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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340266/rna-seq-based-transcriptome-and-the-reproduction-related-genes-for-the-aphid-schlechtendalia-chinensis-hemiptera-aphididae
#1
P Liu, Z X Yang, X M Chen, P Yang
Chinese galls form on sumac plants (Rhus chinensis) and are used for medicinal and chemical purposes, due to their richness in tannins. The galls are formed by aphids, the most prominent of which is Schlechtendalia chinensis, which forms horn-shaped galls on the winged rachis of R. chinensis. S. chinensis has a complex life cycle, including both R. chinensis and certain mosses as hosts, as well as the existence of both sexual and asexual reproduction (cyclical parthenogenesis). Previous studies have shown that the alternate occurrence of sexual and asexual reproduction relies on many environmental factors, such as temperature, photoperiod, and host-plant...
March 22, 2017: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330322/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-in-monsonia-burkeana-revealed-putative-genes-for-key-metabolic-pathways-involved-in-tea-quality-and-medicinal-value
#2
Adugna A Woldesemayat, Khayalethu Ntushelo, David M Modise
Monsonia (Monsonia burkeana Planch. ex Harv) is one of the most valuable tea and traditional medicinal plants used in Southern Africa. In spite of this, there is no sequence information regarding this plant in literature. To provide understanding of the naturally occurring tea and drug-specific products and the key pathways for the biosynthesis of these molecules, we sequenced the leaf transcriptome using Illumina MiSeq platform and generated 2,590,652 paired-end reads that were assembled de novo into 45,450 high-quality transcripts...
December 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325144/therapeutic-potential-and-outlook-of-alternative-medicine-for-osteoporosis
#3
Tao Wang, Qian Liu, William Tjhioe, Jinmin Zhao, Aiping Lu, Ge Zhang, Renxiang Tan, Mengyu Zhou, Jiake Xu, Haotian Feng
Osteoporosis, a bone disease resulting in loss of bone density and microstructure quality, is often associated with fragility fractures, and the latter imposes a great burden on the patient and society. Although there are several different treatments available for osteoporosis such as hormone replacement therapy, bisphosphonates, Denosumab, and parathyroid hormone some concern has been raised regarding the inherent side effects of their long term use. It would be of great relevance to search for alternative natural compounds, which could complementarily overcome the limitations of the currently available therapy...
March 21, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320100/drosophila-melanogaster-a-potential-model-organism-for-identification-of-pharmacological-properties-of-plants-plant-derived-components
#4
REVIEW
Komal Panchal, Anand K Tiwari
Plants/plant-derived components have been used from ancient times to treat/cure several human diseases. Plants and their parts possess several chemical components that play the vital role in the improvement of human health and their life expectancy. Allopathic medicines have been playing a key role in the treatment of several diseases. Though allopathic medicines provide fast relief, long time consumption cause serious health concerns such as hyperallergic reactions, liver damage, etc. So, the study of medicinal plants which rarely cause any side effect is very important to mankind...
March 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316882/sympathy-for-the-devil-a-conservation-strategy-for-devil-and-manta-rays
#5
Julia M Lawson, Sonja V Fordham, Mary P O'Malley, Lindsay N K Davidson, Rachel H L Walls, Michelle R Heupel, Guy Stevens, Daniel Fernando, Ania Budziak, Colin A Simpfendorfer, Isabel Ender, Malcolm P Francis, Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, Nicholas K Dulvy
BACKGROUND: International trade for luxury products, medicines, and tonics poses a threat to both terrestrial and marine wildlife. The demand for and consumption of gill plates (known as Peng Yu Sai, "Fish Gill of Mobulid Ray") from devil and manta rays (subfamily Mobulinae, collectively referred to as mobulids) poses a significant threat to these marine fishes because of their extremely low productivity. The demand for these gill plates has driven an international trade supplied by largely unmonitored and unregulated catches from target and incidental fisheries around the world...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304398/characterization-of-the-polyphenol-oxidase-gene-family-reveals-a-novel-microrna-involved-in-posttranscriptional-regulation-of-ppos-in-salvia-miltiorrhiza
#6
Caili Li, Dongqiao Li, Jiang Li, Fenjuan Shao, Shanfa Lu
Salvia miltiorrhiza is a well-known material of traditional Chinese medicine. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of phenolic acid biosynthesis and metabolism are important for S. miltiorrhiza quality improvement. We report here that S. miltiorrhiza contains 19 polyphenol oxidases (PPOs), forming the largest PPO gene family in plant species to our knowledge. Analysis of gene structures and sequence features revealed the conservation and divergence of SmPPOs. SmPPOs were differentially expressed in plant tissues and eight of them were predominantly expressed in phloem and xylem, indicating that some SmPPOs are functionally redundant, whereas the others are associated with different physiological processes...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303586/estimation-of-treatment-effect-in-two-stage-confirmatory-oncology-trials-of-personalized-medicines
#7
Wen Li, Cong Chen, Xiaoyun Li, Robert A Beckman
A personalized medicine may benefit a subpopulation with certain predictive biomarker signatures or certain disease types. However, there is great uncertainty about drug activity in a subpopulation when designing a confirmatory trial in practice, and it is logical to take a two-stage approach with the study unless credible external information is available for decision-making purpose. The first stage deselects (or prunes) non-performing subpopulations at an interim analysis, and the second stage pools the remaining subpopulations in the final analysis...
