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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815792/understanding-implications-of-consumer-behavior-for-wildlife-farming-and-sustainable-wildlife-trade
#1
A Nuno, J M Blumenthal, T J Austin, J Bothwell, G Ebanks-Petrie, B J Godley, A C Broderick
Unsustainable wildlife trade affects biodiversity and the livelihoods of communities dependent upon those resources. Wildlife farming has often been proposed to promote sustainable trade but characterizing markets and understanding consumer behaviour remain neglected, but essential, steps with important implications for its design and evaluation. We used sea turtle trade in the Cayman Islands as a case study - where turtle meat for consumption has been produced for almost 50 years, to explore consumer preferences towards wild-sourced (illegal) and farmed (legal) products and potential conservation implications...
August 16, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811887/lessons-from-the-t%C3%A5-hoku-tsunami-a-model-for-island-avifauna-conservation-prioritization
#2
Michelle H Reynolds, Paul Berkowitz, John L Klavitter, Karen N Courtot
Earthquake-generated tsunamis threaten coastal areas and low-lying islands with sudden flooding. Although human hazards and infrastructure damage have been well documented for tsunamis in recent decades, the effects on wildlife communities rarely have been quantified. We describe a tsunami that hit the world's largest remaining tropical seabird rookery and estimate the effects of sudden flooding on 23 bird species nesting on Pacific islands more than 3,800 km from the epicenter. We used global positioning systems, tide gauge data, and satellite imagery to quantify characteristics of the Tōhoku earthquake-generated tsunami (11 March 2011) and its inundation extent across four Hawaiian Islands...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810700/a-single-mini-barcode-test-to-screen-for-australian-mammalian-predators-from-environmental-samples
#3
Elodie Modave, Anna J MacDonald, Stephen D Sarre
Identification of species from trace samples is now possible through the comparison of diagnostic DNA fragments against reference DNA sequence databases. DNA detection of animals from non-invasive samples, such as predator faeces (scats) that contain traces of DNA from their species of origin, has proved to be a valuable tool for the management of elusive wildlife. However, application of this approach can be limited by the availability of appropriate genetic markers. Scat DNA is often degraded, meaning that longer DNA sequences, including standard DNA barcoding markers, are difficult to recover...
August 1, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782134/gut-microbiomes-of-free-ranging-and-captive-namibian-cheetahs-diversity-putative-functions-and-occurrence-of-potential-pathogens
#4
Wasim Uddin, Sebastian Menke, Jörg Melzheimer, Susanne Thalwitzer, Sonja Heinrich, Bettina Wachter, Simone Sommer
Although the significance of the gut microbiome for host health is well acknowledged, the impact of host traits and environmental factors on the inter-individual variation of gut microbiomes of wildlife species is not well understood. Such information is essential, however, since changes in the composition of these microbial communities beyond the natural range might cause dysbiosis leading to increased susceptibility to infections. We examined the potential influence of sex, age, genetic relatedness, spatial tactics, and the environment on the natural range of the gut microbiome diversity in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)...
August 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777884/state-dependent-behavior-alters-endocrine-energy-relationship-implications-for-conservation-and-management
#5
Brett R Jesmer, Jacob R Goheen, Kevin L Monteith, Matthew J Kauffman
Glucocorticoids (GC) and triiodothyronine (T3) are two endocrine markers commonly used to quantify resource limitation, yet the relationships between these markers and the energetic state of animals has been studied primarily in small-bodied species in captivity. Free-ranging animals, however, adjust energy intake in accordance with their energy reserves, a behavior known as state-dependent foraging. Further, links between life-history strategies and metabolic allometries cause energy intake and energy reserves to be more strongly coupled in small animals relative to large animals...
