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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729957/decline-of-heterozygosity-in-a-large-but-isolated-population-a-45-year-examination-of-moose-genetic-diversity-on-isle-royale
#1
Renae L Sattler, Janna R Willoughby, Bradley J Swanson
Wildlife conservation and management approaches typically focus on demographic measurements to assess population viability over both short and long periods. However, genetic diversity is an important predictor of long term population vitality. We investigated the pattern of change in genetic diversity in a large and likely isolated moose (Alces alces) population on Isle Royale (Lake Superior) from 1960-2005. We characterized samples, partitioned into five different 5-year periods, using nine microsatellite loci and a portion of the mtDNA control region...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726725/a-cultural-conscience-for-conservation
#2
Caroline Good, Dawn Burnham, David W Macdonald
On 2 July 2015, the killing of a lion nicknamed "Cecil" prompted the largest global reaction in the history of wildlife conservation. In response to this, it is propitious to consider the ways in which this moment can be developed into a financial movement to transform the conservation of species such as the lion that hold cultural significance and sentiment but whose numbers in the wild are dwindling dangerously. This provocative piece explores how a species royalty could be used effectively by drawing revenue from the heavy symbolic use of charismatic animals in affluent economies...
July 20, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720110/molecular-characterisation-of-protist-parasites-in-human-habituated-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-humans-and-livestock-from-bwindi-impenetrable-national-park-uganda
#3
Matthew J Nolan, Melisa Unger, Yuen-Ting Yeap, Emma Rogers, Ilary Millet, Kimberley Harman, Mark Fox, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Damer P Blake
BACKGROUND: Over 60 % of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, and there is growing evidence of the zooanthroponotic transmission of diseases from humans to livestock and wildlife species, with major implications for public health, economics, and conservation. Zooanthroponoses are of relevance to critically endangered species; amongst these is the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Uganda. Here, we assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, and Entamoeba infecting mountain gorillas in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda, using molecular methods...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716154/new-insights-from-gorongosa-national-park-and-niassa-national-reserve-of-mozambique-increasing-the-genetic-diversity-of-trypanosoma-vivax-and-trypanosoma-vivax-like-in-tsetse-flies-wild-ungulates-and-livestock-from-east-africa
#4
Carla Mf Rodrigues, Herakles A Garcia, Adriana C Rodrigues, André G Costa-Martins, Carlos L Pereira, Dagmar L Pereira, Zakaria Bengaly, Luis Neves, Erney P Camargo, Patrick B Hamilton, Marta Mg Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma (Duttonella) vivax is a major pathogen of livestock in Africa and South America (SA), and genetic studies limited to small sampling suggest greater diversity in East Africa (EA) compared to both West Africa (WA) and SA. METHODS: Multidimensional scaling and phylogenetic analyses of 112 sequences of the glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene and 263 sequences of the internal transcribed spacer of rDNA (ITS rDNA) were performed to compare trypanosomes from tsetse flies from Gorongosa National Park and Niassa National Reserve of Mozambique (MZ), wild ungulates and livestock from EA, and livestock isolates from WA and SA...
July 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713859/fungus-causing-white-nose-syndrome-in-bats-accumulates-genetic-variability-in-north-america-with-no-sign-of-recombination
#5
Jigar Trivedi, Josianne Lachapelle, Karen J Vanderwolf, Vikram Misra, Craig K R Willis, John M Ratcliffe, Rob W Ness, James B Anderson, Linda M Kohn
Emerging fungal diseases of wildlife are on the rise worldwide, and the white-nose syndrome (WNS) epidemic in North American bats is a catastrophic example. The causal agent of WNS is a single clone of the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans. Early evolutionary change in this clonal population has major implications for disease ecology and conservation. Accumulation of variation in the fungus through mutation, and shuffling of variation through recombination, could affect the virulence and transmissibility of the fungus and the durability of what appears to be resistance arising in some bat populations...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702195/molecular-indices-of-viral-disease-development-in-wild-migrating-salmon-%C3%A2
#6
Kristina M Miller, Oliver P Günther, Shaorong Li, Karia H Kaukinen, Tobi J Ming
Infectious diseases can impact the physiological performance of individuals, including their mobility, visual acuity, behavior and tolerance and ability to effectively respond to additional stressors. These physiological effects can influence competitiveness, social hierarchy, habitat usage, migratory behavior and risk to predation, and in some circumstances, viability of populations. While there are multiple means of detecting infectious agents (microscopy, culture, molecular assays), the detection of infectious diseases in wild populations in circumstances where mortality is not observable can be difficult...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701563/experimental-evidence-of-human-recreational-disturbance-effects-on-bird-territory-establishment
#7
Yves Bötsch, Zulima Tablado, Lukas Jenni
The worldwide increase in human outdoor activities raises concerns for wildlife. Human disturbances, even at low levels, are likely to impact species during sensitive periods of the annual cycle. However, experimental studies during the putative sensitive period of territory establishment of birds which not only investigate low disturbance levels, but which also exclude the effect of habitat modification (e.g. walking trails) are lacking. Here, we experimentally disturbed birds in forest plots by walking through twice a day during territory establishment...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700000/ticks-infesting-captive-and-free-roaming-wild-animal-species-at-the-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-zoo-s%C3%A3-o-paulo-brazil
#8
Irys Hany Lima Gonzalez, Marcelo Bahia Labruna, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes Chagas, Paula Andrea Borges Salgado, Cauê Monticelli, Luan Henrique Morais, Amanda Alves de Moraes, Thatiane Cristina Antunes, Patrícia Locosque Ramos, Thiago Fernandes Martins
Ticks are ectoparasites of worldwide distribution that affect vertebrates and can transmit pathogens to animals and humans. The Zoological Park Foundation of São Paulo (FPZSP) is located in a Conservation Unit in one of the most important remaining fragments of the Atlantic Rainforest biome in the suburbs of São Paulo, Brazil. The FPZSP houses more than 3,000 wild animals on exhibit, in breeding programs and in environmental education programs, and also attracts migratory birds and free-roaming wildlife. This study focused on identifying the diversity of tick species that infest captive and free-roaming animals at the FPZSP...
