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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920820/morbidity-and-mortality-of-wild-turtles-at-a-north-carolina-wildlife-clinic-a-10-year-retrospective
#1
Alexandra Sack, Eric Butler, Peter Cowen, Gregory A Lewbart
The medical records from 1,847 wild turtle patients seen between 2005 and 2014 by the Turtle Rescue Team at the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine were analyzed. Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina; n = 947), yellow-bellied sliders (Trachemys scripta scripta; n = 301), cooters ( Pseudemys spp.; n = 235), common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina; n = 165), and eastern painted turtles (Chrysemys picta; n = 93) made up 94.3% of all patients. Patient admissions peaked in May when 25...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861791/rt-quic-assays-for-prion-disease-detection-and-diagnostics
#2
Christina D Orrù, Bradley R Groveman, Andrew G Hughson, Matteo Manca, Lynne D Raymond, Gregory J Raymond, Katrina J Campbell, Kelsie J Anson, Allison Kraus, Byron Caughey
In coping with prion diseases, it is important to have tests that are practical enough for routine applications in medicine, agriculture, wildlife biology, and research, yet sensitive enough to detect minimal amounts of infectivity. Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assays have evolved to the point where they fulfill these criteria in applications to various human and animal prion diseases. For example, RT-QuIC assays of cerebrospinal fluid and nasal brushings allow for highly sensitive (77-97%) and specific (99-100%) identification of human sCJD patients...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856730/exceptional-responders-in-conservation
#3
Gerald Post, Jonas Geldmann
Conservation operates within complex systems with incomplete knowledge of the system and the interventions. This frequently results in the inability to find generally applicable solutions to the threats faced by Earth's vanishing wildlife. One approach used in medicine, and the social sciences has been to develop a deeper understanding of the positive outliers. Where such outliers share similar characteristics, they may be considered: "exceptional responders". Here we present a framework for identifying exceptional responders in conservation...
August 30, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846489/zika-chikungunya-and-other-emerging-vector-borne-viral-diseases
#4
Scott C Weaver, Caroline Charlier, Nikos Vasilakis, Marc Lecuit
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of emerging to infect humans, but during recent decades, they have been spreading more widely and affecting larger populations. This is due to several factors, including increased air travel and uncontrolled mosquito vector populations. Emergence can involve simple spillover from enzootic (wildlife) cycles, as in the case of West Nile virus accompanying geographic expansion into the Americas; secondary amplification in domesticated animals, as seen with Japanese encephalitis, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and Rift Valley fever viruses; and urbanization, in which humans become the amplification hosts and peridomestic mosquitoes, mainly Aedes aegypti, mediate human-to-human transmission...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802692/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-rna-seq-expression-analysis-in-blood-from-beluga-whales-of-bristol-bay-ak
#5
Jeanine S Morey, Kathy A Burek Huntington, Michelle Campbell, Tonya M Clauss, Caroline E Goertz, Roderick C Hobbs, Denise Lunardi, Amanda J Moors, Marion G Neely, Lori H Schwacke, Frances M Van Dolah
Assessing the health of marine mammal sentinel species is crucial to understanding the impacts of environmental perturbations on marine ecosystems and human health. In Arctic regions, beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, are upper level predators that may serve as a sentinel species, potentially forecasting impacts on human health. While gene expression profiling from blood transcriptomes has widely been used to assess health status and environmental exposures in human and veterinary medicine, its use in wildlife has been limited due to the lack of available genomes and baseline data...
August 9, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749296/bridging-gaps-between-zoo-and-wildlife-medicine-establishing-reference-intervals-for-free-ranging-african-lions-panthera-leo
#6
Heather M Broughton, Danny Govender, Purvance Shikwambana, Patrick Chappell, Anna Jolles
The International Species Information System has set forth an extensive database of reference intervals for zoologic species, allowing veterinarians and game park officials to distinguish normal health parameters from underlying disease processes in captive wildlife. However, several recent studies comparing reference values from captive and free-ranging animals have found significant variation between populations, necessitating the development of separate reference intervals in free-ranging wildlife to aid in the interpretation of health data...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730149/review-of-antibiotic-resistance-in-the-indian-ocean-commission-a-human-and-animal-health-issue
#7
REVIEW
Noellie Gay, Olivier Belmonte, Jean-Marc Collard, Mohamed Halifa, Mohammad Iqbal Issack, Saindou Mindjae, Philippe Palmyre, Abdul Aziz Ibrahim, Harena Rasamoelina, Loïc Flachet, Laurent Filleul, Eric Cardinale
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to human, animal health, and environment worldwide. For human, transmission occurred through a variety of routes both in health-care settings and community. In animals, AMR was reported in livestock, pets, and wildlife; transmission of AMR can be zoonotic with the probably most important route being foodborne transmission. The Indian Ocean Commission (IOC), composed of Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion (France), and Seychelles recognized the surveillance of AMR in both animal and human as a main public health priority for the region...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713575/wildlife-hosts-for-oie-listed-diseases-considerations-regarding-global-wildlife-trade-and-host-pathogen-relationships
#8
Kristine M Smith, Catherine M Machalaba, Hilary Jones, Paula Cáceres, Marija Popovic, Kevin J Olival, Karim Ben Jebara, William B Karesh
The expanding international wildlife trade, combined with a lack of surveillance for key animal diseases in most countries, represents a potential pathway for transboundary disease movement. While the international wildlife trade represents over US $300 billion per year industry involving exchange of billions of individual animals, animal products, and plants as traditional medicines, meat from wild animals, trophies, live exotic pets, commercial products and food, surveillance and reporting of OIE-Listed diseases in wildlife are often opportunistic...