August 4, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776912/hybriddetective-a-workflow-and-package-to-facilitate-the-detection-of-hybridization-using-genomic-data-in-r
#6
Brendan F Wringe, Ryan R E Stanley, Nicholas W Jeffery, Eric C Anderson, Ian R Bradbury
The ability to detect and characterize hybridization in nature has long been of interest to many fields of biology and often has direct implications for wildlife management and conservation. The capacity to identify the presence of hybridization, and quantify the numbers of individuals belonging to different hybrid classes, permits inference on the magnitude of, and time scale over which, hybridization has been, or is occurring. Here we present an R package and associated workflow developed for the detection, with estimates of efficiency and accuracy, of multi-generational hybrid individuals using genetic or genomic data in conjunction with the program NEWHYBRIDS...
August 4, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775252/conflict-between-conservation-and-development-cash-forest-encroachment-in-asian-elephant-distributions
#7
Peng Liu, Hui Wen, Franziska K Harich, Changhuan He, Lanxin Wang, Xianming Guo, Jianwei Zhao, Aidong Luo, Hongpei Yang, Xiao Sun, Yang Yu, Shaobo Zheng, Jing Guo, Li Li, Li Zhang
Over the last 4 decades, China has undergone major economic development, resulting in considerable impacts on its wildlife populations and habitats. It is essential to quantify the conflict between development and conservation to assist with policy-making because forestry policies and market trends affected indirectly the distribution of Asian elephants. Here, we mapped the historical distribution of elephants versus human land use. Elephant distributions appear to occur in unbroken natural forests only. However, over the 40-year period, the distribution ranges have become smaller and fragmented, with natural forest area also declining by 16%...
August 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770842/persistent-anthrax-as-a-major-driver-of-wildlife-mortality-in-a-tropical-rainforest
#8
Constanze Hoffmann, Fee Zimmermann, Roman Biek, Hjalmar Kuehl, Kathrin Nowak, Roger Mundry, Anthony Agbor, Samuel Angedakin, Mimi Arandjelovic, Anja Blankenburg, Gregory Brazolla, Katherine Corogenes, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Tobias Deschner, Paula Dieguez, Karsten Dierks, Ariane Düx, Susann Dupke, Henk Eshuis, Pierre Formenty, Yisa Ginath Yuh, Annemarie Goedmakers, Jan F Gogarten, Anne-Céline Granjon, Scott McGraw, Roland Grunow, John Hart, Sorrel Jones, Jessica Junker, John Kiang, Kevin Langergraber, Juan Lapuente, Kevin Lee, Siv Aina Leendertz, Floraine Léguillon, Vera Leinert, Therese Löhrich, Sergio Marrocoli, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Amelia Meier, Kevin Merkel, Sonja Metzger, Mizuki Murai, Svenja Niedorf, Hélène De Nys, Andreas Sachse, Joost van Schijndel, Ulla Thiesen, Els Ton, Doris Wu, Lothar H Wieler, Christophe Boesch, Silke R Klee, Roman M Wittig, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Fabian H Leendertz
Anthrax is a globally important animal disease and zoonosis. Despite this, our current knowledge of anthrax ecology is largely limited to arid ecosystems, where outbreaks are most commonly reported. Here we show that the dynamics of an anthrax-causing agent, Bacillus cereus biovar anthracis, in a tropical rainforest have severe consequences for local wildlife communities. Using data and samples collected over three decades, we show that rainforest anthrax is a persistent and widespread cause of death for a broad range of mammalian hosts...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770054/dispersal-corridors-for-plant-species-in-the-poyang-lake-basin-of-southeast-china-identified-by-integration-of-phylogeographic-and-geospatial-data
#9
Dengmei Fan, Zhixia Sun, Bo Li, Yixuan Kou, Richard G J Hodel, Zhinong Jin, Zhiyong Zhang
Measuring the dispersal of wildlife through landscapes is notoriously difficult. Recently, the categorical least cost path algorithm that integrates population genetic data with species distribution models has been applied to reveal population connectivity. In this study, we use this method to identify the possible dispersal corridors of five plant species (Castanopsis tibetana, Schima superba, Cyclocarya paliurus, Sargentodoxa cuneata, Eomecon chionantha) in the Poyang Lake Basin (PLB, largely coinciding with Jiangxi Province), China, in the late Quaternary...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765500/infectious-keratoconjunctivitis-and-occurrence-of-mycoplasma-conjunctivae-and-chlamydiaceae-in-small-domestic-ruminants-from-central-karakoram-pakistan
#10
Xavier Fernández-Aguilar, Luca Rossi, Óscar Cabezón, Andrea Giorgino, Isis Victoriano Llopis, Joachim Frey, Jorge Ramón López-Olvera
Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a contagious eye disease primarily caused by Mycoplasma conjunctivae in domestic and wild Caprinae. Chlamydophila species have also been detected in ruminants with IKC. The objectives of this study are to investigate the ocular infection of M. conjunctivae and Chlamydiaceae and assess its interaction in relation to IKC in sheep and goats from remote communities around the Central Karakoram National Park in Pakistan, performing a combination of cross-sectional and case-control study design...
