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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930602/molecular-biology-of-tick-acetylcholinesterases
#1
Kevin Bruce Temeyer
Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929348/-comparative-analysis-of-light-sensitivity-depth-and-motion-perception-in-animals-and-humans
#2
REVIEW
F Schaeffel
BACKGROUND: This study examined how humans perform regarding light sensitivity, depth perception and motion vision in comparison to various animals. OBJECTIVE: The parameters that limit the performance of the visual system for these different functions were examined. METHODS: This study was based on literature studies (search in PubMed) and own results. RESULTS: Light sensitivity is limited by the brightness of the retinal image, which in turn is determined by the f‑number of the eye...
September 19, 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929008/early-branching-euteleost-relationships-areas-of-congruence-between-concatenation-and-coalescent-model-inferences
#3
Matthew A Campbell, Michael E Alfaro, Max Belasco, J Andrés López
Phylogenetic inference based on evidence from DNA sequences has led to significant strides in the development of a stable and robustly supported framework for the vertebrate tree of life. To date, the bulk of those advances have relied on sequence data from a small number of genome regions that have proven unable to produce satisfactory answers to consistently recalcitrant phylogenetic questions. Here, we re-examine phylogenetic relationships among early-branching euteleostean fish lineages classically grouped in the Protacanthopterygii using DNA sequence data surrounding ultraconserved elements...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928715/intrinsic-and-regulated-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-receptor-gene-transcription-in-mammalian-pituitary-gonadotrophs
#4
REVIEW
Marija M Janjic, Stanko S Stojilkovic, Ivana Bjelobaba
The hypothalamic decapeptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), acting via its receptors (GnRHRs) expressed in pituitary gonadotrophs, represents a critical molecule in control of reproductive functions in all vertebrate species. GnRH-activated receptors regulate synthesis of gonadotropins in a frequency-dependent manner. The number of GnRHRs on the plasma membrane determines the responsiveness of gonadotrophs to GnRH and varies in relation to age, sex, and physiological status. This is achieved by a complex control that operates at transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928428/phosphorylation-of-suppressor-of-hairless-impedes-its-dna-binding-activity
#5
Anja C Nagel, Jasmin S Auer, Adriana Schulz, Jens Pfannstiel, Zhenyu Yuan, Courtney E Collins, Rhett A Kovall, Anette Preiss
Notch signalling activity governs cellular differentiation in higher metazoa, where Notch signals are transduced by the transcription factor CSL, called Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] in Drosophila. Su(H) operates as molecular switch on Notch target genes: within activator complexes, including intracellular Notch, or within repressor complexes, including the antagonist Hairless. Mass spectrometry identified phosphorylation on Serine 269 in Su(H), potentially serving as a point of cross-regulation by other signalling pathways...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928245/evi-and-mds-evi-are-required-for-adult-intestinal-stem-cell-formation-during-postembryonic-vertebrate-development
#6
Morihiro Okada, Yun-Bo Shi
The gene ectopic viral integration site 1 (EVI) and its variant myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS)/EVI encode zinc-finger proteins that have been recognized as important oncogenes in various types of cancer. In contrast to the established role of EVI and MDS/EVI in cancer development, their potential function during vertebrate postembryonic development, especially in organ-specific adult stem cells, is unclear. Amphibian metamorphosis is strikingly similar to postembryonic development around birth in mammals, with both processes taking place when plasma thyroid hormone (T3) levels are high...
September 19, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927759/redox-stress-and-signaling-during-vertebrate-embryonic-development-regulation-and-responses
#7
REVIEW
Alicia R Timme-Laragy, Mark E Hahn, Jason M Hansen, Archit Rastogi, Monika A Roy
Vertebrate embryonic development requires specific signaling events that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation to occur at the correct place and the correct time in order to build a healthy embryo. Signaling pathways are sensitive to perturbations of the endogenous redox state, and are also susceptible to modulation by reactive species and antioxidant defenses, contributing to a spectrum of passive vs. active effects that can affect redox signaling and redox stress. Here we take a multi-level, integrative approach to discuss the importance of redox status for vertebrate developmental signaling pathways and cell fate decisions, with a focus on glutathione/glutathione disulfide, thioredoxin, and cysteine/cystine redox potentials and the implications for protein function in development...