March 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302416/plant-parts-substitution-based-approach-as-a-viable-conservation-strategy-for-medicinal-plants-a-case-study-of-premna-latifolia-roxb
#8
Ashish Kumar Jena, Maninder Karan, Karan Vasisht
BACKGROUND: Rapid population growth and catastrophic harvesting methods of wild medicinal plants especially trees, result in the exploitation of natural sources and its management is the need of the hour. Dashamoolarishta is an amalgam of roots of ten plants of a popular Ayurvedic FDC formulation consisting of the root of Premna latifolia Roxb. as one of its ingredients. Presently, their populations like many other trees are under threat due to extensive use of the roots by the herbal drug industry...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299323/addressing-challenges-to-enhance-the-bioactives-of-withania-somnifera-through-organ-tissue-and-cell-culture-based-approaches
#9
REVIEW
Pritika Singh, Rupam Guleri, Amrita Angurala, Kuldeep Kaur, Kulwinder Kaur, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Pratap Kumar Pati
Withania somnifera is a highly valued medicinal plant in traditional home medicine and is known for a wide range of bioactivities. Its commercial cultivation is adversely affected by poor seed viability and germination. Infestation by various pests and pathogens, survival under unfavourable environmental conditions, narrow genetic base, and meager information regarding biosynthesis of secondary metabolites are some of the other existing challenges in the crop. Biotechnological interventions through organ, tissue, and cell culture provide promising options for addressing some of these issues...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298075/inducing-cell-proliferative-prevention-in-human-acute-promyelocytic-leukemia-by-mir-182-inhibition-through-modulation-of-casp9-expression
#10
Mahdi Fasihi-Ramandi, Abbas Moridnia, Ali Najafi, Mohammadreza Sharifi
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are one class of endogenous non-coding RNAs that involved in post-transcriptional regulation of the gene. MiRNAs through interaction with messenger RNA (mRNA) involved in several biological processes such as cell cycle, differentiation, growth, metabolism, aging and apoptosis. MiRNAs may act as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor via up or down regulation in cancerous cells. MiR-182 located in a miR-183/-96/-182 cluster, this is the highly conserved cluster to have an important role in cancer development and tumorigenesis...
March 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295513/toxicity-dependent-feasibility-bounds-for-the-escalation-with-overdose-control-approach-in-phase-i-cancer-trials
#11
Graham M Wheeler, Michael J Sweeting, Adrian P Mander
Phase I trials of anti-cancer therapies aim to identify a maximum tolerated dose (MTD), defined as the dose that causes unacceptable toxicity in a target proportion of patients. Both rule-based and model-based methods have been proposed for MTD recommendation. The escalation with overdose control (EWOC) approach is a model-based design where the dose assigned to the next patient is one that, given all available data, has a posterior probability of exceeding the MTD equal to a pre-specified value known as the feasibility bound...
March 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293677/the-reliability-and-predictive-validity-of-a-sixth-semester-ospe-in-conservative-dentistry-regarding-performance-on-the-state-examination
#12
Petkov Petko, Katja Knuth-Herzig, Sebastian Hoefer, Sebastian Stehle, Sonja Scherer, Björn Steffen, Stephan Scherzer, Falk Ochsendorf, Holger Horz, Robert Sader, Susanne Gerhardt-Szép
Introduction: The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the testing format of an OSPE (Objective Structured Practical Examination) in conservative dentistry (sixth semester) predicts the scores on the practical section of the state examination (11(th) semester) in the same subject. Taking general student profiles into consideration (score on the school-leaving exam [Abitur], score on the preliminary exam in dental medicine [Physikum], length of university study, cohorts, and sex), we also investigated if any correlations or differences exist in regard to the total and partial scores on the OSPE and the corresponding state examination...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290868/-is-it-possible-to-improve-results-in-the-conservative-treatment-strategy-in-patients-with-acute-coronary-syndrome
#13
M G Gleser, E I Astashkin, A E Kiseleva
Almost 60% of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) without ST segment elevation are not subjected to revascularization procedures. This review analyzes the reasons for the choice of the conservative tactics of patients with ACS. The possibilities of improving outcomes by using modern medicines. Particular attention is given to drugs that affect energy metabolism in cardiomyocytes ischemia and reperfusion, provides data on the effect of L-carnitine on the high-risk markers, and decrease the incidence of adverse outcomes in patients with ACS...
