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Caroline C Marrs, Maged M Costantine
Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder that affects 3% to 5% of pregnant women and remains a significant source of short-term and long-term maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. Many professional societies recommend the use of low-dose aspirin to prevent preeclampsia in high-risk women. Owing to the similarities in pathophysiology between preeclampsia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, and the encouraging data from preclinical and pilot clinical studies, pravastatin has been proposed for preventing preeclampsia...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Anders Brüggemann, Erik Fredlund, Hans Mallmin, Nils P Hailer
Background and purpose - Porous tantalum cups have been introduced as an alternative to various reinforcement rings in revision hip surgery. We hypothesized that porous tantalum cups would be superior to Müller acetabular roof reinforcement rings (MARRs) in revision hip surgery with re-revision for aseptic loosening as the primary outcome measure. Patients and methods - 207 hips operated with either a porous tantalum cup (TM cup, n = 111) or a MARR (n = 96) at index procedure were identified in our local arthroplasty register...
November 28, 2016: Acta Orthopaedica
Justin Feigelman, Stefan Ganscha, Simon Hastreiter, Michael Schwarzfischer, Adam Filipczyk, Timm Schroeder, Fabian J Theis, Carsten Marr, Manfred Claassen
Many cellular effectors of pluripotency are dynamically regulated. In principle, regulatory mechanisms can be inferred from single-cell observations of effector activity across time. However, rigorous inference techniques suitable for noisy, incomplete, and heterogeneous data are lacking. Here, we introduce stochastic inference on lineage trees (STILT), an algorithm capable of identifying stochastic models that accurately describe the quantitative behavior of cell fate markers observed using time-lapse microscopy data collected from proliferating cell populations...
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
Victor M Santana, Josu G Alday, HyoHyeMi Lee, Katherine A Allen, Rob H Marrs
A present challenge in fire ecology is to optimize management techniques so that ecological services are maximized and C emissions minimized. Here, we modeled the effects of different prescribed-burning rotation intervals and wildfires on carbon emissions (present and future) in British moorlands. Biomass-accumulation curves from four Calluna-dominated ecosystems along a north-south gradient in Great Britain were calculated and used within a matrix-model based on Markov Chains to calculate above-ground biomass-loads and annual C emissions under different prescribed-burning rotation intervals...
2016: PloS One
Swaantje Casjens, Beate Pesch, Sibylle Robens, Benjamin Kendzia, Thomas Behrens, Tobias Weiss, Nadin Ulrich, Marina Arendt, Lewin Eisele, Noreen Pundt, Anja Marr, Christoph van Thriel, Rainer Van Gelder, Michael Aschner, Susanne Moebus, Nico Dragano, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Thomas Brüning
Occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) has been associated with impairments in olfaction and motor functions, but it has yet to be determined if such effects persist upon cessation of exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of former occupational Mn exposure on olfaction within the framework of a prospective cohort study among an elderly German population. Information on job tasks with recognized Mn exposure and data on odor identification assessed with Sniffin' sticks was collected during the second follow-up of the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study...
November 16, 2016: Neurotoxicology
S Smith, C M Marr, C Dunnett, N J Menzies-Gow
BACKGROUND: Birthweight of Thoroughbred foals has increased in recent years. It is unknown whether this is associated with increased broodmare obesity or endocrine dysfunction. OBJECTIVES: To determine insulin, leptin and triglyceride concentrations in Thoroughbred mares throughout gestation and investigate their association with obesity and foal birthweight. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: 66 mares were included from 40 d post-breeding...
November 8, 2016: Equine Veterinary Journal
Sean H P P Roerink, Lien Coolen, Maria E Schenning, Olga Husson, Jan W A Smit, Henri A Marres, Johannes H W de Wilt, Romana T Netea-Maier
BACKGROUND: Shoulder complaints are frequently reported after surgical treatment for thyroid carcinoma. However, no specific literature on this topic is available for these patients and, hence, its impact on quality of life (QOL) is unknown and there are no known predictors of shoulder complaints in this specific patient population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of shoulder-related complaints and its relation to QOL and clinical characteristics after thyroid carcinoma surgery by means of a cross-sectional case control study in a tertiary referral center...