September 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926587/functional-characterization-of-zebrafish-orthologs-of-the-human-beta-3-glucosyltransferase-b3glct-gene-mutated-in-peters-plus-syndrome
#8
Eric Weh, Hideyuki Takeuchi, Sanaa Muheisen, Robert S Haltiwanger, Elena V Semina
Peters Plus Syndrome (PPS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by ocular defects, short stature, brachydactyly, characteristic facial features, developmental delay and other highly variable systemic defects. Classic PPS is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the B3GLCT gene encoding for a β3-glucosyltransferase that catalyzes the attachment of glucose via a β1-3 glycosidic linkage to O-linked fucose on thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSRs). B3GLCT was shown to participate in a non-canonical ER quality control mechanism; however, the exact molecular processes affected in PPS are not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926578/tet-mediated-dna-hydroxymethylation-regulates-retinal-neurogenesis-by-modulating-cell-extrinsic-signaling-pathways
#9
Pawat Seritrakul, Jeffrey M Gross
DNA hydroxymethylation has recently been shown to play critical roles in regulating gene expression and terminal differentiation events in a variety of developmental contexts. However, little is known about its function during eye development. Methylcytosine dioxygenases of the Tet family convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), an epigenetic mark thought to serve as a precursor for DNA demethylation and as a stable mark in neurons. Here, we report a requirement for Tet activity during zebrafish retinal neurogenesis...
September 19, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926155/idna-screening-disease-vectors-as-vertebrate-samplers
#10
Arthur Kocher, Benoit De Thoisy, François Catzeflis, Sophie Valiere, Anne-Laure Bañuls, Jérôme Murienne
In the current context of global change and human-induced biodiversity decline, there is an urgent need for developing sampling approaches able to accurately describe the state of biodiversity. Traditional surveys of vertebrate fauna involve time-consuming and skill-demanding field methods. Recently, the use of DNA derived from invertebrate parasites (leeches and blowflies) was suggested as a new tool for vertebrate diversity assessment. Blood meal analyses of arthropod disease vectors have long been performed to describe their feeding behaviour, for epidemiological purposes...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923023/comparative-transcriptomics-of-female-and-male-gametocytes-in-plasmodium-berghei-and-the-evolution-of-sex-in-alveolates
#11
Lee M Yeoh, Christopher D Goodman, Vanessa Mollard, Geoffrey I McFadden, Stuart A Ralph
BACKGROUND: The clinical symptoms of malaria are caused by the asexual replication of Plasmodium parasites in the blood of the vertebrate host. To spread to new hosts, however, the malaria parasite must differentiate into sexual forms, termed gametocytes, which are ingested by a mosquito vector. Sexual differentiation produces either female or male gametocytes, and involves significant morphological and biochemical changes. These transformations prepare gametocytes for the rapid progression to gamete formation and fertilisation, which occur within 20 min of ingestion...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922741/genomic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-sialic-acid-acetylesterase-siae-in-zebrafish
#12
Viola Ravasio, Eufemia Damiati, Daniela Zizioli, Flavia Orizio, Edoardo Giacopuzzi, Marta Manzoni, Roberto Bresciani, Giuseppe Borsani, Eugenio Monti
Sialic acid acetylesterase (SIAE) removes acetyl moieties from the carbon 9 and 4 hydroxyl groups of sialic acid and recently a debate has been opened on its association to autoimmunity. Trying to get new insights on this intriguing enzyme we have studied siae in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In this teleost siae encodes for a polypeptide with a high degree of sequence identity to human and mouse counterparts. Zebrafish Siae behavior upon transient expression in COS7 cells is comparable to human enzyme concerning pH optimum of enzyme activity, subcellular localization and glycosylation...
October 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922275/indications-for-ct-angiography-of-the-vertebral-arteries-after-trauma
#13
Joseph P Drain, Douglas S Weinberg, James S Ramey, Timothy A Moore, Heather A Vallier
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this project is to identify factors that predict vertebral artery injury (VAI) in an effort to assess risks and benefits of computed tomography angiography (CT-A) of the neck in the trauma setting. We seek to develop guidelines for practitioners to stratify patients at medium/high risk of VAI from those who are at low risk. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: VAI and blunt carotid injury (BCI) together comprise blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI)...
