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wildlife medicine

Asing, Md Eaqub Ali, Sharifah Bee Abd Hamid, M A Motalib Hossain, Shuhaimi Mustafa, Md Abdul Kader, I S M Zaidul
The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine. Although several polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT by various routes have been documented, their applicability for forensic authentication remains inconclusive due to the long length of the amplicon targets, which are easily broken down by natural decomposition, environmental stresses or physiochemical treatments during food processing...
2016: PloS One
Jeanine S Morey, Marion G Neely, Denise Lunardi, Paul E Anderson, Lori H Schwacke, Michelle Campbell, Frances M Van Dolah
BACKGROUND: The blood transcriptome can reflect both systemic exposures and pathological changes in other organs of the body because immune cells recirculate through the blood, lymphoid tissues, and affected sites. In human and veterinary medicine, blood transcriptome analysis has been used successfully to identify markers of disease or pathological conditions, but can be confounded by large seasonal changes in expression. In comparison, the use of transcriptomic based analyses in wildlife has been limited...
2016: BMC Genomics
Katherina A Vizcaychipi, Miguel Rinas, Lucia Irazu, Adriana Miyagi, Carina F Argüelles, Karen E DeMatteo
Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine...
October 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Helle Hydeskov, Stephanie Jayson
Helle Hydeskov and Stephanie Jayson are European College of Zoological Medicine residents on new three-year training programmes being run jointly by the Zoological Society of London and the Royal Veterinary College. Here, they explain what motivated them to take up their residencies.
September 3, 2016: Veterinary Record
Ranjeet Singh Mahla
Regenerative medicine, the most recent and emerging branch of medical science, deals with functional restoration of tissues or organs for the patient suffering from severe injuries or chronic disease. The spectacular progress in the field of stem cell research has laid the foundation for cell based therapies of disease which cannot be cured by conventional medicines. The indefinite self-renewal and potential to differentiate into other types of cells represent stem cells as frontiers of regenerative medicine...
2016: International Journal of Cell Biology
N Hinfray, C Tebby, C Garoche, B Piccini, G Bourgine, S Aït-Aïssa, O Kah, F Pakdel, F Brion
Estrogens and progestins are widely used in combination in human medicine and both are present in aquatic environment. Despite the joint exposure of aquatic wildlife to estrogens and progestins, very little information is available on their combined effects. In the present study we investigated the effect of ethinylestradiol (EE2) and Levonorgestrel (LNG), alone and in mixtures, on the expression of the brain specific ER-regulated cyp19a1b gene. For that purpose, recently established zebrafish-derived tools were used: (i) an in vitro transient reporter gene assay in a human glial cell line (U251-MG) co-transfected with zebrafish estrogen receptors (zfERs) and the luciferase gene under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1b gene promoter and (ii) an in vivo bioassay using a transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1b gene promoter (cyp19a1b-GFP)...
September 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Samanta Zevallos, Roberto K Elías, Raúl A Berenguel, Thomas J Weaver, Richard P Reading
The Peruvian Andes are the home of 27 species of frogs of the genus Telmatobius, many of which are critically endangered. Illegal trade of adult frogs for purported medical properties likely represents the major threat facing these species. This activity, besides reducing their populations, may contribute to the dissemination of the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes chytridiomycosis, a disease posing a threat to many populations of amphibians. We screened frogs confiscated by the Administration of Forestry and Wildlife in Lima, Peru, for Bd...
October 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Sarrah Kaye, Shawn Johnson, Robert D Arnold, Ben Nie, Joshua T Davis, Frances Gulland, Noha Abou-Madi, Daniel J Fletcher
ε-Aminocaproic acid (EACA) is a lysine analogue antifibrinolytic drug used to treat bleeding disorders in humans and domestic animals. Its use in zoological medicine is rare, and dosage is anecdotal. One possible application of EACA is to treat bleeding associated with prepatent Otostrongylus arteritis in Northern elephant seals ( Mirounga angustirostris ) presenting to wildlife rehabilitation centers. This study used an in vitro model of hyperfibrinolysis and a thromboelastograph-based assay to estimate the therapeutic plasma concentration of EACA in elephant seals (85 μg/ml, 95% confidence interval = 73...
June 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Rhett D Harrison, Rachakonda Sreekar, Jedediah F Brodie, Sarah Brook, Matthew Luskin, Hannah O'Kelly, Madhu Rao, Brett Scheffers, Nandini Velho
Although deforestation and forest degradation have long been considered the most significant threats to tropical biodiversity, across Southeast Asia (Northeast India, Indochina, Sundaland, Philippines) substantial areas of natural habitat have few wild animals (>1 kg), bar a few hunting-tolerant species. To document hunting impacts on vertebrate populations regionally, we conducted an extensive literature review, including papers in local journals and reports of governmental and nongovernmental agencies...
