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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149640/change-to-ecosystem-properties-through-changing-the-dominant-species-impact-of-pteridium-aquilinum-control-and-heathland-restoration-treatments-on-selected-soil-properties
#1
G Milligan, K E Booth, E S Cox, R J Pakeman, M G Le Duc, L Connor, S Blackbird, R H Marrs
It is well known that soils are influenced by the plant species that grow in them. Here we consider the effects of management-induced changes to plant communities and their soils during restoration within a 20-year manipulative experiment where the aim was to change a late-successional community dominated by the weed, Pteridium aquilinum, to an earlier-successional grass-heath one. The ecological restoration treatments altered the above- and below-ground components of the community substantially. Untreated plots maintained a dense Pteridium cover with little understory vegetation, cutting treatments produce significant reductions of Pteridium, whereas herbicide (asulam) produced significant immediate reductions in Pteridium but regressed towards the untreated plots within 10 years...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149427/the-impact-of-the-national-bowel-screening-program-in-the-netherlands-on-detection-and-treatment-of-endoscopically-unresectable-benign-polyps
#2
C C M Marres, C J Buskens, E Schriever, P C M Verbeek, M W Mundt, W A Bemelman, A W H van de Ven
BACKGROUND: In January 2014, a national bowel cancer screening program started in the Netherlands. The program is being implemented in phases until 2019. Due to this program, an increase in patients referred for a colorectal resection for benign, but endoscopically unresectable polyps, is expected. So far, most resections are performed according to oncological principles despite no pre-operative histological diagnosis of malignancy. The aim of this study was to analyze the increase in referred patients during the first year of the screening program and to compare pathological results and clinical outcome of resections of patients undergoing resection for benign polyps before and after implementation of screening...
November 17, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136419/occupational-exposure-to-manganese-and-fine-motor-skills-in-elderly-men-results-from-the-heinz-nixdorf-recall-study
#3
Beate Pesch, Swaantje Casjens, Tobias Weiss, Benjamin Kendzia, Marina Arendt, Lewin Eisele, Thomas Behrens, Nadin Ulrich, Noreen Pundt, Anja Marr, Sibylle Robens, Christoph Van Thriel, Rainer Van Gelder, Michael Aschner, Susanne Moebus, Nico Dragano, Thomas Brüning, Karl-Heinz Jöckel
Objectives: Exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause movement disorders, but less is known whether the effects persist after the termination of exposure. This study investigated the association between former exposure to Mn and fine motor deficits in elderly men from an industrial area with steel production. Methods: Data on the occupational history and fine motor tests were obtained from the second follow-up of the prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (2011-2014)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134102/imperial-trophy-or-island-relict-a-new-extinction-paradigm-for-p%C3%A3-re-david-s-deer-a-chinese-conservation-icon
#4
Samuel T Turvey, Ian Barnes, Melissa Marr, Selina Brace
Determining the 'dynamic biogeography' of range collapse in threatened species is essential for effective conservation, but reconstruction of spatio-temporal patterns of population vulnerability and resilience can require use of non-standard ecological data such as historical archives. Père David's deer or milu, one of the few living mammal species that has become extinct in the wild, is historically known only from a small captive herd of unknown provenance that survived until 1900 in the Imperial Hunting Park near Beijing, from which all living individuals are descended...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133912/the-multiple-antibiotic-resistance-operon-of-enteric-bacteria-controls-dna-repair-and-outer-membrane-integrity
#5
Prateek Sharma, James R J Haycocks, Alistair D Middlemiss, Rachel A Kettles, Laura E Sellars, Vito Ricci, Laura J V Piddock, David C Grainger
The multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) operon of Escherichia coli is a paradigm for chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance in enteric bacteria. The locus is recognised for its ability to modulate efflux pump and porin expression via two encoded transcription factors, MarR and MarA. Here we map binding of these regulators across the E. coli genome and identify an extensive mar regulon. Most notably, MarA activates expression of genes required for DNA repair and lipid trafficking. Consequently, the mar locus reduces quinolone-induced DNA damage and the ability of tetracyclines to traverse the outer membrane...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132301/measuring-frailty-in-clinical-practice-a-comparison-of-physical-frailty-assessment-methods-in-a-geriatric-out-patient-clinic
#6
J M Pritchard, C C Kennedy, S Karampatos, G Ioannidis, B Misiaszek, S Marr, C Patterson, T Woo, A Papaioannou
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to determine: 1) the prevalence of frailty using Fried's phenotype method and the Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB), 2) agreement between frailty assessment methods, 3) the feasibility of assessing frailty using Fried's phenotype method and the SPPB. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a geriatric out-patient clinic in Hamilton, Canada. A research assistant conducted all frailty assessments. Patients were classified as non-frail, pre-frail or frail according to Fried's phenotype method and the SPPB...