August 1, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764121/ahr-and-cyp1a-expression-link-historical-contamination-events-to-modern-day-developmental-effects-in-the-american-alligator
#11
Matthew D Hale, Thomas M Galligan, Thomas R Rainwater, Brandon C Moore, Philip M Wilkinson, Louis J Guillette, Benjamin B Parrott
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that initiates a transcriptional pathway responsible for the expression of CYP1A subfamily members, key to the metabolism of xenobiotic compounds. Toxic planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, including dioxin and PCBs, are capable of activating the AHR, and while dioxin and PCB inputs into the environment have been dramatically curbed following strict regulatory efforts in the United States, they persist in the environment and exposures remain relevant today...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763038/understanding-barriers-to-participation-in-cost-share-programs-for-pollinator-conservation-by-wisconsin-usa-cranberry-growers
#12
Hannah R Gaines-Day, Claudio Gratton
The expansion of modern agriculture has led to the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, resulting in a global decline in biodiversity, including bees. In many countries, farmers can participate in cost-share programs to create natural habitat on their farms for the conservation of beneficial insects, such as bees. Despite their dependence on bee pollinators and the demonstrated commitment to environmental stewardship, participation in such programs by Wisconsin cranberry growers has been low. The objective of this study was to understand the barriers that prevent participation by Wisconsin cranberry growers in cost-share programs for on-farm conservation of native bees...
August 1, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749292/molecular-detection-of-infectious-pathogens-of-the-upper-respiratory-tract-in-captive-nondomestic-felids
#13
Valéria M Lara, Julia C Benassi, Shayne P Bisetto, Trícia M de Oliveira, Helena L Ferreira, João P Araújo Júnior, Adriano B Carregaro
Upper respiratory tract disease is a complex infectious disease process with multiple pathogens involved. Identification of infectious agents in wild animals is of great importance for wildlife conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular detection of feline herpesvirus type 1, feline calicivirus (FCV), Bordetella bronchiseptica , Chlamydophila felis , and Mycoplasma felis using ocular and nasal swabs in three species of captive nondomestic felids. Mycoplasma felis was detected in two ocular samples of Puma concolor and in one nasal sample of one Panthera onca ...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743947/match-between-soaring-modes-of-black-kites-and-the-fine-scale-distribution-of-updrafts
#14
Carlos D Santos, Frank Hanssen, Antonio-Román Muñoz, Alejandro Onrubia, Martin Wikelski, Roel May, João P Silva
Understanding how soaring birds use updrafts at small spatial scales is important to identify ecological constraints of movement, and may help to prevent conflicts between wind-energy development and the conservation of wildlife. We combined high-frequency GPS animal tracking and fine-spatial-scale uplift modelling to establish a link between flight behaviour of soaring birds and the distribution of updrafts. We caught 21 black kites (Milvus migrans) and GPS-tracked them while flying over the Tarifa region, on the Spanish side of the Strait of Gibraltar...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740638/nutritional-physiology-and-ecology-of-wildlife-in-a-changing-world
#15
Kim Birnie-Gauvin, Kathryn S Peiman, David Raubenheimer, Steven J Cooke
Over the last century, humans have modified landscapes, generated pollution and provided opportunities for exotic species to invade areas where they did not evolve. In addition, humans now interact with animals in a growing number of ways (e.g. ecotourism). As a result, the quality (i.e. nutrient composition) and quantity (i.e. food abundance) of dietary items consumed by wildlife have, in many cases, changed. We present representative examples of the extent to which vertebrate foraging behaviour, food availability (quantity and quality) and digestive physiology have been modified due to human-induced environmental changes and human activities...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735426/diet-versus-phylogeny-a-comparison-of-gut-microbiota-in-captive-colobine-monkey-species
