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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909267/comparison-of-green-pit-viper-and-agkistrodon-halys-antivenom-in-inhibition-of-coagulopathy-due-to-trimeresurus-albolabris-venom-an-in-vitro-study-using-human-plasma
#1
S K Lam, S F Yip, P Crow, H T Fung, J Mh Cheng, K S Tan, O F Wong, D Yt Yeung, Y K Wong, K M Poon, G Ades
INTRODUCTION: There are two antivenoms that may be administered in Hong Kong following a bite by Trimeresurus albolabris: the green pit viper antivenom from the Thai Red Cross Society in Thailand and the Agkistrodon halys antivenom from the Shanghai Institute of Biological Products in China. Both are recommended by the Central Coordinating Committee of Accident and Emergency Services of the Hospital Authority for treating patients with a bite by Trimeresurus albolabris. The choice of which antivenom to use is based on physician preference...
December 2, 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903871/decline-and-recovery-of-a-large-carnivore-environmental-change-and-long-term-trends-in-an-endangered-brown-bear-population
#2
Isabel Martínez Cano, Fernando González Taboada, Javier Naves, Alberto Fernández-Gil, Thorsten Wiegand
Understanding what factors drive fluctuations in the abundance of endangered species is a difficult ecological problem but a major requirement to attain effective management and conservation success. The ecological traits of large mammals make this task even more complicated, calling for integrative approaches. We develop a framework combining individual-based modelling and statistical inference to assess alternative hypotheses on brown bear dynamics in the Cantabrian range (Iberian Peninsula). Models including the effect of environmental factors on mortality rates were able to reproduce three decades of variation in the number of females with cubs of the year (Fcoy), including the decline that put the population close to extinction in the mid-nineties, and the following increase in brown bear numbers...
November 30, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902733/single-camera-trap-survey-designs-miss-detections-impacts-on-estimates-of-occupancy-and-community-metrics
#3
Brent S Pease, Clayton K Nielsen, Eric J Holzmueller
The use of camera traps as a tool for studying wildlife populations is commonplace. However, few have considered how the number of detections of wildlife differ depending upon the number of camera traps placed at cameras-sites, and how this impacts estimates of occupancy and community composition. During December 2015-February 2016, we deployed four camera traps per camera-site, separated into treatment groups of one, two, and four camera traps, in southern Illinois to compare whether estimates of wildlife community metrics and occupancy probabilities differed among survey methods...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893866/ecology-and-demography-of-free-roaming-domestic-dogs-in-rural-villages-near-serengeti-national-park-in-tanzania
#4
Anna M Czupryna, Joel S Brown, Machunde A Bigambo, Christopher J Whelan, Supriya D Mehta, Rachel M Santymire, Felix J Lankester, Lisa J Faust
Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885141/wild-animals-don-t-make-appointments
#5
Bev Panto
Bev Panto grew up with a keen interest in wildlife, as well as being an active member of a local conservation group and a 'young ornithologist'. Twenty years on, she is now a wildlife vet.
November 26, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881767/daylight-saving-time-can-decrease-the-frequency-of-wildlife-vehicle-collisions
#6
William A Ellis, Sean I FitzGibbon, Benjamin J Barth, Amanda C Niehaus, Gwendolyn K David, Brendan D Taylor, Helena Matsushige, Alistair Melzer, Fred B Bercovitch, Frank Carrick, Darryl N Jones, Cathryn Dexter, Amber Gillett, Martin Predavec, Dan Lunney, Robbie S Wilson
Daylight saving time (DST) could reduce collisions with wildlife by changing the timing of commuter traffic relative to the behaviour of nocturnal animals. To test this idea, we tracked wild koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) in southeast Queensland, where koalas have declined by 80% in the last 20 years, and compared their movements with traffic patterns along roads where they are often killed. Using a simple model, we found that DST could decrease collisions with koalas by 8% on weekdays and 11% at weekends, simply by shifting the timing of traffic relative to darkness...
November 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880780/mitochondrial-genome-analysis-reveals-historical-lineages-in-yellowstone-bison
#7
David Forgacs, Rick L Wallen, Lauren K Dobson, James N Derr
Yellowstone National Park is home to one of the only plains bison populations that have continuously existed on their present landscape since prehistoric times without evidence of domestic cattle introgression. Previous studies characterized the relatively high levels of nuclear genetic diversity in these bison, but little is known about their mitochondrial haplotype diversity. This study assessed mitochondrial genomes from 25 randomly selected Yellowstone bison and found 10 different mitochondrial haplotypes with a haplotype diversity of 0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876612/lethal-distemper-in-badgers-meles-meles-following-epidemic-in-dogs-and-wolves
#8
Daria Di Sabatino, Gabriella Di Francesco, Guendalina Zaccaria, Daniela Malatesta, Luca Brugnola, Maurilia Marcacci, Ottavio Portanti, Fabrizio De Massis, Giovanni Savini, Liana Teodori, Enzo Ruggieri, Iolanda Mangone, Pietro Badagliacca, Alessio Lorusso
Canine distemper virus (CDV) represents an important conservation threat to many wild carnivores. A large distemper epidemic sustained by an Arctic-lineage strain occurred in Italy in 2013, mainly in the Abruzzi region, causing overt disease in domestic and shepherd dogs, Apennine wolves (Canis lupus) and other wild carnivores. Two badgers were collected by the end of September 2015 in a rural area of the Abruzzi region and were demonstrated to be CDV-positive by real time RT-PCR and IHC in several tissues...
