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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145093/proteomic-profile-and-toxicity-pathway-analysis-in-zebrafish-embryos-exposed-to-bisphenol-a-and-di-n-butyl-phthalate-at-environmentally-relevant-levels
#1
Xing Dong, Xuchun Qiu, Shunlong Meng, Hai Xu, Xiangyang Wu, Ming Yang
Bisphenol A (BPA) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) are well-known endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that have human health risks. Chronic exposure to BPA and DBP increases the occurrence of human disease. Despite the potential for exposure in embryonic development, the mechanism of action of BPA and DBP on vertebrate development and disease still remains unclear. In the present study, we identified proteins and protein networks that are perturbed by BPA and DBP during zebrafish (Danio rerio) development. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to environmentally relevant levels of BPA (10 μg/L) and DBP (50 μg/L) for 96 h...
November 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144837/evolution-of-alternative-adaptive-immune-systems-in-vertebrates
#2
Thomas Boehm, Masayuki Hirano, Stephen J Holland, Sabyasachi Das, Michael Schorpp, Max D Cooper
Adaptive immunity in jawless fishes is based on antigen recognition by three types of variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) composed of variable leucinerich repeats, which are differentially expressed by two T-like lymphocyte lineages and one B-like lymphocyte lineage. The T-like cells express either VLRAs or VLRCs of yet undefined antigen specificity, whereas the VLRB antibodies secreted by B-like cells bind proteinaceous and carbohydrate antigens. The incomplete VLR germline genes are assembled into functional units by a gene conversion-like mechanism that employs flanking variable leucine-rich repeat sequences as templates in association with lineage-specific expression of cytidine deaminases...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143901/combined-vertebral-augmentation-and-radiofrequency-ablation-in-the-management-of-spinal-metastases-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Ning Mao Kam, Julian Maingard, Hong Kuan Kok, Dinesh Ranatunga, Duncan Brooks, William C Torreggiani, Peter L Munk, Michael J Lee, Ronil V Chandra, Hamed Asadi
Spinal metastases are the most commonly encountered tumour of the spine, occurring in up to 40% of patients with cancer. Each year, approximately 5% of cancer patients will develop spinal metastases. This number is expected to increase as the life expectancy of cancer patients increases. Patients with spinal metastases experience severe and frequently debilitating pain, which often decreases their remaining quality of life. With a median survival of less than 1 year, the goals of treatment in spinal metastases are reducing pain, improving or maintaining level of function and providing mechanical stability...
November 16, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143784/primary-cilium-dependent-signaling-mechanisms
#4
REVIEW
Rajasekharreddy Pala, Nedaa Alomari, Surya M Nauli
Primary cilia are hair-like organelles and play crucial roles in vertebrate development, organogenesis, health, and many genetic disorders. A primary cilium is a mechano-sensory organelle that responds to mechanical stimuli in the micro-environment. A cilium is also a chemosensor that senses chemical signals surrounding a cell. The overall function of a cilium is therefore to act as a communication hub to transfer extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Although intracellular calcium has been one of the most studied signaling messengers that transmit extracellular signals into the cells, calcium signaling by various ion channels remains a topic of interest in the field...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141991/human-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-does-not-provide-metabolic-protection-against-dysglycemia-in-mice
#5
Yael Sofer, Nava Nevo, Michal Vechoropulus, Gabi Shefer, Esther Osher, Nathan Landis, Geoffrey L Hammond, Naftali Stern
BACKGROUND: Sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is the main transporter of sex hormones in most vertebrates. Low SHBG levels have been linked to increased propensity for diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Polymorphisms of the SHBG gene linked to low SHBG protein levels, also strongly predicted increased risk of type 2 diabetes, thus raising the possibility that SHBG may play a role in the in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and diabetes. AIM: To examine whether expression of human SHBG in mice may ameliorate the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in response to a high fat diet...
November 15, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141987/brachyury-directs-histone-acetylation-to-target-loci-during-mesoderm-development
#6
Arica Beisaw, Pavel Tsaytler, Frederic Koch, Sandra U Schmitz, Maria-Theodora Melissari, Anna D Senft, Lars Wittler, Tracie Pennimpede, Karol Macura, Bernhard G Herrmann, Phillip Grote
T-box transcription factors play essential roles in multiple aspects of vertebrate development. Here, we show that cooperative function of BRACHYURY (T) with histone-modifying enzymes is essential for mouse embryogenesis. A single point mutation (T(Y88A)) results in decreased histone 3 lysine 27 acetylation (H3K27ac) at T target sites, including the T locus, suggesting that T autoregulates the maintenance of its expression and functions by recruiting permissive chromatin modifications to putative enhancers during mesoderm specification...