July 10, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695066/predicting-suitable-habitat-of-the-chinese-monal-lophophorus-lhuysii-using-ecological-niche-modeling-in-the-qionglai-mountains-china
#9
Bin Wang, Yu Xu, Jianghong Ran
Understanding the distribution and the extent of suitable habitats is crucial for wildlife conservation and management. Knowledge is limited regarding the natural habitats of the Chinese monal (Lophophorus lhuysii), which is a vulnerable Galliform species endemic to the high-montane areas of southwest China and a good candidate for being an umbrella species in the Qionglai Mountains. Using ecological niche modeling, we predicted current potential suitable habitats for the Chinese monal in the Qionglai Mountains with 64 presence points collected between 2005 and 2015...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694444/preliminary-estimates-of-the-abundance-and-fidelity-of-dolphins-associating-with-a-demersal-trawl-fishery
#10
Simon J Allen, Kenneth H Pollock, Phil J Bouchet, Halina T Kobryn, Deirdre B McElligott, Krista E Nicholson, Joshua N Smith, Neil R Loneragan
The incidental capture of wildlife in fishing gear presents a global conservation challenge. As a baseline to inform assessments of the impact of bycatch on bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) interacting with an Australian trawl fishery, we conducted an aerial survey to estimate dolphin abundance across the fishery. Concurrently, we carried out boat-based dolphin photo-identification to assess short-term fidelity to foraging around trawlers, and used photographic and genetic data to infer longer-term fidelity to the fishery...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686714/experimental-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-in-three-white-rhinoceroses-ceratotherium-simum-susceptibility-clinical-and-anatomical-pathology
#11
Anita L Michel, Emily P Lane, Lin-Mari de Klerk-Lorist, Markus Hofmeyr, Elisabeth M D L van der Heijden, Louise Botha, Paul van Helden, Michele Miller, Peter Buss
Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is endemic in the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) population in the Kruger National Park and other conservation areas in South Africa. The disease has been diagnosed in a total of 21 free ranging or semi-free ranging wildlife species in the country with highly variable presentations in terms of clinical signs as well as severity and distribution of tuberculous lesions. Most species are spillover or dead-end hosts without significant role in the epidemiology of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680192/coexistence-and-conflict-between-the-island-flying-fox-pteropus-hypomelanus-and-humans-on-tioman-island-peninsular-malaysia
#12
Sheema Abdul Aziz, Gopalasamy Reuben Clements, Xingli Giam, Pierre-Michel Forget, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz
As tropical landscapes become increasingly human-dominated, conflicts between people and wildlife threaten ecological processes. Old World fruit bats such as flying foxes are especially susceptible to extinction risk because there is low interest in their conservation, particularly when they are considered pests. In order to arrest fruit bat declines, there is an urgent need to understand human-bat conflict and its implications. On a tropical island in Peninsular Malaysia, we conducted a questionnaire survey to investigate coexistence between people and the island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus)...
2017: Human Ecology: An Interdisciplinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679726/chronic-exposure-to-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-makes-toad-larvae-more-toxic
#13
Veronika Bókony, Zsanett Mikó, Ágnes M Móricz, Dániel Krüzselyi, Attila Hettyey
Chemical pollutants can exert various sublethal effects on wildlife, leading to complex fitness consequences. Many animals use defensive chemicals as protection from predators and diseases, yet the effects of chemical contaminants on this important fitness component are poorly known. Understanding such effects is especially relevant for amphibians, the globally most threatened group of vertebrates, because they are particularly vulnerable to chemical pollution. We conducted two experiments to investigate how exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides, the most widespread agrochemicals worldwide, affects the production of bufadienolides, the main compounds of chemical defence in common toads (Bufo bufo)...