November 12, 2016: Head & Neck
Thom J Ringer, Afeez Abiola Hazzan, Courtney C Kennedy, Sarah Karampatos, Christopher Patterson, Sharon Marr, Brian Misiaszek, Tricia Woo, George Ioannidis, Alexandra Papaioannou
BACKGROUND: Physical frailty is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in community-dwelling older adults. Burden in informal caregivers of older adults causes significant physical and psychological distress. However, the relationship between these two clinical phenomena has not been extensively studied. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationship between physical frailty of community-dwelling older adults attending an outpatient geriatric clinic and the subjective burden reported by their informal caregivers...
November 17, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
Jason S Prentice, Olivier Marre, Mark L Ioffe, Adrianna R Loback, Gašper Tkačik, Michael J Berry
Across the nervous system, certain population spiking patterns are observed far more frequently than others. A hypothesis about this structure is that these collective activity patterns function as population codewords-collective modes-carrying information distinct from that of any single cell. We investigate this phenomenon in recordings of ∼150 retinal ganglion cells, the retina's output. We develop a novel statistical model that decomposes the population response into modes; it predicts the distribution of spiking activity in the ganglion cell population with high accuracy...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Toyotaka Sato, Yuuki Suzuki, Tsukasa Shiraishi, Hiroyuki Honda, Masaaki Shinagawa, Soh Yamamoto, Noriko Ogasawara, Hiroki Takahashi, Satoshi Takahashi, Yutaka Tamura, Shin-Ichi Yokota
Tigecycline (TGC) is a last-line drug for multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. We investigated the mechanism(s) underlying TGC non-susceptibility (TGC-resistance/intermediate) in Escherichia coli clinical isolates. The MIC of TGC was determined for 277 fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (ciprofloxacin [CIP] MIC: <0.125 mg/L, and 194 fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates (CIP MIC: >2 mg/L). The MIC50 and MIC90 for TGC in fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were 2-fold higher than those in fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates (MIC50: 0...
November 14, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Hirokazu Tanaka
What does "understanding the brain" mean? Here, I review how computational neuroscience, a theoretical approach to the brain, can aid our understanding of the brain. First, I illustrate the study of reinforcement learning and dopamine neurons and argue its success in the light of Marr's three levels of computation. Second, I discuss how Marr's program has led to a computational understanding of the brain, and present computational models of the motor cortex and of a spiking neural network as illustrative examples...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Tim Lane, Thomas Osmand, Alexander Marr, Helen Struthers, James A McIntyre, Starley B Shade
Cross-sectional studies among African men who have sex with men (MSM) populations demonstrate high HIV prevalence, but few incidence estimates exist. The Mpumalanga Men's Study in Gert Sibande, Mpumalanga province, South Africa, involved 3 serial cross-sectional surveys of MSM recruited through respondent-driven sampling between 2012 and 2015. Successive surveys recaptured a nested cohort of 179, contributing 144.3 person-years (PY) of observation. We observed 18 seroconversions, or incidence of 12.5/100 (PY) (95% confidence interval CI: 8...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Rebecca Schroll, Megan Lipcsey, C T Grayson, Jiselle Heaney, David Swift, John Hunt, Alan Marr, Juan Duchesne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Megan E Schreeg, Henry S Marr, Jaime L Tarigo, Leah A Cohn, David M Bird, Elizabeth H Scholl, Michael G Levy, Brian M Wiegmann, Adam J Birkenheuer
The taxonomy of the order Piroplasmida, which includes a number of clinically and economically relevant organisms, is a hotly debated topic amongst parasitologists. Three genera (Babesia, Theileria, and Cytauxzoon) are recognized based on parasite life cycle characteristics, but molecular phylogenetic analyses of 18S sequences have suggested the presence of five or more distinct Piroplasmida lineages. Despite these important advancements, a few studies have been unable to define the taxonomic relationships of some organisms (e...