May 2017: Veterinary Medicine and Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712138/hematologic-reference-intervals-and-age-effect-in-european-strigiformes
#9
Susana Agusti Montolio, Rafael Molina López, Carolyn Cray, Santiago Lavín González, Olga Nicolás Francisco, Ignasi Marco Sánchez, Encarna Casas-Díaz, Rafaela Cuenca Valera
BACKGROUND: The clinical importance of hematologic testing in avian veterinary medicine is reflected in the increasing number of studies for the establishment of hematologic RIs of Strigiformes and other species. Age is an important physiologic factor in birds and the effect on hematology variable should be understood. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to determine baseline data of hematologic variables in 5 species of Iberian Strigiformes in different age classes...
July 16, 2017: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696186/detection-of-babesia-dna-in-blood-and-spleen-samples-from-eurasian-badgers-meles-meles-in-scotland
#10
Paul M Bartley, Cari Wilson, Elisabeth A Innes, Frank Katzer
Babesia are intraerythrocytic parasites of importance worldwide within the fields of human and veterinary medicine, as some Babesia sp., including Babesia microti are potentially zoonotic and can cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. The aims of this study were to use a nested PCR (amplifying the 18S rRNA gene) to determine the presence and species of Babesia parasite DNA found in blood (n = 47) and spleen (n = 47) samples collected from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland. The results showed 28/47 (59·6%) blood and 14/47 (29·8%) spleen samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia DNA...
August 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666483/ethnozoological-study-of-animals-based-medicine-used-by-traditional-healers-and-indigenous-inhabitants-in-the-adjoining-areas-of-gibbon-wildlife-sanctuary-assam-india
#11
Manash Pratim Borah, Surya Bali Prasad
BACKGROUND: India has an immense faunal, floral, as well as cultural diversity with many ethnic communities who are primarily dependent on the traditional medicinal system for their primary health care. Documentation and evaluation of this indigenous remedial knowledge may be helpful to establish new drugs for human health. The present study is intended to look into different zootherapeutic medicinal uses in the traditional health care system among the native inhabitants adjacent to the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616470/global-solutions-to-regional-challenges-bridging-the-one-health-divide-in-the-caribbean
#12
Arve Lee Willingham, Luis Cruz-Martinez, Diana G Scorpio, Christa A Gallagher
Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, located on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts in the West Indies, hosted a multi-national, transdisciplinary One Health conference in St. Kitts and Nevis. Historically the many countries of the Caribbean carry a high burden of chronic and infectious disease and struggle with complex economic and developmental issues that continuously pressurize inhabitants and their natural environment. Considering these vast regional challenges, presentations covered diverse topics including community-based approaches for zoonotic disease control and prevention and mitigation of problems at the interface of wildlife, domestic animals, and humans...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574457/cyanobacterial-toxins-of-the-laurentian-great-lakes-their-toxicological-effects-and-numerical-limits-in-drinking-water
#13
REVIEW
Todd R Miller, Lucas J Beversdorf, Chelsea A Weirich, Sarah L Bartlett
Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous phototrophic bacteria that inhabit diverse environments across the planet. Seasonally, they dominate many eutrophic lakes impacted by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forming dense accumulations of biomass known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms or cyanoHABs. Their dominance in eutrophic lakes is attributed to a variety of unique adaptations including N and P concentrating mechanisms, N₂ fixation, colony formation that inhibits predation, vertical movement via gas vesicles, and the production of toxic or otherwise bioactive molecules...