October 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
Martijn Staats, Alfred J Arulandhu, Barbara Gravendeel, Arne Holst-Jensen, Ingrid Scholtens, Tamara Peelen, Theo W Prins, Esther Kok
Species identification using DNA barcodes has been widely adopted by forensic scientists as an effective molecular tool for tracking adulterations in food and for analysing samples from alleged wildlife crime incidents. DNA barcoding is an approach that involves sequencing of short DNA sequences from standardized regions and comparison to a reference database as a molecular diagnostic tool in species identification. In recent years, remarkable progress has been made towards developing DNA metabarcoding strategies, which involves next-generation sequencing of DNA barcodes for the simultaneous detection of multiple species in complex samples...
July 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Margaret Fordham, Brian K Roberts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Tadesse Hailu
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis is an obligate intercellular protozoon that affects animals and human. It has zoonosis and/or anthroponosis transmission. Human and veterinary medicine, environmental science and wildlife conservation specialists have many commonalities in case of visceral leishmaniasis. Still the above disciplines respond against leishmaniasis in a separate way. The aim of this review is to indicate inter- and intra- sectoral collaboration for planning future control strategies...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Z Lin, R Gehring, J P Mochel, T Lavé, J E Riviere
This review provides a tutorial for individuals interested in quantitative veterinary pharmacology and toxicology and offers a basis for establishing guidelines for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development and application in veterinary medicine. This is important as the application of PBPK modeling in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past two decades. PBPK models can be used to predict drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals, to estimate chemical concentrations at the site of action and target organ toxicity to aid risk assessment of environmental contaminants and/or drugs in both domestic animals and wildlife, as well as to help design therapeutic regimens for veterinary drugs...
October 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
T C Viner, B C Hamlin, P J McClure, B C Yates
The application of medical knowledge to the purpose of law is the foundation of forensic pathology. A forensic postmortem examination often involves the expertise of multiple scientific disciplines to reconstruct the full story surrounding the death of an animal. Wildlife poses additional challenges in forensic investigations due to little or no associated history, and the disruptive effects of decomposition. To illustrate the multidisciplinary nature of wildlife forensic medicine, the authors outline a case of secondary pentobarbital/phenytoin toxicosis in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus)...
September 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Julie D Sheldon, Nicole I Stacy, Stephen Blake, Fredy Cabrera, Sharon L Deem
Reptile hematologic data provide important health information for conservation efforts of vulnerable wildlife species such as the Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis spp.). Given the reported discrepancies between manual leukocyte counts for nonmammalian species, two manual leukocyte quantification methods, the Natt and Herrick's (NH) and the Eopette (EO), were compared to white blood cell (WBC) estimates from blood films of 42 free-living, clinically healthy, adult female Galapagos tortoises. To investigate the effects of delay in sample processing, estimated WBC counts and leukocyte differentials were compared for blood films prepared at time of collection under field conditions (T0) to blood films prepared from samples that were stored for 18-23 hr at 4°C in the laboratory (T1)...
March 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Zhao Liu, Zhigang Jiang, Hongxia Fang, Chunwang Li, Aizi Mi, Jing Chen, Xiaowei Zhang, Shaopeng Cui, Daiqiang Chen, Xiaoge Ping, Feng Li, Chunlin Li, Songhua Tang, Zhenhua Luo, Yan Zeng, Zhibin Meng
A wide array of wildlife species, including many animals, are used in traditional medicines across many medicinal systems, including in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Due to over-exploitation and habitat loss, the populations of many animals commonly used in TCM have declined and are unable to meet market demand. A number of measures have been taken to try to reduce the impact that this large and growing market for TCM may have on wild animal species. Consumer preferences and behavior are known to play an important role in the consumption and protection of wild animals used in traditional medicine, and thus are likely to be an important factor in the success of many of these mechanisms--particularly given the significant percentage of TCMs that are over-the-counter products (access to which is not mediated by practitioners)...
2016: PloS One
Anna Beronius, Laura N Vandenberg
The possibility that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in our environment contribute to hormonally related effects and diseases observed in human and wildlife populations has caused concern among decision makers and researchers alike. EDCs challenge principles traditionally applied in chemical risk assessment and the identification and assessment of these compounds has been a much debated topic during the last decade. State of the science reports and risk assessments of potential EDCs have been criticized for not using systematic and transparent approaches in the evaluation of evidence...
December 2015: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
(no author information available yet)
Over several decades, animal welfare has grown into its own free-standing field of scientific study, from its early beginnings in laboratory animal research to eventually include exhibited animals and farm animals. While it has always been present to some degree, consideration of animal welfare for free-ranging animals has lagged behind, developing as a field of study in the last 20 yr or so. Part of that increase was that animal welfare legislation was finally applied to studies being done on free-ranging animals...
April 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Roger W Byard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Amer Alić, Donato Traversa, Georg Gerhard Duscher, Mirsad Kadrić, Angela Di Cesare, Adnan Hodžić
BACKGROUND: In the past few years the interest of the scientific community on lungworms of the genus Troglostrongylus has grown due to the increased number of unexpected cases of infections with Troglostrongylus brevior in domestic cats from Mediterranean Europe, likely due to a spill-over from wild reservoirs. Thus, there is a merit to increase our knowledge on the occurrence of this parasite in felids from European regions. The present paper describes lung lesions associated with T...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
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