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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929570/impacts-of-human-induced-environmental-change-in-wetlands-on-aquatic-animals
#1
Michael Sievers, Robin Hale, Kirsten M Parris, Stephen E Swearer
Many wetlands harbour highly diverse biological communities and provide extensive ecosystem services; however, these important ecological features are being altered, degraded and destroyed around the world. Despite a wealth of research on how animals respond to anthropogenic changes to natural wetlands and how they use created wetlands, we lack a broad synthesis of these data. While some altered wetlands may provide vital habitat, others could pose a considerable risk to wildlife. This risk will be heightened if such wetlands are ecological traps - preferred habitats that confer lower fitness than another available habitat...
September 19, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926135/a-spatial-approach-to-combatting-wildlife-crime
#2
Sally C Faulkner, Michael C A Stevens, Stephanie S Romañach, Peter A Lindsey, Steven C Le Comber
Poaching can have devastating impacts on animal and plant numbers, and in many countries has reached crisis levels, with illegal hunters employing increasingly sophisticated techniques. Here, we show how geographic profiling - a mathematical technique originally developed in criminology and recently applied to animal foraging and epidemiology - can be adapted for use in investigations of wildlife crime, using data from an eight-year study in Savé Valley Conservancy, Zimbabwe that in total includes more than 10,000 incidents of illegal hunting and the deaths of 6,454 wild animals...
September 19, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915245/effects-of-gnrh-vaccination-in-wild-and-captive-african-elephant-bulls-loxodonta-africana-on-reproductive-organs-and-semen-quality
#3
Imke Lueders, Debbie Young, Liana Maree, Gerhard van der Horst, Ilse Luther, Stephan Botha, Brendan Tindall, Geoffrey Fosgate, André Ganswindt, Henk J Bertschinger
OBJECTIVES: Although the African elephant (Loxodonta africana) is classified as endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), in some isolated habitats in southern Africa, contraception is of major interest due to local overpopulation. GnRH vaccination has been promoted as a non-invasive contraceptive measure for population management of overabundant wildlife. We tested the efficacy of this treatment for fertility control in elephant bulls. METHODS: In total, 17 male African elephants that were treated with a GnRH vaccine were examined in two groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913417/parasite-biodiversity-faces-extinction-and-redistribution-in-a-changing-climate
#4
Colin J Carlson, Kevin R Burgio, Eric R Dougherty, Anna J Phillips, Veronica M Bueno, Christopher F Clements, Giovanni Castaldo, Tad A Dallas, Carrie A Cizauskas, Graeme S Cumming, Jorge Doña, Nyeema C Harris, Roger Jovani, Sergey Mironov, Oliver C Muellerklein, Heather C Proctor, Wayne M Getz
Climate change is a well-documented driver of both wildlife extinction and disease emergence, but the negative impacts of climate change on parasite diversity are undocumented. We compiled the most comprehensive spatially explicit data set available for parasites, projected range shifts in a changing climate, and estimated extinction rates for eight major parasite clades. On the basis of 53,133 occurrences capturing the geographic ranges of 457 parasite species, conservative model projections suggest that 5 to 10% of these species are committed to extinction by 2070 from climate-driven habitat loss alone...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910290/bird-use-of-organic-apple-orchards-frugivory-pest-control-and-implications-for-production
#5
Anna M Mangan, Liba Pejchar, Scott J Werner
As the largest terrestrial biomes, crop and pasturelands can have very large positive or negative impacts on biodiversity and human well-being. Understanding how animals use and impact agroecosystems is important for making informed decisions that achieve conservation and production outcomes. Yet, few studies examine the tradeoffs associated with wildlife in agricultural systems. We examined bird use of organic apple orchards as well as how birds influence fruit production positively through control of an economically important insect pest (codling moth (Cydia pomonella)) and negatively through fruit damage...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904791/brucellosis-in-livestock-and-wildlife-zoonotic-diseases-without-pandemic-potential-in-need-of-innovative-one-health-approaches
#6
Jacques Godfroid
Human brucellosis remains the commonest zoonotic disease worldwide with more than 500 000 new cases annually. Understanding the biology of Brucella infections and the transmission patterns at the wildlife/livestock/human interface is of paramount importance before implementing any brucellosis control or eradication program in animals, even more so should interventions be justified within One Health. In addition to calling for transdisciplinary collaboration, One Health formally aims to conserve the environment and to promote the well-being of animals...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895271/multi-model-comparison-highlights-consistency-in-predicted-effect-of-warming-on-a-semi-arid-shrub
#7
Katherine M Renwick, Caroline Curtis, Andrew R Kleinhesselink, Daniel Schlaepfer, Bethany A Bradley, Cameron L Aldridge, Benjamin Poulter, Peter B Adler
A number of modeling approaches have been developed to predict the impacts of climate change on species distributions, performance and abundance. The stronger the agreement from models that represent different processes and are based on distinct and independent sources of information, the greater the confidence we can have in their predictions. Evaluating the level of confidence is particularly important when predictions are used to guide conservation or restoration decisions. We used a multi-model approach to predict climate change impacts on big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the dominant plant species on roughly 43 million hectares in the western United States and a key resource for many endemic wildlife species...