#16
Vanessa L Hale, Chia L Tan, Kefeng Niu, Yeqin Yang, Rob Knight, Qikun Zhang, Duoying Cui, Katherine R Amato
Both diet and host phylogeny shape the gut microbial community, and separating out the effects of these variables can be challenging. In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to evaluate the impact of diet and phylogeny on the gut microbiota of nine colobine monkey species (N = 64 individuals). Colobines are leaf-eating monkeys that fare poorly in captivity-often exhibiting gastrointestinal (GI) problems. This study included eight Asian colobines (Rhinopithecus brelichi, Rhinopithecus roxellana, Rhinopithecus bieti, Pygathrix nemaeus, Nasalis larvatus, Trachypithecus francoisi, Trachypithecus auratus, and Trachypithecus vetulus) and one African colobine (Colobus guereza)...
July 22, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733592/machine-learning-model-analysis-of-breeding-habitats-for-the-black-necked-crane-in-central-asian-uplands-under-anthropogenic-pressures
#17
Xuesong Han, Yumin Guo, Chunrong Mi, Falk Huettmann, Lijia Wen
The black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis) is the only alpine crane species and is endemic to the Tibetan Plateau. The breeding habitats of this species are poorly understood, which greatly hampers practical research and conservation work. Using machine learning methods and the best-available data from our 7,000-kilometer mega-transect survey and open access data, we built the first species distribution model (SDM) to analyze the black-necked crane's breeding habitats. Our model showed that current conservation gaps account for 26...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729957/decline-of-heterozygosity-in-a-large-but-isolated-population-a-45-year-examination-of-moose-genetic-diversity-on-isle-royale
#18
Renae L Sattler, Janna R Willoughby, Bradley J Swanson
Wildlife conservation and management approaches typically focus on demographic measurements to assess population viability over both short and long periods. However, genetic diversity is an important predictor of long term population vitality. We investigated the pattern of change in genetic diversity in a large and likely isolated moose (Alces alces) population on Isle Royale (Lake Superior) from 1960-2005. We characterized samples, partitioned into five different 5-year periods, using nine microsatellite loci and a portion of the mtDNA control region...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726725/a-cultural-conscience-for-conservation
#19
Caroline Good, Dawn Burnham, David W Macdonald
On 2 July 2015, the killing of a lion nicknamed "Cecil" prompted the largest global reaction in the history of wildlife conservation. In response to this, it is propitious to consider the ways in which this moment can be developed into a financial movement to transform the conservation of species such as the lion that hold cultural significance and sentiment but whose numbers in the wild are dwindling dangerously. This provocative piece explores how a species royalty could be used effectively by drawing revenue from the heavy symbolic use of charismatic animals in affluent economies...
July 20, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720110/molecular-characterisation-of-protist-parasites-in-human-habituated-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-humans-and-livestock-from-bwindi-impenetrable-national-park-uganda
#20
Matthew J Nolan, Melisa Unger, Yuen-Ting Yeap, Emma Rogers, Ilary Millet, Kimberley Harman, Mark Fox, Gladys Kalema-Zikusoka, Damer P Blake
BACKGROUND: Over 60 % of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, and there is growing evidence of the zooanthroponotic transmission of diseases from humans to livestock and wildlife species, with major implications for public health, economics, and conservation. Zooanthroponoses are of relevance to critically endangered species; amongst these is the mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) of Uganda. Here, we assess the occurrence of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Giardia, and Entamoeba infecting mountain gorillas in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park (BINP), Uganda, using molecular methods...
July 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
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