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Dietary nitrates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916563/vitamin-c-intake-modify-the-impact-of-dietary-nitrite-on-the-incidence-of-type-2-diabetes-a-6-year-follow-up-in-tehran-lipid-and-glucose-study
#1
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Asghar Ghasemi, Mattias Carlström, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
BACKGROUND: There is no epidemiological study on the association between dietary nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) and intakes and the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was therefore to examine the potential effect of dietary NO3 and NO2 on the occurrence of T2D. DESIGN: This longitudinal study was conducted within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (TLGS) on 2139 T2D-free adults, aged 20-70 years, followed for a median of 5...
December 1, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909231/influence-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-physiological-and-muscle-metabolic-adaptations-to-sprint-interval-training
#2
Christopher Thompson, Lee J Wylie, Jamie R Blackwell, Jonathan Fulford, Matthew I Black, James Kelly, Sinead T J McDonagh, James Carter, Stephen J Bailey, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
We hypothesized that 4 weeks of dietary nitrate supplementation would enhance exercise performance and muscle metabolic adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT). Thirty six recreationally-active subjects, matched on key variables at baseline, completed a series of exercise tests before and following a 4 week period in which they were allocated to one of the following groups: 1) SIT and NO3(-)-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (SIT+PL); 2) SIT and NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (~13mmol NO3(-)/day; SIT+BR); or 3) no training and NO3(-)-rich beetroot juice (NT+BR)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907839/influence-of-picolinic-acid-on-seizure-susceptibility-in-mice
#3
Anna Cioczek-Czuczwar, Piotr Czuczwar, Waldemar Andrzej Turski, Jolanta Parada-Turska
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of drug resistance in epilepsy remains unknown. Picolinic acid (PIC) is an endogenous metabolite of the kynurenine pathway and a chelating agent added to dietary supplements. Both inhibitory and excitatory properties of PIC were reported. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of exogenously applied PIC upon the electroconvulsive threshold and the activity of chemical convulsants in eight models of epilepsy in mice. METHODS: All experiments were performed on adult male Swiss albino mice...
October 12, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898774/effects-of-feeding-encapsulated-nitrate-to-beef-cattle-on-ammonia-and-greenhouse-gas-emissions-from-their-manure-in-a-short-term-manure-storage-system
#4
Chanhee Lee, Rafael C Araujo, Karen M Koenig, Michael L Hile, Eileen E Fabian-Wheeler, Karen A Beauchemin
A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890482/dietary-nitrate-does-not-affect-physical-activity-outcomes-in-health-older-adults-in-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#5
Mario Siervo, Clio Oggioni, Djordje G Jakovljevic, Michael Trenell, John C Mathers, David Houghton, Carlos Celis-Morales, Ammar W Ashor, Alan Ruddock, Mayur Ranchordas, Markos Klonizakis, Elizabeth A Williams
Although dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) ingestion appears to enhance exercise capacity and performance in young individuals, inconclusive findings have been reported in older people. Therefore, we conducted a double-blind, crossover randomized clinical trial using beetroot juice in older healthy participants, who were classified as normal weight and overweight. We tested whether consumption of beetroot juice (a rich source of NO3(-)) for 1 week would increase nitric oxide bioavailability via the nonenzymatic pathway and enhance (1) exercise capacity during an incremental exercise test, (2) physical capability, and (3) free-living physical activity...
November 14, 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849257/effects-of-nitrate-intake-on-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-diabetic-rats
#6
Sajad Jeddi, Saeedeh Khalifi, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Fatemeh Bageripour, Asghar Ghasemi
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery disease is 2-3 times more common in diabetic individuals. Dietary nitrate/nitrite has beneficial effects in both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. It also has protective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in healthy animals. However, the effects of nitrate on myocardial IR injury in diabetic rats have not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of dietary nitrate on myocardial IR injury in streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats...