September 12, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889183/recognizing-the-importance-of-an-all-inclusive-approach-to-brown-bear-conservation-now-and-into-the-future
#8
Karine E Pigeon, Etienne Cardinal, Gordon B Stenhouse, Steeve D Côté
In their critique of our recent article in Oecologia (Pigeon et al. Oecologia 181:1101-1116, 2016a) investigating the influence of ambient temperature on brown bear habitat selection, Ordiz et al. (2017, current issue) argue that we downplay the role of human disturbance on bear behavior, and that we wrongly report on the findings of Ordiz et al. (Oecologia 166:59-67, 2011). We argue that our previous article in Oecologia (Pigeon et al. 2016a) by no means downplays the influence of human factors on bear behavior, and that we correctly stated that Ordiz et al...
September 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887693/staying-cool-or-staying-safe-in-a-human-dominated-landscape-which-is-more-relevant-for-brown-bears
#9
Andrés Ordiz, Ole-Gunnar Støen, Miguel Delibes, Jon E Swenson
Pigeon et al. (2016) Staying cool in a changing landscape: the influence of maximum daily ambient temperature on grizzly bear habitat selection. Oecologia 181:1101. doi: 10.1007/s00442-016-3630-5 analyzed the effect of ambient temperature on the habitat selection of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Alberta, Canada. They concluded that temperature played a significant role in bear habitat selection and that it was unlikely that human activity introduced biases to the habitat selection of bears. However, Pigeon et al...
September 8, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879613/vaccines-for-conservation-plague-prairie-dogs-black-footed-ferrets-as-a-case-study
#10
Daniel J Salkeld
The endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) is affected by plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, both directly, as a cause of mortality, and indirectly, because of the impacts of plague on its prairie dog (Cynomys spp.) prey base. Recent developments in vaccines and vaccine delivery have raised the possibility of plague control in prairie dog populations, thereby protecting ferret populations. A large-scale experimental investigation across the western US shows that sylvatic plague vaccine delivered in oral baits can increase prairie dog survival...
September 6, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870257/enrichment-of-beneficial-bacteria-in-the-skin-microbiota-of-bats-persisting-with-white-nose-syndrome
#11
Virginie Lemieux-Labonté, Anouk Simard, Craig K R Willis, François-Joseph Lapointe
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases of wildlife are increasing worldwide with implications for conservation and human public health. The microbiota (i.e. microbial community living on or in a host) could influence wildlife disease resistance or tolerance. White-nose syndrome (WNS), caused by the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), has killed millions of hibernating North American bats since 2007. We characterized the skin microbiota of naïve, pre-WNS little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) from three WNS-negative hibernation sites and persisting, previously exposed bats from three WNS-positive sites to test the hypothesis that the skin microbiota of bats shifts following WNS invasion...
September 5, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861231/habitat-predictors-of-genetic-diversity-for-two-sympatric-wetland-breeding-amphibian-species
#12
Anna M McKee, John C Maerz, Lora L Smith, Travis C Glenn
Population genetic diversity is widely accepted as important to the conservation and management of wildlife. However, habitat features may differentially affect evolutionary processes that facilitate population genetic diversity among sympatric species. We measured genetic diversity for two pond-breeding amphibian species (Dwarf salamanders, Eurycea quadridigitata; and Southern Leopard frogs, Lithobates sphenocephalus) to understand how habitat characteristics and spatial scale affect genetic diversity across a landscape...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859266/optimization-of-human-animal-and-environmental-health-by-using-the-one-health-approach
#13
REVIEW
Jonathan M Sleeman, Thomas DeLiberto, Natalie Nguyen
Emerging diseases are increasing burdens on public health, negatively affecting the world economy, causing extinction of species, and disrupting ecological integrity. One Health recognizes that human, domestic animal, and wildlife health are interconnected within ecosystem health and provides a framework for the development of multidisciplinary solutions to global health challenges. To date, most health-promoting interventions have focused largely on single-sector outcomes. For example, risk for transmission of zoonotic pathogens from bush-meat hunting is primarily focused on human hygiene and personal protection...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859147/the-effects-of-poaching-and-habitat-structure-on-anti-predator-behavioral-strategies-a-guanaco-population-in-a-high-cold-desert-as-case-study
#14
Flavio Cappa, Valeria Campos, Stella Giannoni, Natalia Andino
The effects of poaching on wildlife have been widely studied in conservation biology and can be heterogeneous, particularly on ungulates. These effects can be estimated through different methodologies whose use depends on several conditions such as Flight-initiation distance (FID). Our objectives were: 1- to evaluate whether poaching affects the FID and group structure of a guanaco (Lama guanicoe) population in a high cold desert in San Juan (Argentina); 2- to assess whether habitat structure (slope and vegetation cover) influences FID and group structure in this population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856730/exceptional-responders-in-conservation
#15
Gerald Post, Jonas Geldmann
Conservation operates within complex systems with incomplete knowledge of the system and the interventions. This frequently results in the inability to find generally applicable solutions to the threats faced by Earth's vanishing wildlife. One approach used in medicine, and the social sciences has been to develop a deeper understanding of the positive outliers. Where such outliers share similar characteristics, they may be considered: "exceptional responders". Here we present a framework for identifying exceptional responders in conservation...