July 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671308/biological-parameters-used-in-setting-captive-breeding-quotas-for-indonesia-s-breeding-facilities
#14
Jordi Janssen, Serene C L Chng
The commercial captive breeding of wildlife is often seen as a potential conservation tool to relieve pressure off wild populations, but laundering of wild-sourced specimens as captive-bred can seriously undermine these and provide a false sense of sustainability. Indonesia has been at the centre of such controversy, therefore we examine Indonesia's captive breeding production plan (CBPP) for 2016. A number of the quotas were found to be based on inaccurate and unrealistic biological parameters, and included species with no reported breeding stock...
July 3, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669883/high-prices-for-rare-species-can-drive-large-populations-extinct-the-anthropogenic-allee-effect-revisited
#15
Matthew H Holden, Eve McDonald-Madden
Consumer demand for plant and animal products threatens many populations with extinction. The anthropogenic Allee effect (AAE) proposes that such extinctions can be caused by prices for wildlife products increasing with species rarity. This price-rarity relationship creates financial incentives to extract the last remaining individuals of a population, despite higher search and harvest costs. The AAE has become a standard approach for conceptualizing the threat of economic markets on endangered species. Despite its potential importance for conservation, AAE theory is based on a simple graphical model with limited analysis of possible population trajectories...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666483/ethnozoological-study-of-animals-based-medicine-used-by-traditional-healers-and-indigenous-inhabitants-in-the-adjoining-areas-of-gibbon-wildlife-sanctuary-assam-india
#16
Manash Pratim Borah, Surya Bali Prasad
BACKGROUND: India has an immense faunal, floral, as well as cultural diversity with many ethnic communities who are primarily dependent on the traditional medicinal system for their primary health care. Documentation and evaluation of this indigenous remedial knowledge may be helpful to establish new drugs for human health. The present study is intended to look into different zootherapeutic medicinal uses in the traditional health care system among the native inhabitants adjacent to the Gibbon Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam, India...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662427/oral-mycoses-in-avian-scavengers-exposed-to-antibiotics-from-livestock-farming
#17
Aida Pitarch, Concha Gil, Guillermo Blanco
The exposure to antimicrobial pharmaceuticals as environmental contaminants can exert direct and indirect detrimental effects on health of wildlife. Fungal infections pose a major threat to domestic, captive-housed wild and free-ranging wild animals worldwide. However, little is known about their role in disease in birds in the wild. Here, we evaluated the incidence of thrush-like lesions in the oral cavity of wild nestling cinereous vultures (Aegypius monachus), griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus), Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus) and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) exposed to veterinary antibiotics via the consumption of medicated livestock carcasses...
June 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662203/detection-of-bacterial-reactive-natural-igm-antibodies-in-desert-bighorn-sheep-populations
#18
Brian S Dugovich, Melanie J Peel, Amy L Palmer, Ryszard A Zielke, Aleksandra E Sikora, Brianna R Beechler, Anna E Jolles, Clinton W Epps, Brian P Dolan
Ecoimmunology is a burgeoning field of ecology which studies immune responses in wildlife by utilizing general immune assays such as the detection of natural antibody. Unlike adaptive antibodies, natural antibodies are important in innate immune responses and often recognized conserved epitopes present in pathogens. Here, we describe a procedure for measuring natural antibodies reactive to bacterial antigens that may be applicable to a variety of organisms. IgM from desert bighorn sheep plasma samples was tested for reactivity to outer membrane proteins from Vibrio coralliilyticus, a marine bacterium to which sheep would have not been exposed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658274/long-term-monitoring-of-jaguars-in-the-cockscomb-basin-wildlife-sanctuary-belize-implications-for-camera-trap-studies-of-carnivores
#19
Bart J Harmsen, Rebecca J Foster, Emma Sanchez, Carmina E Gutierrez-González, Scott C Silver, Linde E T Ostro, Marcella J Kelly, Elma Kay, Howard Quigley
In this study, we estimate life history parameters and abundance for a protected jaguar population using camera-trap data from a 14-year monitoring program (2002-2015) in Belize, Central America. We investigated the dynamics of this jaguar population using 3,075 detection events of 105 individual adult jaguars. Using robust design open population models, we estimated apparent survival and temporary emigration and investigated individual heterogeneity in detection rates across years. Survival probability was high and constant among the years for both sexes (φ = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657858/screening-for-bovine-tuberculosis-in-african-buffalo-syncerus-caffer-in-ngorongoro-conservation-area-northern-tanzania-implications-for-public-health
#20
Bugwesa Z Katale, Robert D Fyumagwa, Eblate E Mjingo, Kuya Sayalel, Emmanuel K Batamuzi, Mecky I Matee, Julius D Keyyu, Justice Muumba, Maulid Mdaki, Erasto V Mbugi, Mark M Rweyemamu, Donald G Mpanduji
In the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, where wildlife and livestock interaction is intense, greater potential for intra- and interspecies disease transmission is expected. We assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) residing on the valley floor of the crater in the NCA. Apparently healthy animals were randomly selected from herds in nine sites of the Ngorongoro Crater. Syncerus caffer buffalo herds were located using very high-frequency radio-aided rangers positioned in various observation points around the crater in the NCA...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
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