October 27, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872617/bacterial-genomics-reveal-the-complex-epidemiology-of-an-emerging-pathogen-in-arctic-and-boreal-ungulates
#9
Taya L Forde, Karin Orsel, Ruth N Zadoks, Roman Biek, Layne G Adams, Sylvia L Checkley, Tracy Davison, Jeroen De Buck, Mathieu Dumond, Brett T Elkin, Laura Finnegan, Bryan J Macbeth, Cait Nelson, Amanda Niptanatiak, Shane Sather, Helen M Schwantje, Frank van der Meer, Susan J Kutz
Northern ecosystems are currently experiencing unprecedented ecological change, largely driven by a rapidly changing climate. Pathogen range expansion, and emergence and altered patterns of infectious disease, are increasingly reported in wildlife at high latitudes. Understanding the causes and consequences of shifting pathogen diversity and host-pathogen interactions in these ecosystems is important for wildlife conservation, and for indigenous populations that depend on wildlife. Among the key questions are whether disease events are associated with endemic or recently introduced pathogens, and whether emerging strains are spreading throughout the region...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871217/identification-of-marine-traditional-chinese-medicine-dried-seahorses-in-the-traditional-chinese-medicine-market-using-dna-barcoding
#10
Feixia Hou, Longlian Wen, Cheng Peng, Jinlin Guo
Seahorse documented in Chinese pharmacopeia possess important medicinal efficacy and are used as an ingredient in traditional Chinese medicines. The growing international trade threatens the species. DNA barcoding holds a great application potentiality in wildlife conservation and might prevent the illegal trade of threatened species. The COI gene was used to identify seahorse, and nine Hippocampus species were found in the three large traditional Chinese medicines markets of China. All inter-specific genetic variations were larger than 2%...
November 22, 2016: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855704/feeding-preferences-of-the-asian-elephant-elephas-maximus-in-nepal
#11
Raj Kumar Koirala, David Raubenheimer, Achyut Aryal, Mitra Lal Pathak, Weihong Ji
BACKGROUND: Nepal provides habitat for approximately 100-125 wild Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Although a small proportion of the world population of this species, this group is important for maintaining the genetic diversity of elephants and conservation of biodiversity in this region. Knowledge of foraging patterns of these animals, which is important for understanding their habitat requirements and for assessing their habitat condition, is lacking for the main areas populated by elephants in Nepal...
November 17, 2016: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854069/a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-illegal-killing-of-large-carnivores
#12
REVIEW
Neil H Carter, José Vicente López-Bao, Jeremy T Bruskotter, Meredith Gore, Guillaume Chapron, Arlyne Johnson, Yaffa Epstein, Mahendra Shrestha, Jens Frank, Omar Ohrens, Adrian Treves
The growing complexity and global nature of wildlife poaching threaten the survival of many species worldwide and are outpacing conservation efforts. Here, we reviewed proximal and distal factors, both social and ecological, driving illegal killing or poaching of large carnivores at sites where it can potentially occur. Through this review, we developed a conceptual social-ecological system framework that ties together many of the factors influencing large carnivore poaching. Unlike most conservation action models, an important attribute of our framework is the integration of multiple factors related to both human motivations and animal vulnerability into feedbacks...