August 30, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842589/effects-of-scale-of-movement-detection-probability-and-true-population-density-on-common-methods-of-estimating-population-density
#16
David A Keiter, Amy J Davis, Olin E Rhodes, Fred L Cunningham, John C Kilgo, Kim M Pepin, James C Beasley
Knowledge of population density is necessary for effective management and conservation of wildlife, yet rarely are estimators compared in their robustness to effects of ecological and observational processes, which can greatly influence accuracy and precision of density estimates. In this study, we simulate biological and observational processes using empirical data to assess effects of animal scale of movement, true population density, and probability of detection on common density estimators. We also apply common data collection and analytical techniques in the field and evaluate their ability to estimate density of a globally widespread species...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833978/mammal-diversity-and-metacommunity-dynamics-in-urban-green-spaces-implications-for-urban-wildlife-conservation
#17
Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Elizabeth W Lehrer, Seth B Magle
As urban growth expands and natural environments fragment, it is essential to understand the ecological roles fulfilled by urban green spaces. To evaluate how urban green spaces function as wildlife habitat, we estimated mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in city parks, cemeteries, golf courses, and natural areas throughout the greater Chicago, IL, USA region. We found similar α-diversity (with the exception of city parks), but remarkably dissimilar communities in different urban green spaces. Additionally, the type of urban green space greatly influenced species colonization and persistence rates...
August 21, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831676/effects-of-scarcity-aesthetics-and-ecology-on-wildlife-auction-prices-of-large-african-mammals
#18
Fredrik Dalerum, María Miranda, Cristina Muñiz, Plácido Rodríguez
For successful integration of biological conservation into economic markets, economic processes need to capture ecological values. South African wildlife ranching is a tourist-based activity that generates unique information on the economic value of wildlife species. We used public data from South African wildlife auctions to evaluate if annual prices 1991-2012 related to species characteristics associated with scarcity, aesthetics and ecology of South African carnivores and ungulates. While none of the species characteristics influenced carnivore prices, ungulate prices were related to characteristics associated with novelty and aesthetics, which relative importance had increased over time...
August 22, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821181/conservation-genetics-of-the-cheetah-lessons-learned-and-new-opportunities
#19
REVIEW
Stephen J O'Brien, Warren E Johnson, Carlos A Driscoll, Pavel Dobrynin, Laurie Marker
The dwindling wildlife species of our planet have become a cause célèbre for conservation groups, governments, and concerned citizens throughout the world. The application of powerful new genetic technologies to surviving populations of threatened mammals has revolutionized our ability to recognize hidden perils that afflict them. We have learned new lessons of survival, adaptation, and evolution from viewing the natural history of genomes in hundreds of detailed studies. A single case history of one species, the African cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus, is here reviewed to reveal a long-term story of conservation challenges and action informed by genetic discoveries and insights...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815792/understanding-implications-of-consumer-behavior-for-wildlife-farming-and-sustainable-wildlife-trade
#20
A Nuno, J M Blumenthal, T J Austin, J Bothwell, G Ebanks-Petrie, B J Godley, A C Broderick
Unsustainable wildlife trade affects biodiversity and the livelihoods of communities dependent upon those resources. Wildlife farming has often been proposed to promote sustainable trade but characterizing markets and understanding consumer behaviour remain neglected, but essential, steps with important implications for its design and evaluation. We used sea turtle trade in the Cayman Islands as a case study - where turtle meat for consumption has been produced for almost 50 years, to explore consumer preferences towards wild-sourced (illegal) and farmed (legal) products and potential conservation implications...
August 16, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
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