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Antoine Guérin, Gaspard Kerner, Nico Marr, Janet G Markle, Florence Fenollar, Natalie Wong, Sabri Boughorbel, Danielle T Avery, Cindy S Ma, Salim Bougarn, Matthieu Bouaziz, Vivien Beziat, Erika Della Mina, Carmen Oleaga-Quintas, Tomi Lazarovt, Lisa Worley, Tina Nguyen, Etienne Patin, Caroline Deswarte, Rubén Martinez-Barricarte, Soraya Boucherit, Xavier Ayral, Sophie Edouard, Stéphanie Boisson-Dupuis, Vimel Rattina, Benedetta Bigio, Guillaume Vogt, Frédéric Geissmann, Lluis Quintana-Murci, Damien Chaussabel, Stuart G Tangye, Didier Raoult, Laurent Abel, Jacinta Bustamante, Jean-Laurent Casanova
Most humans are exposed to Tropheryma whipplei (Tw). Whipple's disease (WD) strikes only a small minority of individuals infected with Tw (<0.01%), whereas asymptomatic chronic carriage is more common (<25%). We studied a multiplex kindred, containing four WD patients and five healthy Tw chronic carriers. We hypothesized that WD displays autosomal dominant (AD) inheritance, with age-dependent incomplete penetrance. We identified a single very rare non-synonymous mutation in the four patients: the private R98W variant of IRF4, a transcription factor involved in immunity...
March 14, 2018: ELife
Christophe Gardella, Olivier Marre, Thierry Mora
The brain has no direct access to physical stimuli but only to the spiking activity evoked in sensory organs. It is unclear how the brain can learn representations of the stimuli based on those noisy, correlated responses alone. Here we show how to build an accurate distance map of responses solely from the structure of the population activity of retinal ganglion cells. We introduce the Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine to learn the spatiotemporal structure of the population activity and use this model to define a distance between spike trains...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tomohiro Shimada, Hiroshi Ogasawara, Akira Ishihama
The identification of regulatory targets of all TFs is critical for understanding the entire network of the genome regulation. The lac regulon of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 is composed of the lacZYA operon and its repressor lacI gene, and has long been recognized as the seminal model of transcription regulation in bacteria with only one highly preferred target. After the Genomic SELEX screening in vitro of more than 200 transcription factors (TFs) from E. coli K-12, however, we found that most TFs regulate multiple target genes...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Mary K Phillips-Jones, Stephen E Harding
In this review, we discuss mechanisms of resistance identified in bacterial agents Staphylococcus aureus and the enterococci towards two priority classes of antibiotics-the fluoroquinolones and the glycopeptides. Members of both classes interact with a number of components in the cells of these bacteria, so the cellular targets are also considered. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms include efflux pumps (MepA, NorA, NorB, NorC, MdeA, LmrS or SdrM in S. aureus and EfmA or EfrAB in the enterococci) for removal of fluoroquinolone from the intracellular environment of bacterial cells and/or protection of the gyrase and topoisomerase IV target sites in Enterococcus faecalis by Qnr-like proteins...
March 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Mengye Li, Karan R Chadda, Gareth D K Matthews, Celia M Marr, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Exercising horses uniquely accommodate 7-8-fold increases in heart rate (HR). The present experiments for the first time analysed the related adaptations in action potential (AP) restitution properties recorded by in vivo telemetric electrocardiography from Thoroughbred horses. The horses were subjected to a period of acceleration from walk to canter. The QRS durations, and QT and TQ intervals yielded AP conduction velocities, AP durations (APDs) and diastolic intervals respectively. From these, indices of active, λ = QT/(QRS duration), and resting, λ0 = TQ/(QRS duration), AP wavelengths were calculated...
2018: PloS One
Merle Boerrigter, Anneke Vermeulen, Henri Marres, Margreet Langereis
The aim of this study was to compare the personality traits of adolescents with cochlear implants (CIs) to a reference group (normal-hearing peers). In the past, the personality development of hearing impaired adolescents was severely compromised. Improved speech perception with CI significantly increased their perspectives. In addition, differences between the reference group and CI users were investigated on personality traits according to level of speech perception skills (high/low) and level of language comprehension (adequate/poor)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Erik M von Meyenfeldt, Geertruid M H Marres, Eric van Thiel, Ronald A M Damhuis
OBJECTIVES: Length of stay (LOS) in the hospital after lung cancer surgery is influenced by patient characteristics, tumour characteristics, surgical technique and perioperative care. Our objective was to determine whether there were variation in LOS between hospitals that could not be accounted for by these known parameters. Residual variation in LOS would suggest important differences in perioperative care protocols and discharge criteria. METHODS: This study analysed data from the Netherlands National Cancer Registry (NNCR) on 10 195 anatomical lung resections for primary lung cancer from 2010 to 2015...