November 16, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851816/human-disturbance-during-early-life-impairs-nestling-growth-in-birds-inhabiting-a-nature-recreation-area
#13
Carolina Remacha, Juan Antonio Delgado, Mateja Bulaic, Javier Pérez-Tris
Nature recreation conflicts with conservation, but its impacts on wildlife are not fully understood. Where recreation is not regulated, visitors to natural areas may gather in large numbers on weekends and holidays. This may increase variance in fitness in wild populations, if individuals whose critical life cycle stages coincide with periods of high human disturbance are at a disadvantage. We studied nestling development of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) in a natural area where recreation activities intensify during weekends and other public holidays at picnic and leisure facilities, but not in the surrounding woods...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829035/epidemiology-of-antimicrobial-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-isolates-from-raccoons-procyon-lotor-and-the-environment-on-swine-farms-and-conservation-areas-in-southern-ontario
#14
Kristin J Bondo, David L Pearl, Nicol Janecko, Patrick Boerlin, Richard J Reid-Smith, Jane Parmley, Claire M Jardine
Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to livestock, human and environmental health. Although resistant bacteria have been detected in wildlife, their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance is not clear. Our objective was to investigate demographic, temporal and climatic factors associated with carriage of antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in raccoons and the environment. We collected samples from raccoon paws and feces and from soil, manure pit and dumpsters on five swine farms and five conservation areas in Ontario, Canada once every five weeks from May to November, 2011-2013 and tested them for E...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828958/historical-environment-is-reflected-in-modern-population-genetics-and-biogeography-of-an-island-endemic-lizard-xantusia-riversiana-reticulata
#15
Iris A Holmes, William J Mautz, Alison R Davis Rabosky
The restricted distribution and isolation of island endemics often produces unique genetic and phenotypic diversity of conservation interest to management agencies. However, these isolated species, especially those with sensitive life history traits, are at high risk for the adverse effects of genetic drift and habitat degradation by non-native wildlife. Here, we study the population genetic diversity, structure, and stability of a classic "island giant" (Xantusia riversiana, the Island Night Lizard) on San Clemente Island, California following the removal of feral goats...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826693/effectiveness-of-wyoming-s-sage-grouse-core-areas-influences-on-energy-development-and-male-lek-attendance
#16
R Scott Gamo, Jeffrey L Beck
Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations have declined across their range due to human-assisted factors driving large-scale habitat change. In response, the state of Wyoming implemented the Sage-grouse Executive Order protection policy in 2008 as a voluntary regulatory mechanism to minimize anthropogenic disturbance within defined sage-grouse core population areas. Our objectives were to evaluate areas designated as Sage-grouse Executive Order Core Areas on: (1) oil and gas well pad development, and (2) peak male lek attendance in core and non-core sage-grouse populations...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822526/preservation-methods-differ-in-fecal-microbiome-stability-affecting-suitability-for-field-studies
#17
Se Jin Song, Amnon Amir, Jessica L Metcalf, Katherine R Amato, Zhenjiang Zech Xu, Greg Humphrey, Rob Knight
Immediate freezing at -20°C or below has been considered the gold standard for microbiome preservation, yet this approach is not feasible for many field studies, ranging from anthropology to wildlife conservation. Here we tested five methods for preserving human and dog fecal specimens for periods of up to 8 weeks, including such types of variation as freeze-thaw cycles and the high temperature fluctuations often encountered under field conditions. We found that three of the methods-95% ethanol, FTA cards, and the OMNIgene Gut kit-can preserve samples sufficiently well at ambient temperatures such that differences at 8 weeks are comparable to differences among technical replicates...
May 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809394/precision-wildlife-medicine-applications-of-the-human-centred-precision-medicine-revolution-to-species-conservation
#18
Jenny Whilde, Mark Q Martindale, David J Duffy
The current species extinction crisis is being exacerbated by an increased rate of emergence of epizootic disease. Human-induced factors including habitat degradation, loss of biodiversity and wildlife population reductions resulting in reduced genetic variation are accelerating disease emergence. Novel, efficient and effective approaches are required to combat these epizootic events. Here, we present the case for the application of human precision medicine approaches to wildlife medicine in order to enhance species conservation efforts...
November 3, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791084/wildfire-climate-and-invasive-grass-interactions-negatively-impact-an-indicator-species-by-reshaping-sagebrush-ecosystems
#19
Peter S Coates, Mark A Ricca, Brian G Prochazka, Matthew L Brooks, Kevin E Doherty, Travis Kroger, Erik J Blomberg, Christian A Hagen, Michael L Casazza
Iconic sagebrush ecosystems of the American West are threatened by larger and more frequent wildfires that can kill sagebrush and facilitate invasion by annual grasses, creating a cycle that alters sagebrush ecosystem recovery post disturbance. Thwarting this accelerated grass-fire cycle is at the forefront of current national conservation efforts, yet its impacts on wildlife populations inhabiting these ecosystems have not been quantified rigorously. Within a Bayesian framework, we modeled 30 y of wildfire and climatic effects on population rates of change of a sagebrush-obligate species, the greater sage-grouse, across the Great Basin of western North America...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783687/nuclear-and-mitochondrial-dna-analyses-of-golden-eagles-aquila-chrysaetos-canadensis-from-three-areas-in-western-north-america-initial-results-and-conservation-implications
#20
Erica H Craig, Jennifer R Adams, Lisette P Waits, Mark R Fuller, Diana M Whittington
Understanding the genetics of a population is a critical component of developing conservation strategies. We used archived tissue samples from golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos canadensis) in three geographic regions of western North America to conduct a preliminary study of the genetics of the North American subspecies, and to provide data for United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) decision-making for golden eagle management. We used a combination of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences and 16 nuclear DNA (nDNA) microsatellite loci to investigate the extent of gene flow among our sampling areas in Idaho, California and Alaska and to determine if we could distinguish birds from the different geographic regions based on their genetic profiles...
2016: PloS One
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