June 2, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506903/ethnozoological-assessment-of-animals-used-by-mon-traditional-medicine-vendors-at-kyaiktiyo-myanmar
#14
Vincent Nijman, Chris R Shepherd
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Wild animals are widely used in traditional Asian medicine but information from Myanmar is lacking. We show that a wide range of animals are used at a pilgrimage site, mostly for their rendered fats and oils to be used in mixed concoctions. The majority of species were sold to be used to treat aching joints, muscle ache and skin diseases. AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess wildlife for sale for medicinal purposes, and document their medicinal use at Kyaiktiyo, a pilgrimage site at a 1100m tall mountain, with many of the pilgrims climbing to the top...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505393/the-science-behind-one-health-at-the-interface-of-humans-animals-and-the-environment
#15
Michael P Murtaugh, Clifford J Steer, Srinand Sreevatsan, Ned Patterson, Shaun Kennedy, P Sriramarao
Humans face a grand quality-of-life challenge as growing demands for resources for an ever-expanding population threaten the existence of wildlife populations, degrade land, and pollute air and water. Public investment and policy decisions that will shape future interactions of humans, animals, and the environment need scientific input to help find common ground for durable and sustainable success. The Second International Conference on One Medicine One Science brought together a broad range of scientists, trainees, regulatory authorities, and health experts from 34 countries to inform and discuss the human impacts of air quality; the complexities of water quality, access, and conflicts; the opportunities and uncertainties in precision medicine; and the role of science communication in health policy formulation...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445657/aquatic-bird-bornavirus-associated-disease-in-free-living-canada-geese-branta-canadensis-in-the-northeastern-usa
#16
Maureen Murray, Jianhua Guo, Ian Tizard, Samuel Jennings, H L Shivaprasad, Susan Payne, Julie C Ellis, Arnaud J Van Wettere, Kathleen M O'Brien
During the winter of 2013-14, 22 Canada geese ( Branta canadensis ) were admitted to the Wildlife Clinic at the Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University with nonspecific neurologic abnormalities and emaciation. Five of these geese, along with three geese that were submitted dead, were evaluated via histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for bornaviruses. Histopathologically, six of the eight birds had lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. One bird, which also had encephalitis, had a dilated esophagus...
July 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409502/the-role-of-wildlife-wild-birds-in-the-global-transmission-of-antimicrobial-resistance-genes
#17
REVIEW
Jing Wang, Zhen-Bao Ma, Zhen-Ling Zeng, Xue-Wen Yang, Ying Huang, Jian-Hua Liu
Antimicrobial resistance is an urgent global health challenge in human and veterinary medicine. Wild animals are not directly exposed to clinically relevant antibiotics; however, antibacterial resistance in wild animals has been increasingly reported worldwide in parallel to the situation in human and veterinary medicine. This underlies the complexity of bacterial resistance in wild animals and the possible interspecies transmission between humans, domestic animals, the environment, and wildlife. This review summarizes the current data on expanded-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL), AmpC β-lactamase, carbapenemase, and colistin resistance genes in Enterobacteriaceae isolates of wildlife origin...
March 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390026/fabrication-of-highly-effective-mosquito-nanolarvicides-using-an-asian-plant-of-ethno-pharmacological-interest-priyangu-aglaia-elaeagnoidea-toxicity-on-non-target-mosquito-natural-enemies
#18
Giovanni Benelli, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Sengamalai Senthilmurugan, Periasamy Vijayan, Shine Kadaikunnan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Jamal M Khaled
Mosquitoes threaten the lives of humans, livestock, pets and wildlife around the globe, due to their ability to vector devastating diseases. Aglaia elaeagnoidea, commonly known as Priyangu, is widely employed in Asian traditional medicine and pest control. Medicinal activities include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, and anesthetic actions. Flavaglines, six cyclopenta[b]benzofurans, a cyclopenta[bc]benzopyran, a benzo[b]oxepine, and an aromatic butyrolactone showed antifungal properties, and aglaroxin A and rocaglamide were effective to control moth pests...
April 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363072/radiography-in-the-field-assessing-a-lightweight-handheld-battery-powered-dentistry-unit-for-field-diagnostic-applications
#19
Katharina Seilern-Moy, Hanna Vielgrader, Hanno Gerritsmann, Chris Walzer
Radiography units are not used commonly in wildlife medicine field settings, primarily because of their weight and requirement for a power supply. In this study, a portable, battery-powered, and lightweight radiography unit, originally developed for dentistry, was assessed for its potential field applications. Radiographs of various animal species (ranging in weight from 14 g to 1,000 kg) were imaged using varying source image distance (SID) and exposure time. The quality of these images was evaluated for their resolution, image noise, and motion blur...
March 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316882/sympathy-for-the-devil-a-conservation-strategy-for-devil-and-manta-rays
#20
Julia M Lawson, Sonja V Fordham, Mary P O'Malley, Lindsay N K Davidson, Rachel H L Walls, Michelle R Heupel, Guy Stevens, Daniel Fernando, Ania Budziak, Colin A Simpfendorfer, Isabel Ender, Malcolm P Francis, Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, Nicholas K Dulvy
BACKGROUND: International trade for luxury products, medicines, and tonics poses a threat to both terrestrial and marine wildlife. The demand for and consumption of gill plates (known as Peng Yu Sai, "Fish Gill of Mobulid Ray") from devil and manta rays (subfamily Mobulinae, collectively referred to as mobulids) poses a significant threat to these marine fishes because of their extremely low productivity. The demand for these gill plates has driven an international trade supplied by largely unmonitored and unregulated catches from target and incidental fisheries around the world...
2017: PeerJ
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