March 5, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Kara A Moser, Lixin Zhang, Ian Spicknall, Nikolay P Braykov, Karen Levy, Carl F Marrs, Betsy Foxman, Gabriel Trueba, William Cevallos, Jason Goldstick, James Trostle, Joseph N S Eisenberg
Small-scale production poultry operations are increasingly common worldwide. To investigate how these operations influence antimicrobial resistance and mobile genetic elements (MGEs), Escherichia coli isolates were sampled from small-scale production birds (raised in confined spaces with antibiotics in feed), household birds (no movement constraints; fed on scraps), and humans associated with these birds in rural Ecuador (2010-2012). Isolates were screened for genes associated with MGEs as well as phenotypic resistance to 12 antibiotics...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jessica Yang, Daniel K Manson, Brian P Marr, Richard D Carvajal
Uveal melanoma, a rare subset of melanoma, is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Despite effective primary therapy, nearly 50% of patients will develop metastatic disease. Outcomes for those with metastatic disease remain dismal due to a lack of effective therapies. The unique biology and immunology of uveal melanoma necessitates the development of dedicated management and treatment approaches. Ongoing efforts seek to optimize the efficacy of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
Andrew D Turner, Monika Dhanji-Rapkova, Karl Dean, Steven Milligan, Mike Hamilton, Julie Thomas, Chris Poole, Jo Haycock, Jo Spelman-Marriott, Alice Watson, Katherine Hughes, Bridget Marr, Alan Dixon, Lewis Coates
At the start of 2018, multiple incidents of dog illnesses were reported following consumption of marine species washed up onto the beaches of eastern England after winter storms. Over a two-week period, nine confirmed illnesses including two canine deaths were recorded. Symptoms in the affected dogs included sickness, loss of motor control, and muscle paralysis. Samples of flatfish, starfish, and crab from the beaches in the affected areas were analysed for a suite of naturally occurring marine neurotoxins of dinoflagellate origin...
February 26, 2018: Toxins
Eric P Vejerano, Linsey C Marr
The detailed physico-chemical characteristics of respiratory droplets in ambient air, where they are subject to evaporation, are poorly understood. Changes in the concentration and phase of major components in a droplet-salt (NaCl), protein (mucin) and surfactant (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine)-may affect the viability of any pathogens contained within it and thus may affect the efficiency of transmission of infectious disease by droplets and aerosols. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the physico-chemical characteristics of evaporating droplets of model respiratory fluids...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Patrick H Lim, Stephanie L Wert, Elif Tunc-Ozcan, Robert Marr, Adriana Ferreira, Eva E Redei
Aging and major depressive disorder are risk factors for dementia, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but the mechanism(s) linking depression and dementia are not known. Both AD and depression show greater prevalence in women. We began to investigate this connection using females of the genetic model of depression, the inbred Wistar Kyoto More Immobile (WMI) rat. These rats consistently display depression-like behavior compared to the genetically close control, the Wistar Kyoto Less Immobile (WLI) strain. Hippocampus-dependent contextual fear memory did not differ between young WLI and WMI females, but by middle-age female WMIs showed memory deficits compared to same age WLIs...
February 25, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Sarah L Anderson, Joel C Marrs
This article reviews current literature on the role of pharmacists in the transition of care (TOC) for patients with heart failure (HF) and the impact of their contributions on therapeutic and economic outcomes. Optimizing the TOC for patients with HF from the hospital to the community/home is crucial for improving outcomes and decreasing high rates of hospital readmissions, which are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and costs. A multidisciplinary team approach to the management of patients with HF facilitates the transition from the hospital to the ambulatory care setting, allowing for the consideration of medical, pharmacological, and lifestyle variables that impact the care of individual patients...