October 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829985/potential-therapeutic-strategies-for-hypertension-exacerbated-cardiotoxicity-of-anticancer-drugs
#7
REVIEW
Robin K Kuriakose, Rakesh C Kukreja, Lei Xi
Despite their recognized cardiotoxic effects, anthracyclines remain an essential component in many anticancer regimens due to their superior antitumor efficacy. Epidemiologic data revealed that about one-third of cancer patients have hypertension, which is the most common comorbidity in cancer registries. The purpose of this review is to assess whether anthracycline chemotherapy exacerbates cardiotoxicity in patients with hypertension. A link between hypertension comorbidity and anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) was first suggested in 1979...
2016: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822169/the-effect-of-six-days-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-performance-in-trained-crossfit-athletes
#8
Samuel J Kramer, Daniel A Baur, Maria T Spicer, Matthew D Vukovich, Michael J Ormsbee
BACKGROUND: While it is well established that dietary nitrate reduces the metabolic cost of exercise, recent evidence suggests this effect is maintained 24 h following the final nitrate dose when plasma nitrite levels have returned to baseline. In addition, acute dietary nitrate was recently reported to enhance peak power production. Our purpose was to examine whether chronic dietary nitrate supplementation enhanced peak power 24 h following the final dose and if this impacted performance in a heavily power-dependent sport...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810735/profound-differences-between-humans-and-rodents-in-the-ability-to-concentrate-salivary-nitrate-implications-for-translational-research
#9
Marcelo F Montenegro, Michaela L Sundqvist, Carina Nihlén, Michael Hezel, Mattias Carlström, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon O Lundberg
In humans dietary circulating nitrate accumulates rapidly in saliva through active transport in the salivary glands. By this mechanism resulting salivary nitrate concentrations are 10-20 times higher than in plasma. In the oral cavity nitrate is reduced by commensal bacteria to nitrite, which is subsequently swallowed and further metabolized to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides in blood and tissues. This entero-salivary circulation of nitrate is central in the various NO-like effects observed after ingestion of inorganic nitrate...
October 25, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802417/blood-pressure-lowering-effect-of-orally-ingested-nitrite-is-abolished-by-a-proton-pump-inhibitor
#10
Marcelo F Montenegro, Michaela L Sundqvist, Filip J Larsen, Zhengbing Zhuge, Mattias Carlström, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon O Lundberg
Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from dietary and endogenous sources are metabolized to NO and other bioactive nitrogen oxides that affect blood pressure. The mechanisms for nitrite bioactivation are unclear, but recent studies in rodents suggest that gastric acidity may influence the systemic effects of this anion. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we tested the effects of a proton pump inhibitor on the acute cardiovascular effects of nitrite. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking, normotensive subjects, aged 19 to 39 years, were pretreated with placebo or esomeprazole (3×40 mg) before ingesting sodium nitrite (0...
October 31, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795817/nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines-exposure-and-the-risk-of-type-1-diabetes-a-review-of-current-data
#11
REVIEW
Zahra Bahadoran, Asghar Ghasemi, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
The potential toxic effects of nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamine on pancreatic β cell have remained a controversial issue over the past two decades. In this study, we reviewed epidemiological studies investigated the associations between nitrate-nitrite-nitrosamines exposure, from both diet and drinking water to ascertain whether these compounds may contribute to development of type 1 diabetes. To identify relevant studies, a systematic search strategy of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct was conducted using queries including the key words "nitrate", "nitrite", "nitrosamine" with "type 1 diabetes" or "insulin dependent diabetes mellitus"...
October 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794435/dietary-nitrate-markedly-improves-voluntary-running-in-mice
#12
Niklas Ivarsson, Tomas A Schiffer, Andrés Hernández, Johanna T Lanner, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon O Lundberg, Håkan Westerblad
Nitrate supplementation is shown to increase submaximal force in human and mouse skeletal muscles. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the increased submaximal force induced by nitrate supplementation reduces the effort of submaximal voluntary running, resulting in increased running speed and distance. C57Bl/6N male mice were fed nitrate in the drinking water and housed with or without access to an in-cage running wheel. Nitrate supplementation in sedentary mice had no effect on endurance in a treadmill test, nor did it enhance mitochondrial function...
