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Dietary nitrates

Beatriz Pérez Montoro, Nabil Benomar, Leyre Lavilla Lerma, Sonia Castillo Gutiérrez, Antonio Gálvez, Hikmate Abriouel
A collection of 31 Lactobacillus pentosus strains isolated from naturally fermented Aloreña green table olives were screened in depth in the present study for their probiotic potential. Several strains could be considered promising probiotic candidates since they showed good growth capacity and survival under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions (acidic pH of 1.5, up to 4% of bile salts and 5 mM of nitrate), good ability to auto-aggregate which may facilitate their adhesion to host cells as multiple aggregates and the subsequent displacement of pathogens...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Kristin L Jonvik, Jean Nyakayiru, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Floris C Wardenaar, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
Although beetroot juice, as a nitrate carrier, is a popular ergogenic supplement amongst athletes, nitrate is consumed through the regular diet as well. We aimed to assess the habitual dietary nitrate intake and identify the main contributing food sources in a large group of highly trained athletes. Dutch highly trained athletes (226 women and 327 men) completed 2-4 web-based 24-h dietary recalls and questionnaires within a 2-4 week period. The nitrate content of food products and food groups was determined systematically based on values found in regulatory reports and scientific literature...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Stephen J Bailey, Jamie R Blackwell, Lee J Wylie, Terezia Holland, Paul G Winyard, Andrew M Jones
Dietary supplementation with inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) has been reported to improve cardiovascular health indices in healthy adults. Cigarette smoking increases circulating thiocyanate (SCN(-)), which has been suggested to competitively inhibit salivary nitrate (NO3(-)) uptake, a rate-limiting step in dietary NO3(-) metabolism. Therefore, this study tested the hypothesis that dietary NO3(-) supplementation would be less effective at increasing the circulating plasma nitrite ([NO2(-)]) and lowering blood pressure in smokers (S) compared to non-smokers (NS)...
October 12, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Julio A Chirinos, Scott R Akers, Lien Trieu, Harry Ischiropoulos, Paschalis-Thomas Doulias, Ali Tariq, Izzah Vassim, Maheswara R Koppula, Amer Ahmed Syed, Haideliza Soto-Calderon, Raymond R Townsend, Thomas P Cappola, Kenneth B Margulies, Payman Zamani
BACKGROUND: Stable plasma nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (NOM), composed predominantly of nitrate and nitrite, are attractive biomarkers of NO bioavailability. NOM levels integrate the influence of NO-synthase-derived NO production/metabolism, dietary intake of inorganic nitrate/nitrite, and clearance of NOM. Furthermore, nitrate and nitrite, the most abundant NOM, can be reduced to NO via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared serum NOM among subjects without heart failure (n=126), subjects with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF; n=43), and subjects with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF; n=32)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
Joseph A McQuillan, Deborah K Dulson, Paul B Laursen, Andrew E Kilding
PURPOSE: To determine the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation on physiology and performance in well-trained cyclists following six to eight-days of NO3(-) supplementation. METHODS: Eight competitive male cyclists (mean ± SD; age = 26 ± 8 y; body mass = 76.7 ± 6.9 kg; VO2peak = 63 ± 4 participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover-design study in which participants ingested 70 ml beetroot juice containing ~4 mmol NO3(-) (NIT) or a NO3(-) depleted placebo (PLA), each for 8-days...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
We hypothesized that dietary walnut would prevent high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic apoptosis based on its antioxidant properties. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a rodent chow or HFD (45% energy-derived)±walnuts (21.5% energy-derived) for 6 weeks. Liver histological and biochemical analyses revealed significantly elevated fat accumulation in mice fed HFD compared to mice fed the chow or HFD±walnuts. Walnut supplementation prevented HFD-mediated alteration of the levels of key proteins in lipid homeostasis such as Sirt1, AMPK and FAS, leading to decreased fat accumulation...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Zoya Zaeem, Lily Zhou, Esma Dilli
Dietary triggers are commonly reported by patients with a variety of headaches, particularly those with migraines. The presence of any specific dietary trigger in migraine patients varies from 10 to 64 % depending on study population and methodology. Some foods trigger headache within an hour while others develop within 12 h post ingestion. Alcohol (especially red wine and beer), chocolate, caffeine, dairy products such as aged cheese, food preservatives with nitrates and nitrites, monosodium glutamate (MSG), and artificial sweeteners such as aspartame have all been studied as migraine triggers in the past...