November 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141695/methylxanthines-induce-structural-and-functional-alterations-of-the-cardiac-system-in-zebrafish-embryos
#7
Ram Manohar Basnet, Daniela Zizioli, Michela Guarienti, Dario Finazzi, Maurizio Memo
BACKGROUND: Zebrafish embryos are emerging as a model for pharmacological and toxicological studies. We used zebrafish embryos to study the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects of eight methylxanthines: aminophylline, caffeine, diprophylline, doxofylline, etophylline, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), pentoxifylline and theophylline. METHODS: Microinjections of the eight methylxanthines were performed in 1-2 cell stage zebrafish embryos and the general toxicity and cardiovascular effects were analyzed at different time points...
November 15, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141181/axon-pathfinding-for-locomotion
#8
REVIEW
Dario Bonanomi
Motor neurons of the spinal cord are responsible for the assembly of neuromuscular connections indispensable for basic locomotion and skilled movements. A precise spatial relationship exists between the position of motor neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord and the course of their axonal projections to peripheral muscle targets. Motor neuron innervation of the vertebrate limb is a prime example of this topographic organization and by virtue of its accessibility and predictability has provided access to fundamental principles of motor system development and neuronal guidance...
November 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140250/gdf3-is-required-for-robust-nodal-signaling-during-germ-layer-formation-and-left-right-patterning
#9
Jose L Pelliccia, Granton A Jindal, Rebecca D Burdine
Vertebrate embryonic patterning depends on signaling from Nodal, a TGFβ superfamily member. There are three Nodal orthologs in zebrafish; southpaw directs left-right asymmetries, while squint and cyclops function earlier to pattern mesendoderm. TGFβ member Vg1 is implicated in mesoderm formation but the role of the zebrafish ortholog, Growth differentiation factor 3 (Gdf3), has not been fully explored. We show that zygotic expression of gdf3 is dispensable for embryonic development, while maternally deposited gdf3 is required for mesendoderm formation and dorsal-ventral patterning...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139543/molecular-cloning-and-expression-analysis-of-sox3-during-gonad-and-embryonic-development-in-misgurnus-anguillicaudatus
#10
Xiaohua Xia, Weiran Huo, Ruyan Wan, Linxia Zhang, Xiaopei Xia, Zhongjie Chang
Sox3 is a single-exon gene located on the X chromosome in most vertebrates. It belongs to the SoxB1 subfamily, which is part of the larger Sox family. Previous studies have revealed that Sox3 is expressed in many fish species. However, how Sox3 influences the development of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus remains unknown. In this study, a Sox3 homologue, termed MaSox3, was cloned from the brain of M. anguillicaudatus using homology-based cloning and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. Sequence analysis reveals that MaSox3 encodes a hydrophilic protein, which contains a characteristic HMG-box DNA-binding domain of 79 amino acids, and shares high homology with Sox3 in other species...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139535/contribution-of-cranial-neural-crest-cells-to-mouse-skull-development
#11
Taofen Wu, Guiqian Chen, Fei Tian, Hong-Xiang Liu
The mammalian skull vault is a highly regulated structure that evolutionally protects brain growth during vertebrate development. It consists of several membrane bones with different tissue origins (e.g. neural crest-derived frontal bone and mesoderm-derived parietal bone). Although membrane bones are formed through intramembranous ossification, the neural crest-derived frontal bone has superior capabilities for osteoblast activities and bone regeneration via TGF, BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling pathways. Neural crest (NC) cells are multipotent, and once induced, will follow specific paths to migrate to different locations of the body where they give rise to a diverse array of cell types and tissues...
2017: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136572/multiple-bioanalytical-method-to-reveal-developmental-biological-responses-in-zebrafish-embryos-exposed-to-triclocarban
#12
Xing Dong, Hai Xu, Xiangyang Wu, Liuqing Yang
Triclocarban (TCC) is a well-known antibacterial agent that is frequently detected in environmental, wildlife and human samples. The potential toxicological effects and action mechanism of TCC on vertebrate development has remained unclear. In the present study, we analyzed phenotypic alterations, thyroid hormone levels, thyroid hormone responsive genes, and proteomic profiles of zebrafish embryos after exposure to a series of concentrations of TCC from 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf. The most nonlethal concentration (MNLC), lethal concentration 10% (LC10) and lethal concentration 50% (LC50) of TCC for exposures of 96 h were 133...
November 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133259/loss-of-pit-2-results-in-abnormal-bone-development-and-decreased-bone-mineral-density-and-length-in-mice
#13
Shunsuke Yamada, Mary C Wallingford, Suhaib Borgeia, Timothy C Cox, Cecilia M Giachelli
Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133150/structure-and-function-of-per-arnt-sim-domains-and-their-possible-role-in-the-life-cycle-biology-of-trypanosoma-cruzi
#14
REVIEW
Maura Rojas-Pirela, Daniel J Rigden, Paul A Michels, Ana J Cáceres, Juan Luis Concepción, Wilfredo Quiñones
Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) domains of proteins play important roles as modules for signalling and cellular regulation processes in widely diverse organisms such as Archaea, Bacteria, protists, plants, yeasts, insects and vertebrates. These domains are present in many proteins where they are used as sensors of stimuli and modules for protein interactions. Characteristically, they can bind a broad spectrum of molecules. Such binding causes the domain to trigger a specific cellular response or to make the protein containing the domain susceptible to responding to additional physical or chemical signals...