November 13, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125897/image-analysis-of-neural-stem-cell-division-patterns-in-the-zebrafish-brain
#7
Valerio Lupperger, Felix Buggenthin, Prisca Chapouton, Carsten Marr
Proliferating stem cells in the adult body are the source of constant regeneration. In the brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) divide to maintain the stem cell population and generate neural progenitor cells that eventually replenish mature neurons and glial cells. How much spatial coordination of NSC division and differentiation is present in a functional brain is an open question. To quantify the patterns of stem cell divisions, one has to (i) identify the pool of NSCs that have the ability to divide, (ii) determine NSCs that divide within a given time window, and (iii) analyze the degree of spatial coordination...
November 10, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117929/a-fully-automated-web-based-program-improves-lifestyle-habits-and-hba1c-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-and-abdominal-obesity-randomized-trial-of-patient-e-coaching-nutritional-support-the-anode-study
#8
Boris Hansel, Philippe Giral, Laetitia Gambotti, Alexandre Lafourcade, Gilbert Peres, Claude Filipecki, Diana Kadouch, Agnes Hartemann, Jean-Michel Oppert, Eric Bruckert, Michel Marre, Arnaud Bruneel, Emilie Duchene, Ronan Roussel
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of abdominal obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a public health challenge. New solutions need to be developed to help patients implement lifestyle changes. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate a fully automated Web-based intervention designed to help users improve their dietary habits and increase their physical activity. METHODS: The Accompagnement Nutritionnel de l'Obésité et du Diabète par E-coaching (ANODE) study was a 16-week, 1:1 parallel-arm, open-label randomized clinical trial...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117125/the-small-and-the-dead-a-review-of-ancient-dna-studies-analysing-micromammal-species
#9
REVIEW
Roseina Woods, Melissa M Marr, Selina Brace, Ian Barnes
The field of ancient DNA (aDNA) has recently been in a state of exponential growth, largely driven by the uptake of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques. Much of this work has focused on the mammalian megafauna and ancient humans, with comparatively less studies looking at micromammal fauna, despite the potential of these species in testing evolutionary, environmental and taxonomic theories. Several factors make micromammal fauna ideally suited for aDNA extraction and sequencing. Micromammal subfossil assemblages often include the large number of individuals appropriate for population level analyses, and, furthermore, the assemblages are frequently found in cave sites where the constant temperature and sheltered environment provide favourable conditions for DNA preservation...
November 8, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104349/ten-questions-concerning-the-aerosolization-and-transmission-of-legionella-in-the-built-environment
#10
Aaron J Prussin, David Otto Schwake, Linsey C Marr
Legionella is a genus of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria responsible for a serious disease known as legionellosis, which is transmitted via inhalation of this pathogen in aerosol form. There are two forms of legionellosis: Legionnaires' disease, which causes pneumonia-like symptoms, and Pontiac fever, which causes influenza-like symptoms. Legionella can be aerosolized from various water sources in the built environment including showers, faucets, hot tubs/swimming pools, cooling towers, and fountains. Incidence of the disease is higher in the summertime, possibly because of increased use of cooling towers for air conditioning systems and differences in water chemistry when outdoor temperatures are higher...
October 2017: Building and Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104232/treatment-with-a-catalytic-superoxide-dismutase-sod-mimetic-improves-liver-steatosis-insulin-sensitivity-and-inflammation-in-obesity-induced-type-2-diabetes
#11
Gina M Coudriet, Meghan M Delmastro-Greenwood, Dana M Previte, Meghan L Marré, Erin C O'Connor, Elizabeth A Novak, Garret Vincent, Kevin P Mollen, Sojin Lee, H Henry Dong, Jon D Piganelli
Oxidative stress and persistent inflammation are exaggerated through chronic over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle, resulting in insulin resistance. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), impaired insulin signaling leads to hyperglycemia and long-term complications, including metabolic liver dysfunction, resulting in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The manganese metalloporphyrin superoxide dismustase (SOD) mimetic, manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (N-ethylpyridinium-2-yl) porphyrin (MnP), is an oxidoreductase known to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine production, by inhibiting nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activation...
November 1, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101199/antifungal-hsaf-biosynthesis-in-lysobacter-enzymogenes-is-controlled-by-the-interplay-of-two-transcription-factors-and-a-diffusible-molecule
#12
Zhenhe Su, Sen Han, Zhengqing Fu, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu
Lysobacter enzymogenes is a Gram-negative, environmental ubiquitous bacterium that produces a secondary metabolite, called HSAF (Heat-stable antifungal factor), as an antifungal factor against plant and animal fungal pathogens. 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) is a newly identified diffusible factor that regulates HSAF synthesis via LysRLe, a LysR-type transcription factor (TF). Here, to identify additional TFs within the 4-HBA regulatory pathway that control HSAF production, we re-analyzed the LenB2-based transcriptomic data, in which LenB2 is the enzyme responsible for 4-HBA production...
