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conservation medicine

Nashmiah Aid Alrashedy, Jeanmaire Molina
Psychoactive plants contain chemicals that presumably evolved as allelochemicals but target certain neuronal receptors when consumed by humans, altering perception, emotion and cognition. These plants have been used since ancient times as medicines and in the context of religious rituals for their various psychoactive effects (e.g., as hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives). The ubiquity of psychoactive plants in various cultures motivates investigation of the commonalities among these plants, in which a phylogenetic framework may be insightful...
2016: PeerJ
Asmaa I Owis, Nada S Abdelwahab, Adel A Abul-Soad
BACKGROUND: Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L'Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. OBJECTIVES: To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Mandeep S Tamber, Dimitrios Nikas, Alexandra Beier, Lissa C Baird, David F Bauer, Susan Durham, Paul Klimo, Alexander Y Lin, Catherine Mazzola, Catherine McClung-Smith, Laura Mitchell, Rachana Tyagi, Ann Marie Flannery
BACKGROUND: No evidence-based guidelines exist on the role of cranial-molding orthosis (helmet) therapy for patients with positional plagiocephaly. OBJECTIVE: To address the clinical question: "Does helmet therapy provide effective treatment for positional plagiocephaly?" and to make treatment recommendations based on the available evidence. METHODS: The US National Library of Medicine Medline database and the Cochrane Library were queried by using MeSH headings and key words relevant to the objective of this systematic review...
November 2016: Neurosurgery
James Chatterton
James Chatterton is veterinary services manager at Auckland Zoo. Part of his role involves providing veterinary care for the kakapo, one of the most endangered birds in New Zealand. He regularly provides onsite help on two protected islands off the South Island of New Zealand as part of his role as veterinary coordinator to the Kakapo Recovery Group.
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Record
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Huihong Guo, Rufang Li, Shibiao Liu, Na Zhao, Shuo Han, Mengmeng Lu, Xiaomin Liu, Xinli Xia
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a perennial medicinal herb widely distributed in China. This herb contains important medicinal components called gypenosides, which belong to dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins. Squalene epoxidase (SE, EC catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene to form oxidosqualene and is a key regulatory enzyme in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis. In this study, a SE gene designated as GpSE1 was isolated from G. pentaphyllum leaves. The deduced protein sequence of GpSE1 contained two conserved domains involved in the catalytic function of SE...
October 6, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Zhineng Li, Shaohua Zeng, Yanbang Li, Mingyang Li, Erik Souer
Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Emmanuel Caussinus, Markus Affolter
Protein depletion by genetic means, in a very general sense including the use of RNA interference [1, 2] or CRISPR/Cas9-based methods, represents a central paradigm of modern biology to study protein functions in vivo. However, acting upstream the proteic level is a limiting factor if the turnover of the target protein is slow or the existing pool of the target protein is important (for instance, in insect embryos, as a consequence of a strong maternal contribution). In order to circumvent these problems, we developed deGradFP [3, 4]...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jennifer F Ha, Waseem Ostwani, Glenn Green
INTRODUCTION: With the advent of improved neonatal and pediatric intensive care management, tracheostomy is increasingly performed in children requiring prolonged ventilation. Even though tracheostomy is generally a safe procedure, there remains mortality and morbidity associated with it. OBJECTIVE: We report a rare complication of a tracheostomy tube resulting in extensive erosion and posterior tracheal false pouch secondary to a large tracheostomy tube and high positive end expiratory pressure in a 12-month-old infant...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Lakey, Kinley Dorji
BACKGROUND: Human beings use plants for a multitude of purposes of which a prominent one across the globe is for their medicinal values. Medicinal plants serve as one of the major sources of income for high altitude inhabitants in the Himalaya, particularly in countries like Nepal, and Bhutan. People here harvest huge volumes of medicinal plants indiscriminately, risking their sustainability. This paper attempts to identify some of the priority medicinal plant species harvested in the wild and assess their ecological status for their judicious utilization, and to help provide policy guidance for possible domestication and support strategic conservation frameworks...
October 11, 2016: BMC Ecology
Viktor Ulicsni, Ingvar Svanberg, Zsolt Molnár
BACKGROUND: There is scarce information about European folk knowledge of wild invertebrate fauna. We have documented such folk knowledge in three regions, in Romania, Slovakia and Croatia. We provide a list of folk taxa, and discuss folk biological classification and nomenclature, salient features, uses, related proverbs and sayings, and conservation. METHODS: We collected data among Hungarian-speaking people practising small-scale, traditional agriculture. We studied "all" invertebrate species (species groups) potentially occurring in the vicinity of the settlements...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Ming Liu, Li-Na Li, Yi-Ting Pan, Jian-Qiang Kong
As the first step of ongoing efforts to investigate the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of steroidal saponins in the medicinal plant Ornithogalum caudatum, this investigation reported the cDNA isolation, prokaryotic expression and functional characterization of squalene synthase (SQS) gene from O. caudatum for the first time. Specifically, two unigenes showing high sequence identity to SQS were retrieved from RNA-Taq data, and then a full-length OcSQS1 corresponding to the two unigenes was isolated from O...
