Read by QxMD icon Read

Dietary nitrates

Andrew R Coggan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Theodore W Kurtz, Stephen E DiCarlo, Michal Pravenec, R Curtis Morris
High salt intake is one of the major dietary determinants of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Japan and throughout the world. Although dietary salt restriction may be of clinical benefit in salt-sensitive individuals, many individuals may not wish, or be able to, reduce their intake of salt. Thus, identification of functional foods that can help protect against mechanistic abnormalities mediating salt-induced hypertension is an issue of considerable medical and scientific interest. According to the "vasodysfunction" theory of salt-induced hypertension, the hemodynamic abnormality initiating salt-induced increases in blood pressure usually involves subnormal vasodilation and abnormally increased vascular resistance in response to increased salt intake...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Lucas J C van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard Gm Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis P Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition programme. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including (1) the management of micronutrient deficiencies, (2) supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and (3) provision of direct benefits to performance or (4) indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 14, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Sinead T J Mcdonagh, Lee J Wylie, Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones
This article provides an overview of the current literature relating to the efficacy of dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) ingestion in altering aspects of cardiovascular and metabolic health and exercise capacity in healthy and diseased individuals. The consumption of NO3 - -rich vegetables, such as spinach and beetroot, have been variously shown to promote nitric oxide bioavailability, reduce systemic blood pressure, enhance tissue blood flow, modulate muscle O2 utilisation and improve exercise tolerance both in normoxia and in hypoxia, as is commonly observed in a number of disease states...
March 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi, Asghar Ghasemi
Inorganic nitrate (NO3 ) due to its potential endogenous conversion to nitric oxide (NO), is suggested as a compensatory fuel for disrupted NO pathways in the case of pathological stats during pregnancy. Dietary NO3 -rich supplement in the NO-deficient pregnant women is now suggested as a more appealing choice with fewer off-target effects which can attenuate hypertension and preeclampsia, improve placental blood flow and subsequently enhance maternal and neonatal health. There is also an increasing public interest and common health claims regarding beneficial effects of NO3 -rich dietary supplements like beetroot byproducts in pregnant women...
January 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
Nicholas T Kruse, Kenichi Ueda, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is characterized by a reduced blood flow (BF) and elevated blood pressure (pressor) response during lower extremity exercise. Although PAD is evident in the upper extremities no studies have determined BF and pressor responses during upper extremity exercise in PAD. Emerging evidence suggests that inorganic nitrate (NO3 ) supplementation may serve as an alternative dietary strategy to boost nitric oxide bioavailability, improving exercising BF and pressor responses during exercise...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Cynthia M F Monaco, Paula M Miotto, Jason S Huber, Luc J C van Loon, Jeremy A Simpson, Graham P Holloway
Supplementation with dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3 - ) is increasingly recognized to confer cardioprotective effects in both healthy and clinical populations. While the mechanism(s) remain ambiguous, in skeletal muscle, the oral consumption of sodium nitrate has been shown to improve mitochondrial efficiency. Whether sodium nitrate has similar effects on mitochondria within the heart is unknown. Therefore, we comprehensively investigated the effect of sodium nitrate supplementation on in vivo left ventricular (LV) function and mitochondrial bioenergetics...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Jacklyn K Jackson, Amanda J Patterson, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Christopher Oldmeadow, Mark A McEvoy
Context: Depleted nitric oxide levels in the human body play a major role in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. Inorganic nitrate/nitrite (rich dietary sources include beetroot and spinach) can act as a nitric oxide donor because nitrate/nitrite can be metabolized to produce nitric oxide. Objective: This review and meta-analysis sought to investigate the role of inorganic nitrate/nitrite in preventing or treating cardiovascular disease risk factors in humans. Data Sources: Electronic databases, including Medline, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Cochrane, and Scopus, were searched...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Sarah J Meale, Marc D Auffret, Mick Watson, Diego P Morgavi, Gonzalo Cantalapiedra-Hijar, Carol-Anne Duthie, Rainer Roehe, Richard J Dewhurst
The use of biomarkers for feed conversion efficiency (FCE), such as Nitrogen isotopic discrimination (Δ15 N), facilitates easier measurement and may be useful in breeding strategies. However, we need to better understand the relationship between FCE and Δ15 N, particularly the effects of differences in the composition of liveweight gain and rumen N metabolism. Alongside measurements of FCE and Δ15 N, we estimated changes in body composition and used dietary treatments with and without nitrates, and rumen metagenomics to explore these effects...