February 27, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Sophie Comtet-Marre, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Ourdia Bouzid, Pascale Mosoni, Ali R Bayat, Pierre Peyret, Evelyne Forano
Ruminants fulfill their energy needs for growth primarily through microbial breakdown of plant biomass in the rumen. Several biotic and abiotic factors influence the efficiency of fiber degradation, which can ultimately impact animal productivity and health. To provide more insight into mechanisms involved in the modulation of fibrolytic activity, a functional DNA microarray targeting genes encoding key enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicellulose degradation by rumen microbiota was designed. Eight carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families (GH5, GH9, GH10, GH11, GH43, GH48, CE1, and CE6) were selected which represented 392 genes from bacteria, protozoa, and fungi...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Allison M Wilkin, Amber Harnett, Michael Underschultz, Cheryl Cragg, Kelly A Meckling
The protein disulfide isomerase ERp57 (GRp58/PDIA3/1,25D3-MARRS) has been implicated in a multitude of signaling pathways throughout the entire body. Most thoroughly studied for its protein-folding role, ERp57 has also been found to have multiple binding partners, and have significant effects on cellular growth. ERp57 has been studied n the context of several neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic conditions, and can be used as a prognosis marker in certain cancers. One role, as an alternate vitamin D binding receptor, has prompted research in tissues with known vitamin D activity, such as the intestine and bone...
February 22, 2018: Steroids
Amanda Souza Câmara, Eduardo Horjales
M. tuberculosis oxidation sense Regulator (MosR) is a transcriptional regulator from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It senses the environment oxidation and regulates the expression of a secreted oxidoreductase, thus defending the bacilli against oxidative stress from the phagosome. While most of the members of the Multiple antibiotics resistance Regulator (MarR) family are ligand-responsive, MosR may dissociate from its DNA site upon formation of an intrachain disulphide bond. However, the structure of MosR in its oxidized state is not known, and it is not clear how the formation of this disulphide bond would lead to the conformational changes required for dissociation of the DNA...
2018: PloS One
Thibault Meyer, Sébastien Renoud, Armelle Vigouroux, Aurélie Miomandre, Vincent Gaillard, Isabelle Kerzaon, Claire Prigent-Combaret, Gilles Comte, Solange Morera, Ludovic Vial, Lavire Céline
Regulatory factors are key components for the transition between different lifestyles to ensure rapid and appropriate gene expression upon perceiving environmental cues. Agrobacterium fabrum C58 (formerly called A. tumefaciens C58) has two contrasting lifestyles: it can interact with plants either as a rhizosphere inhabitant (rhizospheric lifestyle), or as a pathogen that creates its own ecological niche in a plant tumor via its tumor-inducing plasmid (pathogenic lifestyle). Hydroxycinnamic acids are known to play an important role in the pathogenic lifestyle of Agrobacterium but can be degraded in A...
February 20, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Paul B Sinclair, Helen H Blair, Sarra L Ryan, Lars Buechler, Joanna Cheng, Jake Clayton, Rebecca Hanna, Shaun Hollern, Zoe Hawking, Matthew Bashton, Claire J Schwab, Lisa Jones, Lisa J Russell, Helen Marr, Peter Carey, Christina Halsey, Olaf Heidenreich, Anthony V Moorman, Christine J Harrison
Intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 is a heterogeneous chromosomal rearrangement occurring in 2% of childhood precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. There are no cell lines with iAMP21 and these abnormalities are too complex to faithfully engineer in animal models. As a resource for future functional and pre-clinical studies, we have created xenografts from intrachromosomal amplification of chromosome 21 leukemia patient blasts and characterised them by in-vivo and ex-vivo luminescent imaging, FLOW immunophenotyping, and histological and ultrastructural analysis of bone marrow and the central nervous system...
February 15, 2018: Haematologica
Yaoxing Wu, Clara M A Eichler, Jianping Cao, Jennifer L Benning, Amy Olson, Shengyang Chen, Cong Liu, Eric Warren Vejerano, Linsey C Marr, John C Little
The particle/gas partition coefficient Kp is an important parameter affecting the fate and transport of indoor semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and resulting human exposure. Unfortunately, experimental measurements of Kp exist almost exclusively for atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with very few studies focusing on SVOCs that occur in indoor environments. A specially-designed tube chamber operating in the laminar flow regime was developed to measure Kp of the plasticizer di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) for one inorganic (ammonium sulfate) and two organic (oleic acid and squalane) particles...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Mollie Marr, Sarah M Horwitz, Ruth Gerson, Amy Storfer-Isser, Jennifer F Havens
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric mental health emergency department (ED) visits continue to rise with 19% to 62% of youth presenting to the ED ultimately returning for a mental health-related complaint. To better understand the needs of children returning to the ED, this study examines the clinical, demographic, and environmental factors associated with revisits to a dedicated child psychiatric ED. METHODS: Clinical factors, home environment, and mental health service utilization of 885 children presenting to a dedicated child psychiatric ED over a 1-year period were abstracted by retrospective chart review...
February 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
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