October 7, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Eleonora Zambrano Blanco, Miklos Maximiliano Bajay, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro Siqueira, Maria Imaculada Zucchi, José Baldin Pinheiro
Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers...
October 8, 2016: Genetica
Morag K Mansley, Jessica R Ivy, Matthew A Bailey
Hypertension is known as the "silent killer," driving the global public health burden of cardiovascular and renal disease. Blood pressure homeostasis is intimately associated with sodium balance and the distribution of sodium between fluid compartments and within tissues. On a population level, most societies consume 10 times more salt that the 0.5 g required by physiological need. This high salt intake is strongly linked to hypertension and to the World Health Organization targeting a ∼30% relative reduction in mean population salt intake to arrest the global mortality due to cardiovascular disease...
September 2016: KI Rep
Xiaoyue Wang, Yang Liu, Lili Wang, Jianping Han, Shilin Chen
It is very difficult to identify Angelicae sinensis radix (Danggui) when it is processed into Chinese patent medicines. The proposed internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) is not sufficient to resolve heavily processed materials. Therefore, a short barcode for the identification of processed materials is urgently needed. In this study, 265 samples of Angelicae sinensis radix and adulterants were collected. The ITS2 region was sequenced, and based on one single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP) site unique to Angelica sinensis, a nucleotide signature consisting of 37-bp (5'-aatccgcgtc atcttagtga gctcaaggac ccttagg-3') was developed...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lulu Yang, Jianjun Chen, Weiming Hu, Tianshun Yang, Yanjun Zhang, Tamura Yukiyoshi, Yanyang Zhou, Ying Wang
BACKGROUND: Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation...
2016: PloS One
Heng Xia, Libin Zhang, Gang Wu, Chunhua Fu, Yan Long, Jun Xiang, Jianping Gan, Yanhong Zhou, Longjiang Yu, Maoteng Li
MiRNAs function in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression and play very important roles in plant development. Lonicera japonica is one of the important medicinal plants in China. However, few studies on the discovery of conserved and novel miRNAs from L. japonica were reported. In this study, we employed deep sequencing technology to identify miRNAs in leaf and flower tissues of L. japonica. A total of 22.97 million clean reads from flower and leaf tissues were obtained, which generated 146 conserved miRNAs distributed in 20 families and 110 novel miRNAs...
2016: PloS One
F A Brito, D A C Nizio, A V C Silva, L E C Diniz, A R C Rabbani, M F Arrigoni-Blank, S V Alvares-Carvalho, G M Figueira, I Montanari Júnior, A F Blank
Varronia curassavica Jacq. is a medicinal and aromatic plant from Brazil with significant economic importance. Studies on genetic diversity in active germplasm banks (AGB) are essential for conservation and breeding programs. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity of V. curassavica accessions of the AGB of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), using inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Twenty-four primers were tested, and 14 were polymorphic and informative, resulting in 149 bands with 97...
September 2, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
R Solis, M Pezo, G Diaz, L Arévalo, D Cachique
The seeds of Plukenetia polyadenia have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids and are used as medicine and food for native people in the Peruvian and Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to develop a method for vegetative propagation of Plukenetia polyadenia by rooting of cuttings. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 12 treatments and 3 replications of 8 cuttings, in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement. The factors were: 3 levels of leaf area (25, 50 and 75%) and 3 indole-3-butyric acid - IBA concentrations (9...
October 3, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Fabrizio De Biasio, Nicola Zingaretti, Andrea Marchesi, Luca Vaienti, Daria Almesberger, Pier Camillo Parodi
BACKGROUND: Quadrantectomy is an oncologically safe procedure for the treatment of early-stage breast cancer, but it often results in poor aesthetic outcomes such as breast shape deformity, which is more visible if the tumour is located in the lower pole. We recommend the use of the transverse incision, which retains the oncological advantages of the quadrantectomy while leading to better aesthetical results. METHOD: We evaluated the clinical results of 24 patients with breast cancer who underwent quadrantectomy of the lower breast pole and volume replacement with remodelling through three posterior scorings from January 2012 to January 2014, with cosmetic evaluations performed according to the criteria set by the Japanese Breast Cancer Society...
October 4, 2016: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
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