January 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784687/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-and-exercise-tolerance-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#13
Daniel M Hirai, Joel T Zelt, Joshua H Jones, Luiza G Castanhas, Robert F Bentley, Wendy Earle, Patti Staples, Michael E Tschakovsky, John McCans, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
Endothelial dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) signaling are key abnormalities leading to skeletal muscle oxygen delivery-utilization mismatch and poor physical capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Oral inorganic nitrate supplementation provides an exogenous source of NO that may enhance locomotor muscle function and oxygenation with consequent improvement in exercise tolerance in HFrEF. Thirteen patients (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40%) were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized crossover study to receive concentrated nitrate-rich (nitrate) or nitrate-depleted (placebo) beetroot juice for 9 days...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777094/dietary-nitrate-supplementation-improves-sprint-and-high-intensity-intermittent-running-performance
#14
Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Harry Jell, Jonathan Fulford, James Carter, Lara Nyman, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
: The influence of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on indices of maximal sprint and intermittent exercise performance is unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of NO3(-) supplementation on sprint running performance, and cognitive function and exercise performance during the sport-specific Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 1 test (IR1). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomised, crossover study, 36 male team-sport players received NO3(-)-rich (BR; 70 mL·day(-1); 6...
October 21, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774088/fermented-alore%C3%A3-a-table-olives-as-a-source-of-potential-probiotic-lactobacillus-pentosus-strains
#15
Beatriz Pérez Montoro, Nabil Benomar, Leyre Lavilla Lerma, Sonia Castillo Gutiérrez, Antonio Gálvez, Hikmate Abriouel
A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate), good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769826/effects-of-antiseptic-mouthwash-on-resting-metabolic-rate-a-randomized-double-blind-crossover-study
#16
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768510/habitual-dietary-nitrate-intake-in-highly-trained-athletes
#17
Kristin L Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Floris C Wardenaar, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement amongst athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2-4 week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744007/improvement-in-blood-pressure-after-short-term-inorganic-nitrate-supplementation-is-attenuated-in-cigarette-smokers-compared-to-non-smoking-controls
#18
Stephen J Bailey, Jamie R Blackwell, Lee J Wylie, Terezia Holland, Paul G Winyard, Andrew M Jones
Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) has been reported to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. Cigarette smoking increases circulating thiocyanate (SCN(-)), which has been suggested to competitively inhibit salivary nitrate (NO3(-)) uptake, a rate-limiting step in dietary NO3(-) metabolism. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary NO3(-) supplementation would be less effective at increasing the circulating plasma nitrite concentration ([NO2(-)]) and lowering blood pressure in smokers (S) compared to non-smokers (NS)...
October 12, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742619/heart-failure-left-ventricular-remodeling-and-circulating-nitric-oxide-metabolites
#19
Julio A Chirinos, Scott R Akers, Lien Trieu, Harry Ischiropoulos, Paschalis-Thomas Doulias, Ali Tariq, Izzah Vassim, Maheswara R Koppula, Amer Ahmed Syed, Haideliza Soto-Calderon, Raymond R Townsend, Thomas P Cappola, Kenneth B Margulies, Payman Zamani
BACKGROUND: Stable plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOM), composed predominantly of nitrate and nitrite, are attractive biomarkers of NO bioavailability. NOM levels integrate the influence of NO-synthase-derived NO production/metabolism, dietary intake of inorganic nitrate/nitrite, and clearance of NOM. Furthermore, nitrate and nitrite, the most abundant NOM, can be reduced to NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared serum NOM among subjects without heart failure (n=126), subjects with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; n=43), and subjects with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; n=32)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736248/the-effect-of-dietary-nitrate-supplementation-on-physiology-and-performance-in-trained-cyclists
#20
Joseph A McQuillan, Deborah K Dulson, Paul B Laursen, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on physiology and performance in well-trained cyclists following six to eight-days of NO3(-) supplementation. METHODS: Eight competitive male cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 26 ± 8 y; body mass = 76.7 ± 6.9 kg; VO2peak = 63 ± 4 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study in which participants ingested 70 ml beetroot juice containing ~4 mmol NO3(-) (NIT) or a NO3(-) depleted placebo (PLA), each for 8-days...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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