November 10, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129749/quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-deciduous-molars-during-cap-to-bell-transition-in-miniature-pig
#15
Yang Li, Yiyi Gong, Xiaoshan Wu, Fu Wang, Yilin Xie, Zhao Zhu, Yingying Su, Jinsong Wang, Chunmei Zhang, Junqi He, Haiteng Deng, Songlin Wang
Taking advantage of genetic manipulation tools and accessibility, almost all molecular knowledge on vertebrate tooth development was obtained from rodent models that only have one dentition in their entire lives. Whether the tooth development in other vertebrates such as swine or human follows the same rules remains elusive. Rodent dentitions differ considerably from human dentitions, therefore limiting the application of knowledge from rodent tooth to human tooth. Signal-mediated communication between cells and complex gene and protein regulatory networks are key components of tooth development...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127712/connectivity-of-cone-photoreceptor-telodendria-in-the-zebrafish-retina
#16
Nicole C L Noel, W Ted Allison
The connectivity amongst photoreceptors is critical to their function, as it underpins lateral inhibition and effective translation of stimuli into neural signals. Despite much work characterizing second-order interneurons in the outer retina, the synapses directly connecting photoreceptors have often been overlooked. Telodendria are fine processes that connect photoreceptor pedicles. They have been observed in diverse vertebrate groups, yet their roles in vision remain speculative. Here, we visualize telodendria via fluorescent protein expression in photoreceptor subtypes...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127093/development-of-the-ct-syndesmophyte-score-ctss-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis-data-from-the-sias-cohort
#17
Freek de Bruin, Anoek de Koning, Rosaline van den Berg, Xenofon Baraliakos, Juergen Braun, Sofia Ramiro, Floris A van Gaalen, Monique Reijnierse, Désirée van der Heijde
OBJECTIVES: To develop the CT Syndesmophyte Score (CTSS) for low-dose CT (ldCT) to assess structural damage in the spine of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and test its reliability. METHODS: Patientswith AS in the SIAS cohort had whole spine ldCT at baseline and 2 years. Syndesmophytes were scored in coronal and sagittal planes in eight quadrants per vertebral unit (VU) as absent=0, <50% of the intervertebral disc space (IDS)=1, ≥50%=2 or bridging the IDS=3 (range 0-552)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127025/effect-of-yolk-corticosterone-on-begging-in-the-yellow-legged-gull
#18
Cristina Daniela Possenti, Marco Parolini, Andrea Romano, Manuela Caprioli, Diego Rubolini, Nicola Saino
Behavioral lateralization is widespread across vertebrates. The development of lateralization is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. In birds, maternal substances in the egg can affect offspring lateralization via activational and/or organizational effects. Corticosterone affects the development of brain asymmetry, suggesting that variation in yolk corticosterone concentration may also influence post-natal behavioral lateralization, a hypothesis that has never been tested so far. In the yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis), we increased yolk corticosterone concentration within physiological limits and analyzed the direction of lateralization of hatchlings in reverting from supine to prone position ('RTP' response) and in pecking at dummy parental bills to solicit food provisioning ('begging' response)...
November 7, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125429/graft-subsidence-as-a-predictor-of-revision-surgery-following-stand-alone-lateral-lumbar-interbody-fusion
#19
Zachary J Tempel, Michael M McDowell, David M Panczykowski, Gurpreet S Gandhoke, D Kojo Hamilton, David O Okonkwo, Adam S Kanter
OBJECTIVE Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a less invasive surgical option commonly used for a variety of spinal conditions, including in high-risk patient populations. LLIF is often performed as a stand-alone procedure, and may be complicated by graft subsidence, the clinical ramifications of which remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize further the sequelae of graft subsidence following stand-alone LLIF. METHODS A retrospective review of prospectively collected data was conducted on consecutive patients who underwent stand-alone LLIF between July 2008 and June 2015; 297 patients (623 levels) met inclusion criteria...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125080/-organ-sparing-treatment-in-oesophagus-cancer-feasible-and-safe
#20
B J Noordman, B P L Wijnhoven, S M Lagarde, M C W Spaander, R Valkema, J J B van Lanschot
In many countries, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) plus surgery is standard treatment for resectable oesophageal cancer. After nCRT, up to 30% of all patients have no residual disease in the resection specimen. Consequently, an active surveillance approach, in which patients undergo frequent clinical investigations after nCRT instead of standard oesophagectomy, is increasingly applied in selected patients. Here, we describe outcomes for three patients who underwent active surveillance. A 63-year old woman was considered unfit for surgery after nCRT...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
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