September 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919452/the-affinity-of-transthyretin-for-t3-or-t4-does-not-determine-which-form-of-the-hormone-accumulates-in-the-choroid-plexus
#14
Samantha J Richardson, Stijn Van Herck, Joke Delbaere, Bronwyn M McAllan, Veerle M Darras
Normal development of the brain is dependent on the required amounts of thyroid hormones (THs) reaching specific regions of the brain during each stage of ontogeny. Many proteins are involved with regulation of TH bioavailability in the brain: the TH distributor protein transthyretin (TTR), TH transmembrane transporters (e.g. MCT8, MCT10, LAT1, OATP1C1) and deiodinases (D1, D2 and D3) which either activate or inactivate THs. Previous studies revealed that in mammals, T4, but not T3, accumulated in the choroid plexus and then entered the cerebrospinal fluid...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918252/a-pdgf-vegf-homologue-provides-new-insights-into-the-nucleus-grafting-operation-and-immune-response-in-the-pearl-oyster-pinctada-fucata
#15
Xian-De Huang, Hua Zhang, Mao-Xian He
The platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF, PVF) family of proteins have been implicated in a wide range of biological functions in vertebrates, including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, neural development and especially angiogenesis/vasculogenesis. In this study, a PVF gene, belonging to the PDGF/VEGF family, was cloned and characterized from Pinctada fucata. It contained an ORF of 1110bp encoding a putative protein of 369 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence presented the typical structural features of PDGF family members and the N-terminal signal peptide for secretion...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918251/hmg-box-factor-soxd-sox15-and-homeodomain-containing-factor-xanf1-hesx1-directly-interact-and-regulate-the-expression-of-xanf1-hesx1-during-early-forebrain-development-in-xenopus-laevis
#16
Natalia Y Martynova, Fedor M Eroshkin, Eugeny E Оrlov, Andrey G Zaraisky
The homeodomain-containing transcription factor Anf (also known as Rpx/Hesx1 in mammals) plays an important role during the forebrain development in vertebrates. Here we demonstrate the ability of the Xenopus laevis Anf, Xanf1/Hesx1, to directly bind SRY-related HMG-box-containing transcription factor SoxD/Sox15 and to cooperate with the latter during regulating of the expression of Xanf1/Hesx1 own gene. As we have shown by GST pull-down, EMSA and the luciferase reporter assays, Xanf1/Hesx1 and SoxD/Sox15 bind the Xanf1/Hesx1 promoter region counteracting the inhibitory effect of Xanf1/Hesx1 alone...
September 13, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916802/local-juvenile-hormone-activity-regulates-gut-homeostasis-and-tumor-growth-in-adult-drosophila
#17
M M Rahman, X Franch-Marro, J L Maestro, D Martin, A Casali
Hormones play essential roles during development and maintaining homeostasis in adult organisms, regulating a plethora of biological processes. Generally, hormones are secreted by glands and perform a systemic action. Here we show that Juvenile Hormones (JHs), insect sesquiterpenoids synthesized by the corpora allata, are also synthesized by the adult Drosophila gut. This local, gut specific JH activity, is synthesized by and acts on the intestinal stem cell and enteroblast populations, regulating their survival and cellular growth through the JH receptors Gce/Met and the coactivator Tai...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916626/contextual-fear-conditioning-in-zebrafish
#18
Justin W Kenney, Ian C Scott, Sheena A Josselyn, Paul W Frankland
Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intensity, prevented by an established amnestic agent (MK-801), lasts at least 14 d, and exhibits extinction...
October 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913932/hox-d-genes-and-the-fin-to-limb-transition-insights-from-fish-studies
#19
REVIEW
Ana Paço, Renata Freitas
Genes in the 5' extremity of the HoxD cluster encode DNA-binding transcription factors essential for development of the autopod and digits, regulating primarily gene expression and, consequently, morphogenesis and skeletal differentiation. Comparative studies focused on their expression and regulation have led to the idea that evolution of a bimodal regulation of the HoxD cluster, mainly due to the activation of cis-regulatory units in the centromeric side of the cluster, was a fundamental mechanism that potentiated the fin-to-limb transition in vertebrates...
September 14, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913640/case-report-of-kummell-s-disease-with-delayed-onset-myelopathy-and-the-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Salvatore D'Oria, Carlo Delvecchio, Mariagrazia Dibenedetto, Francesco Zizza, Carlo Somma
INTRODUCTION: Kummell's disease is an avascular necrosis of the vertebral body, secondary to a vertebral compression fracture. This entity is characterised by the gradual development in time of a vertebral body collapse following a trivial spinal trauma, involving a worsening back pain associated with a progressive kyphosis. PURPOSES: The aim of this article is to carry out an international literature review regarding Kummell's disease, addressing its physiopathology, histopathology, clinical presentation, radiological characteristics and treatment modalities; at the same time, the literature is updated through the description of a new and interesting case, symbol of the pathology long-term potential complications, if not diagnosed and therefore not suitably treated...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
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