suh, James E Norton, Roderick G Carter, Kathleen E Harris, Anju T Peters, Kathryn E Hulse, Leslie C Grammer, Kevin C Welch, Stephanie Shintani-Smith, Bruce K Tan, David B Conley, Robert C Kern, Bruce S Bochner, Robert P Schleimer
BACKGROUND: Microparticles (MPs) are submicron-sized shed membrane vesicles released from activated or injured cells and are detectable by flow cytometry. MP levels have been used as biomarkers to evaluate cell injury or activation in patients with pathological conditions. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare MP types and levels in nasal lavage fluids (NLFs) from controls and patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP), and aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129097/expression-of-phosphorylated-kit-in-canine-mast-cell-tumor
#13
C H C Halsey, D H Thamm, K M Weishaar, J H Burton, J B Charles, D L Gustafson, A C Avery, E J Ehrhart
Canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (MCT) is the most common canine skin tumor and exhibits variable biologic behavior. Signaling through the KIT receptor tyrosine kinase promotes cellular proliferation and survival and has been shown to play a role in MCT progression. Despite investigations into numerous biomarkers and the proposal of several grading schemas, no single marker or grading system can accurately predict outcome in canine MCT. The first aim of this study was to develop an immunohistochemical assay to measure phosphorylated KIT (pKIT) to investigate its association with 2 commonly used grading systems and other established prognostic markers for canine MCT...
May 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079340/serum-tryptase-levels-in-melanoma-patients-case-control-study-and-review-of-the-literature
#14
Giovanni Paolino, Elisa Moliterni, Dario Didona, Michele Cardone, Teresa Lopez, Valentina Garelli, Antonio G Richetta, Ugo Bottoni, Carmen Cantisani, Alfredo Rossi, Stefano Calvieri
BACKGROUND: Serum tryptase results from the constant release of the enzyme from mast cells and serum tryptase levels are commonly considered to be related to the total number of mast cells. They are increased in several malignancies, as pancreatic carcinoma, angiosarcoma, hepatic carcinoma and proliferative and/or non- proliferative hematological disorders. Contrariwise, it has been reported that the number of tryptase+ and chymase+ mast cells was lower in deeply invasive melanoma compared to in-situ melanoma and dysplastic nevi...
January 12, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942351/therapeutic-interventions-in-severe-asthma
#15
REVIEW
Giorgio Walter Canonica, Gianenrico Senna, Patrick D Mitchell, Paul M O'Byrne, Giovanni Passalacqua, Gilda Varricchi
The present paper addresses severe asthma which is limited to 5-10% of the overall population of asthmatics. However, it accounts for 50% or more of socials costs of the disease, as it is responsible for hospitalizations and Emergency Department accesses as well as expensive treatments. The recent identification of different endotypes of asthma, based on the inflammatory pattern, has led to the development of tailored treatments that target different inflammatory mediators. These are major achievements in the perspective of Precision Medicine: a leading approach to the modern treatment strategy...
2016: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931275/serum-tryptase-level-and-inflammatory-markers-in-exhaled-breath-condensate-of-children-with-exercise-induced-symptoms
#16
Iwona Stelmach, Magdalena Zaczeniuk, Anna Sztafiska, Pawe Majak, Joanna Jerzyska, Anna Kuklinska-Pijanka, Wlodzimierz Stelmach
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the biomarkers concentration in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in schoolchildren with postexercise symptoms. We also evaluated changes in fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) value and the serum tryptase level after exercise. METHODS: One hundred children with postexercise symptoms were included. Methacholine challenge testing (MCT) was performed at visit 2, and exercise challenge testing (ECT) was performed at visit 3...
September 2016: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926978/potential-blood-biomarkers-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria
#17
REVIEW
P Kolkhir, F André, M K Church, M Maurer, M Metz
Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is a mast cell-driven disease that is defined as the recurrence of weals, angioedema or both for > 6 weeks due to known or unknown causes. As of yet, disease diagnosis is purely clinical. Objective tools are needed to monitor the activity of CSU and the efficacy of treatment. Recently, several reports have suggested that blood parameters may be considered as potential disease-related biomarkers. Here, we reviewed available literature on blood biomarkers for CSU diagnosis, activity monitoring, duration, patient subgroup allocation or response to treatment...
January 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#18
REVIEW
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of secretory IgA (sIgA) and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With the exception of sIgA, expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906487/neutrophil-activation-during-acute-human-anaphylaxis-analysis-of-mpo-and-scd62l
#19
A Francis, E Bosio, S F Stone, D M Fatovich, G Arendts, Y Nagree, S P J Macdonald, H Mitenko, M Rajee, S Burrows, S G A Brown
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms involved in the amplification of the mast cell response during anaphylaxis are unclear. Mouse models of anaphylaxis demonstrate the critical involvement of neutrophils. These innate immune cells are highly abundant in peripheral blood and can be rapidly activated to trigger both local and systemic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate neutrophil activation in peripheral blood during acute human anaphylaxis. METHODS: Patients presenting to the emergency department with anaphylaxis underwent blood sampling upon enrolment and at up to three subsequent time-points...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868214/low-intratumoral-mast-cells-are-associated-with-a-higher-risk-of-prostate-cancer-recurrence
#20
Heidi A Hempel, Nathan S Cuka, Ibrahim Kulac, John R Barber, Toby C Cornish, Elizabeth A Platz, Angelo M De Marzo, Karen S Sfanos
BACKGROUND: Mast cells are of interest in prostate cancer because they possess both pro- and anti-tumorigenic properties and are present in the tumor microenvironment. We studied the association of mast cell count and densities with prostate cancer recurrence using tissue microarrays (TMAs) for 462 men who recurred (cases) and 462 controls that were matched to the cases nested in a cohort of radical prostatectomy patients. METHODS: Dual-immunostaining for mast cell tryptase and epithelial cytokeratin-8 and whole slide image analysis were used to assess total mast cell number, mast cell density (mast cell number/tissue area), and mast cell number per epithelial or stromal area in TMA spots containing tumor (up to 4 per man)...
November 21, 2016: Prostate
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