November 3, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094616/acupuncture-in-oncology-the-effectiveness-of-acupuncture-may-not-depend-on-needle-retention-duration
#13
Byeongsang Oh, Thomas Eade, Andrew Kneebone, George Hruby, Gillian Lamoury, Nick Pavlakis, Stephen Clarke, Chris Zaslawski, Isobel Marr, Daniel Costa, Michael Back
BACKGROUND: Guidelines surrounding optimum needle retention duration in acupuncture have not been established, despite a growing evidence base for acupuncture over recent decades. This retrospective study explored the effect of varying acupuncture needle retention durations in cancer patients. METHOD: Patients received either 2 (n = 35), 10 (n = 53), or 20 minutes (n = 54) of acupuncture once a week for 6 weeks. Outcomes of anxiety and depression, stress, fatigue, and quality of life (QOL), with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Fatigue, and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life, were measured at baseline and at 6 weeks following the intervention...
October 1, 2017: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079715/changes-in-albuminuria-and-the-risk-of-major-clinical-outcomes-in-diabetes-results-from-advance-on
#14
Min Jun, Toshiaki Ohkuma, Sophia Zoungas, Stephen Colagiuri, Giuseppe Mancia, Michel Marre, David Matthews, Neil Poulter, Bryan Williams, Anthony Rodgers, Vlado Perkovic, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward
OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between 2-year changes in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and the risk of clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from 8,766 participants in the ADVANCE-ON study. Change in UACR was calculated from UACR measurements 2 years apart, classified into three groups: decrease in UACR of ≥30%, minor change, and increase in UACR of ≥30%. By analyzing changes from baseline UACR groups, categorized into thirds, we repeated these analyses accounting for regression to the mean (RtM)...
October 27, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078707/continuous-care-provided-through-comprehensive-medication-management-in-an-acute-care-practice-model
#15
T David Marr, Nicole R Pinelli, Jamie A Jarmul, Kayla M Waldron, Stephen F Eckel, Jonathan D Cicci, Jill S Bates, Lindsey B Amerine
BACKGROUND: Pharmacy practice models that foster pharmacists' accountability for medication-related outcomes are imperative for the profession. Comprehensive medication management (CMM) is an opportunity to advance patient care. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a CMM practice model in the acute care setting on organizational, patient, and financial outcomes. METHODS: Three adult service lines focused on at-risk patients identified using internal risk stratification methodology were implemented...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077520/marr-family-transcription-factor-hpar-controls-expression-of-the-vgrr-vgrs-operon-of-xanthomonas-campestris-pv-campestris
#16
Yue Pan, Fang Liang, Ru-Jiao Li, Wei Qian
MarR-family transcription factors (TFs), which regulate the expression of virulence factors and other physiological pathways in pathogenic bacteria, are regarded as ideal molecular targets for the development of novel antimicrobial strategies. In the plant bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, HpaR, a typical MarR-family TF, is associated with bacterial virulence, but its mechanism of virulence regulation remains unclear. Here, we dissected the HpaR regulon using high-throughput RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing...
October 27, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073626/diosgenin-an-activator-of-1-25d3-marrs-receptor-erp57-attenuates-the-effects-of-tnf-%C3%AE-by-causing-adam10-dependent-ectodomain-shedding-of-tnf-receptor-1
#17
Won Seok Yang, Soo Young Moon, Mee Jeong Lee, Eun Kyoung Lee, Su-Kil Park
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated how diosgenin, a steroidal sapogenin, has anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) effects in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). METHODS: Tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) was assessed by Western blot analysis. Intracellular Ca2+ was measured using Fluo-4 AM. Immunofluorescence staining was performed for a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). RESULTS: Diosgenin (1 ∼ 100 nM) induced ectodomain shedding of TNFR1 within 30 min and attenuated TNF-α-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066292/rem2-signaling-affects-neuronal-structure-and-function-in-part-by-regulation-of-gene-expression
#18
Katelyn Kenny, Leandro Royer, Anna R Moore, Xiao Chen, Michael T Marr, Suzanne Paradis
The central nervous system has the remarkable ability to convert changes in the environment in the form of sensory experience into long-term alterations in synaptic connections and dendritic arborization, in part through changes in gene expression. Surprisingly, the molecular mechanisms that translate neuronal activity into changes in neuronal connectivity and morphology remain elusive. Rem2, a member of the Rad/Rem/Rem2/Gem/Kir (RGK) subfamily of small Ras-like GTPases, is a positive regulator of synapse formation and negative regulator of dendritic arborization...
October 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061964/sparse-synaptic-connectivity-is-required-for-decorrelation-and-pattern-separation-in-feedforward-networks
#19
N Alex Cayco-Gajic, Claudia Clopath, R Angus Silver
Pattern separation is a fundamental function of the brain. The divergent feedforward networks thought to underlie this computation are widespread, yet exhibit remarkably similar sparse synaptic connectivity. Marr-Albus theory postulates that such networks separate overlapping activity patterns by mapping them onto larger numbers of sparsely active neurons. But spatial correlations in synaptic input and those introduced by network connectivity are likely to compromise performance. To investigate the structural and functional determinants of pattern separation we built models of the cerebellar input layer with spatially correlated input patterns, and systematically varied their synaptic connectivity...
October 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058544/immunomodulatory-effects-of-antimicrobial-drugs
#20
Christine Ruh, Rashmi Banjade, Subhadra Mandadi, Candace Marr, Zarchi Sumon, John K Crane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Immunological Investigations
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