2016: PloS One
Sarah Gebauer, Sarah Knox Morley, Emily A Haozous, Esme Finlay, Chris Camarata, Bridget Fahy, Erin FitzGerald, Kimberly Harlow, Lisa Marr
BACKGROUND: Little is known about optimal palliative and end-of-life care for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane library, EBSCOhost, (PsycINFO, CINAHL Complete), and the University of New Mexico (UNM) Health Sciences Library and Informatics Center Native Health Database for search terms related to palliative care and AIs/ANs as of December 1, 2015. We included English language, peer-reviewed articles describing palliative care projects, programs, or studies in AI/AN populations or communities...
December 2016: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Florian Johannes Maier, Thomas Lachner, Andrej Vilfan, T Onur Tasci, Keith B Neeves, David W M Marr, Thomas M Fischer
We use a rotating magnetic field to assemble an oblate cluster of paramagnetic colloidal particles. If the field is rotating about a horizontal axis, the cluster acts as a colloidal wheel rolling across the supporting glass surface. The motion is reversible upon switching the direction of rotation. Surprisingly, the reversibility is lost if the axis of field rotation is tilted with respect to the surface. The wheel then rolls in a direction that is not perpendicular to the field rotation axis. We explain the skewed rotation with an interplay between a magnetic driving torque, magnetic anisotropy and an anisotropy in the hydrodynamic mobility tensor in the vicinity of a surface...
November 8, 2016: Soft Matter
Ma Lina, Mi Hongfei, Xue Yunxin, Wang Dai, Zhao Xilin
Misuse and overuse of antibiotics have led to serious resistance problems that pose a grave threat to human health. How to solve the increasing antibiotic resistance problem is a huge challenge. Besides the traditional strategy of developing novel antimicrobial agents, exploring ways to enhance the lethal activity of antibiotics currently available is another feasible approach to fight against resistance. Recent studies showed that ROS plays an important role in regulating both antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality...
October 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Julia Marré, Edward C Traver, Antony M Jose
Experiences during the lifetime of an animal have been proposed to have consequences for subsequent generations. Although it is unclear how such intergenerational transfer of information occurs, RNAs found extracellularly in animals are candidate molecules that can transfer gene-specific regulatory information from one generation to the next because they can enter cells and regulate gene expression. In support of this idea, when double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is introduced into some animals, the dsRNA can silence genes of matching sequence and the silencing can persist in progeny...
November 1, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jaana-Sophia Kern, Stefan Wolfart, Ralf-Dieter Hilgers, Birgit Marré, Herbert Scheller, Jörg Strub, Klaus Böning, Wolfgang Hannak, Ralph G Luthardt, Guido Heydecke, Jan Huppertz, Peter Pospiech, Bernd Wöstmann, Helmut Stark, Torsten Mundt, Florentine Jahn, Matthias Kern, Daniel Edelhoff, Michael H Walter
OBJECTIVES: Being a secondary outcome in a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the present analysis focused on interdental spacing in the shortened dental arch (SDA). The aim was to evaluate changes in interdental spacing in dependence of two different treatments after an observation period of up to 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients were either treated with a partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) for molar replacement (PRDP group) or according to the SDA concept aiming at a premolar occlusion (SDA group) in a randomized manner...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Lorène Penazzi, Julia Lorengel, Frederik Sündermann, Nataliya Golovyashkina, Stefan Marre, Chantal M B Mathis, Lars Lewejohann, Roland Brandt, Lidia Bakota
DMSO has a widespread use as a vehicle for water-insoluble therapeutic drug candidates but may also exert disease-relevant pharmacological effects by itself. However, its influence on the CNS has hardly been addressed. Here we examined the brain structure and function following chronic exposure to low DMSO dose at a paradigm with flawed synaptic connectivity in a preclinical transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer's disease (APPSDL mice). DMSO treatment increased spine density in a region-specific manner in the hippocampus of APPSDL mice ex vivo and in vivo...
October 20, 2016: Neuropharmacology
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