November 2016: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
Sinead T J McDonagh, Anni Vanhatalo, Jonathan Fulford, Lee J Wylie, Stephen J Bailey, Andrew M Jones
We tested the hypothesis that dietary nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) supplementation could partially offset deteriorations in O(2) transport and utilization, and exercise tolerance, after blood donation. Twenty-two healthy volunteers performed moderate-intensity and ramp incremental cycle exercise tests prior to and following the withdrawal of ~450 mL of whole blood. Before donation, all subjects consumed 7 x 70 mL of nitrate-depleted beetroot juice shots (PL) in the 48 h preceding the exercise tests. During the 48 h after blood donation, subjects consumed 7 shots of either BR (each containing 6...
September 30, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Ketmanee Senaphan, Weerapon Sangartit, Poungrat Pakdeechote, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Patchareewan Pannangpetch, Supawan Thawornchinsombut, Stephen E Greenwald, Upa Kukongviriyapan
PURPOSE: Rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBPH) contain highly nutritional proteins and antioxidant compounds which show benefits against metabolic syndrome (MetS). Increased arterial stiffness and the components of MetS have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate whether RBPH could alleviate the metabolic disorders, arterial stiffening, vascular remodeling, and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-carbohydrate and high-fat (HCHF) diet...
September 22, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Bryan Heath Curry, Vernon Bond, Sudhakar Pemminati, Vasavi Rakesh Gorantla, Yulia Andreevna Volkova, Kishan Kadur, Richard Mark Millis
INTRODUCTION: Beetroot Juice (BJ) contains dietary nitrates that increase the blood Nitric Oxide (NO) level, decrease Blood Pressure (BP), increase athletic performance and improve cognitive functions but the mechanism remains unclear. Ultrasonographic measurement of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity with computation of Cerebral Augmentation Index (CAIx) is a measure of the reflected flow signal, modulated by changes in cerebrovascular resistance and compliance. AIM: This pilot study tests the hypothesis that ingestion of an amount of BJ sufficient to raise the blood NO level two-to three-fold, decreases Transcranial Doppler (TCD) measured CAIx...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Conor P Kerley, Emma Kilbride, Peter Greally, Basil Elnazir
Airway nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous signaling molecule with bronchoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-infective roles. Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic lung condition associated with deceased exhaled NO. Strategies to increase exhaled NO in CF have yielded inconsistent results. A potential new method of increasing systemic NO involves ingestion of dietary, inorganic nitrate which is reduced to nitrite and NO. We present the case of a 12 year-old, athletic male with CF who demonstrated acute but marked increases in exhaled NO following dietary nitrate consumption compared to placebo...
September 14, 2016: Clinical Medicine & Research
Jean Nyakayiru, Kristin L Jonvik, Philippe J M Pinckaers, Joan Senden, Luc J C Van Loon, Lex B Verdijk
While the majority of studies reporting ergogenic effects of dietary nitrate have used a multiday supplementation protocol, some studies suggest that a single dose of dietary nitrate prior to exercise can also improve subsequent performance. We aimed to compare the impact of acute and 6-day sodium nitrate supplementation on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) and time-trial performance in trained cyclists. Using a randomized, double blind, cross-over design, 17 male cyclists (25±4 y, V̇O2peak 65±4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Wmax 411±35 W) were subjected to 3 different trials; 5 days placebo and 1 day sodium nitrate supplementation (1-DAY); 6 days sodium nitrate supplementation (6-DAY); 6 days placebo supplementation (PLA)...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Ting Li, Xinshan Lu, Yanfei Sun, Xingbin Yang
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, has become a leading nutrition problem. Inorganic nitrate enriched in spinach has been demonstrated to reverse the pathological features of insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of a direct intake of nitrate-enriched spinach on insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of spinach nitrate on insulin resistance, lipid metabolism, endothelial function, and inflammation in mice fed with a high-fat and high-fructose diet...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
Maria Peleli, Christa Zollbrecht, Marcelo F Montenegro, Michael Hezel, Jianghong Zhong, Erik G Persson, Rikard Holmdahl, Eddie Weitzberg, Jon O Lundberg, Mattias Carlström
Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is generally known as the final enzyme in purine metabolism and as a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, this enzyme has been suggested to mediate nitric oxide (NO) formation via reduction of inorganic nitrate and nitrite. This NO synthase (NOS)-independent pathway for NO generation is of particular importance during certain conditions when NO bioavailability is diminished due to reduced activity of endothelial NOS (eNOS) or increased oxidative stress, including aging and cardiovascular disease...