September 2016: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290122/scientific-rationale-for-determining-the-bioequivalence-of-inhaled-drugs
#14
REVIEW
Omar S Usmani, Mathieu Molimard, Vaibhav Gaur, Jaideep Gogtay, Gur Jai Pal Singh, Geena Malhotra, Eric Derom
In recent years, pathways for the development and approval of bioequivalent inhaled products have been established for regulated markets, including the European Union (EU), and a number of orally inhaled products (OIPs) have been approved in the EU solely on the basis of in vitro and pharmacokinetic data. This review describes how these development pathways are structured and their implications for the treatment of airway diseases such as asthma. The EU guidance follows a stepwise approach that includes in vitro criteria as the first step...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289429/hematological-and-plasma-biochemical-parameters-in-a-wild-population-of-naja-naja-linnaeus-1758-in-sri-lanka
#15
Duminda S B Dissanayake, Lasanthika D Thewarage, Rathnayake M P Manel Rathnayake, Senanayake A M Kularatne, Jamburagoda G Shirani Ranasinghe, Rajapakse P V Jayantha Rajapakse
BACKGROUND: Hematological studies of any animal species comprise an important diagnostic method in veterinary medicine and an essential tool for the conservation of species. In Sri Lanka, this essential technique has been ignored in studies of many species including reptiles. The aim of the present work was to establish a reference range of hematological values and morphological characterization of wild spectacled cobras (Naja naja) in Sri Lanka in order to provide a diagnostic tool in the assessment of health condition in reptiles and to diagnose diseases in wild populations...
2017: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289080/microrna-applications-for-prostate-ovarian-and-breast-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#16
Bethany Smith, Priyanka Agarwal, Neil A Bhowmick
The high degree of conservation in microRNA from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans has enabled relatively rapid implementation of findings in model systems to the clinic. The convergence of the capacity for genomic screening being implemented in the prevailing precision medicine initiative and the capabilities of microRNA to address these changes holds significant promise. However, prostate, ovarian, and breast cancers are heterogeneous and face issues of evolving therapeutic resistance. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling axis plays an important role in the progression of each of these cancers, in part through microRNA regulation, and reciprocally, microRNA regulation of TGF-ß actions...
March 13, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287158/structural-reorganization-of-the-fungal-endoplasmic-reticulum-upon-induction-of-mycotoxin-biosynthesis
#17
Marike Johanne Boenisch, Karen Lisa Broz, Samuel Owen Purvine, William Byron Chrisler, Carrie Diana Nicora, Lanelle Reine Connolly, Michael Freitag, Scott Edward Baker, Harold Corby Kistler
Compartmentalization of metabolic pathways to particular organelles is a hallmark of eukaryotic cells. Knowledge of the development of organelles and attendant pathways under different metabolic states has been advanced by live cell imaging and organelle specific analysis. Nevertheless, relatively few studies have addressed the cellular localization of pathways for synthesis of fungal secondary metabolites, despite their importance as bioactive compounds with significance to medicine and agriculture. When triggered to produce sesquiterpene (trichothecene) mycotoxins, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum is reorganized both in vitro and in planta...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279189/therapeutic-strategies-of-drug-repositioning-targeting-autophagy-to-induce-cancer-cell-death-from-pathophysiology-to-treatment
#18
REVIEW
Go J Yoshida
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to the researcher that discovered autophagy, which is an evolutionally conserved catabolic process which degrades cytoplasmic constituents and organelles in the lysosome. Autophagy plays a crucial role in both normal tissue homeostasis and tumor development and is necessary for cancer cells to adapt efficiently to an unfavorable tumor microenvironment characterized by hypo-nutrient conditions. This protein degradation process leads to amino acid recycling, which provides sufficient amino acid substrates for cellular survival and proliferation...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266079/in-vitro-and-in-silico-assessment-of-rf-induced-heating-around-intracranial-aneurysm-clips-at-7-tesla
#19
Yacine Noureddine, Oliver Kraff, Mark E Ladd, Karsten H Wrede, Bixia Chen, Harald H Quick, Gregor Schaefers, Andreas K Bitz
PURPOSE: To examine radiofrequency-induced tissue heating around intracranial aneurysm clips during a 7 Tesla (T) head MR examination. METHODS: Radiofrequency (RF), temperature simulations, and RF measurements were employed to investigate the effects of polarization and clip length on the electric field (E-field) and temperature. Heating in body models was studied using both a conservative approach and realistic exposure scenarios. RESULTS: Worst-case orientation was found for clips aligned parallel to the E-field polarization...
March 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259111/evidence-based-surgery-of-aortic-regurgitation-results-of-a-questionnaire-in-german-speaking-countries
#20
Christian Dinges, Johannes Steindl, Wolfgang Hitzl, Tobias Kiesslich, Rainald Seitelberger
Background evidence-based medicine (EBM) approaches have reached broad acceptance, both in conservative and surgical disciplines. The aim of this study is to clarify the role of EBM in a rare condition of aortic regurgitation (AR) with surgical indication. Methods A purpose-built Internet-based questionnaire was sent to 607 cardiovascular surgeons in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. A virtual 64-year-old patient's medical history was presented, including two ultrasound images and one computed tomography scan, showing a 58-mm aortic root aneurysm and a severe trileaflet regurgitant aortic valve...
March 4, 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
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