March 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christopher Thompson, Anni Vanhatalo, Stefan Kadach, Lee J Wylie, Jonathan Fulford, Scott K Ferguson, Jamie R Blackwell, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
The physiological and exercise performance adaptations to sprint interval training (SIT) may be modified by dietary nitrate (NO3 - ) supplementation. However, it is possible that different types of NO3 - supplementation evoke divergent physiological and performance adaptations to SIT. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 4 weeks SIT with and without concurrent dietary NO3 - supplementation administered as either NO3 - -rich beetroot juice (BR) or potassium NO3 - (KNO3 ). Thirty recreationally-active subjects completed a battery of exercise tests before and after a 4 week intervention in which they were allocated to one of three groups: 1) SIT undertaken without dietary NO3 - supplementation (SIT); 2) SIT accompanied by concurrent BR supplementation (SIT+BR); or 3) SIT accompanied by concurrent KNO3 supplementation (SIT+KNO3 )...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Zahra Bahadoran, Mattias Carlström, Asghar Ghasemi, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi, Farzad Hadaegh
Background: Considering the lack of data on the association between habitual dietary intakes of nitrate (NO3 - ) and nitrite (NO2 - ) and cardiovascular events, we assessed possible effects of dietary NO3 - and NO2 - , in the context of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the diet, with the risk of cardiovascular (CVD) outcomes. Methods: Adult men and women without CVD ( n  = 2369) were recruited from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed for a mean of 6...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Jinlong Dong, Qiao Xu, Nazim Gruda, Wenying Chu, Xun Li, Zengqiang Duan
BACKGROUND: Elevated CO2 and N availability can interactively promote cucumber yield but how the yield increase is realized remains unclear, whilst the interactive effects on fruit quality are unknown. In this study, cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Jinmei No. 3) were grown in a paddy soil under three CO2 concentrations [400 (ambient CO2 ), 800 (elevated CO2 , eCO2 ) and 1200 (super-elevated CO2 ), μmol mol-1 ] and two N applications [0.06 (low N) and 0.24 (high N), g N kg-1 soil]...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Ártur Krumberg Schüller, Diego Antonio Mena Canata, Fernanda Schäfer Hackenhaar, Vanessa Krüger Engers, Fernanda Maciel Heemann, Jordana Salete Putti, Tiago Boeira Salomon, Mara Silveira Benfato
BACKGROUND: Bilateral ovariectomy is an experimental model used to analyse the effects of menopause and develop strategies to mitigate the deleterious effects of this condition. Supplementation of the diet with antioxidants has been used to reduce potential oxidative stress caused by menopause. The purpose of the study was to analyse the effects of α-lipoic acid (LA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), dietary supplementation on oxidative stress in the livers of ovariectomized rats...
October 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Johanna Oskarsson, Kerry McGawley
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements such as caffeine and beetroot juice are used by athletes in an attempt to optimize performance and therefore gain an advantage in competition. AIM: To investigate the individual and combined effects of caffeine and beetroot-juice supplementation during submaximal and maximal treadmill running. METHODS: Seven males (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 59.0 ± 2.9 mL/kg/min) and two females (VO<sub>2max</sub>: 53...
February 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Yipu Xu, Baoxing Pang, Liang Hu, Xiaoyu Feng, Lei Hu, Jingsong Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Songlin Wang
Xerostomia, a major oral symptom of menopause, is a subjective feeling of dry mouth associated with oral pain and difficulties in deglutition and speech, which significantly reduces patient's quality of life. Dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitric oxide, has multiple physiological functions in the body, including antioxidant activity and vasodilatation; however, its protective effect against xerostomia remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrate on estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia...
February 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Karin E Eriksson, Ting Yang, Mattias Carlström, Eddie Weitzberg
Numerous studies have shown beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects of dietary nitrate but the release or uptake of these anions on an organ level is still poorly elucidated. Here we administered sodium nitrate in the pig and measured acute changes in release/uptake of nitrate and nitrite across several organs as well as cardiovascular and metabolic functions. In 17 anesthetized pigs multiple venous catheters and arterial ultrasonic blood flow probes were positioned. After pretreatment with the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor l-NAME to minimize involvement of NOS-dependent nitrate/nitrite generation, the animals received bolus injections of either sodium nitrate or sodium chloride...
February 8, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Jennifer C Richards, Matthew L Racine, Christopher M Hearon, Megan Kunkel, Gary J Luckasen, Dennis G Larson, Jason D Allen, Frank A Dinenno
Dietary nitrate (NO3-) is converted to nitrite (NO2-) and can be further reduced to the vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) amid a low O2 environment. Accordingly, dietary NO3- increases hind limb blood flow in rats during treadmill exercise; however, the evidence of such an effect in humans is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that acute dietary NO3- (via beetroot [BR] juice) increases forearm blood flow (FBF) via local vasodilation during handgrip exercise in young adults (n = 11; 25 ± 2 years). FBF (Doppler ultrasound) and blood pressure (Finapres) were measured at rest and during graded handgrip exercise at 5%, 15%, and 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) lasting 4 min each...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
Lucas C Pinheiro, Graziele C Ferreira, Kelvin H Vilalva, José C Toledo, Jose E Tanus-Santos
Nitrite reduces blood pressure (BP) in both clinical and experimental hypertension. This effect is attributable to the formation of nitric oxide (NO) and other NO-related species, which may be improved by ascorbate or other antioxidants. However, the BP responses to oral nitrite result, at least in part, of increased gastric S-nitrosothiol formation. This study tested the hypothesis that ascorbate may destroy S-nitrosothiols and therefore not all doses of ascorbate enhance the BP responses to oral nitrite. We assessed the BP responses to oral sodim nitrite (0...
January 25, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Cameron N Gilliard, Jeff K Lam, Katelyn S Cassel, Ji Won Park, Alan N Schechter, Barbora Piknova
Rodent skeletal muscle has high levels of nitrate ions and this endogenous nitrate reservoir can supply nitrite/nitric oxide (NO) for functional hyperemia and/or for other physiological processes in muscle during exercise. Mice with a NOS1 knockout have markedly reduced muscle nitrate levels, suggesting NO production by NOS and its reaction with oxymyoglobin as a source of nitrate. However, oxygen levels are normally low in most internal organs, which raises the possibility that nitrate-derived NO pathway is physiologically important even at "normoxia", and muscle nitrate reservoir is the main endogenous NO backup when exogeneous (dietary) nitrate intake is low...
January 29, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Juliet L Kroll, Chelsey A Werchan, David Rosenfield, Thomas Ritz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the airways' innate immune response, and the fraction of exhaled NO at a flow rate of 50mL per second (FENO50) has been utilized to capture NO. Deficits in NO are linked to loss of bronchoprotective effects in airway challenges and predict symptoms of respiratory infection. While beetroot juice supplements have been proposed to enhance exercise performance by increasing dietary nitrate consumption, few studies have examined the impact of beetroot juice or nitrate supplementation on airway NO in contexts beyond an exercise challenge, which we know influences FENO50...
2018: PloS One
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"