September 5, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Bárbara S Rocha, Mariana G Correia, Rita C Fernandes, João S Gonçalves, João Laranjinha
The clinical implications of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway have been extensively studied in recent years. However, the physiological impact of bioactive nitrogen oxides produced from dietary nitrate has remained largely elusive. Here, we report a hitherto unrecognized nitrite-dependent nitrating pathway that targets tight junction proteins in the stomach. Inorganic nitrate, nitrite or saliva obtained after the consumption of lettuce were administered by oral gavage to Wistar rats. The enterosalivary circulation of nitrate was allowed to occur for 4 h after which the animals were euthanized and the stomach collected...
October 11, 2016: Free Radical Research
Nicholas F McMahon, Michael D Leveritt, Toby G Pavey
BACKGROUND: Recent research into the use of dietary nitrates and their role in vascular function has led to it becoming progressively more popular amongst athletes attempting to enhance performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this review was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to evaluate the effect of dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation on endurance exercise performance. An additional aim was to determine whether the performance outcomes are affected by potential moderator variables...
September 6, 2016: Sports Medicine
Barbara Hohensinn, Renate Haselgrübler, Ulrike Müller, Verena Stadlbauer, Peter Lanzerstorfer, Gerald Lirk, Otmar Höglinger, Julian Weghuber
BACKGROUND: Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3(-)) and its reduced forms nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitric oxide (NO), respectively, are of critical importance for host defense in the oral cavity. High concentrations of salivary nitrate are linked to a lower prevalence of caries due to growth inhibition of cariogenic bacteria. OBJECTIVE: In-vitro studies suggest that the formation of antimicrobial NO results in an increase of the pH preventing erosion of tooth enamel. The purpose of this study was to prove this effect in-vivo...
September 1, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Philip J Hennis, Kay Mitchell, Edward Gilbert-Kawai, Vassiliki Bountziouka, Angie Wade, Martin Feelisch, Michael P Grocott, Daniel S Martin
: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of beetroot juice, on acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms and physiological responses, in a group of young males trekking to Mount Everest Base Camp (EBC). Forty healthy male students (mean age (SD): 16 (1) yrs) trekked to EBC over 11 days. Following an overnight fast, each morning participants completed the Lake Louise AMS questionnaire and underwent a series of physiological tests: resting blood pressure as well as resting and exercising heart rate, respiratory rate, and peripheral oxygen saturation...
September 2, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Simone Porcelli, Lorenzo Pugliese, Enrico Rejc, Gaspare Pavei, Matteo Bonato, Michela Montorsi, Antonio La Torre, Letizia Rasica, Mauro Marzorati
It has been reported that nitrate supplementation can improve exercise performance. Most of the studies have used either beetroot juice or sodium nitrate as a supplement; there is lack of data on the potential ergogenic benefits of an increased dietary nitrate intake from a diet based on fruits and vegetables. Our aim was to assess whether a high-nitrate diet increases nitric oxide bioavailability and to evaluate the effects of this nutritional intervention on exercise performance. Seven healthy male subjects participated in a randomized cross-over study...
2016: Nutrients
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