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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340477/occurrence-of-gastrointestinal-parasites-in-wild-animals-in-state-of-paran%C3%A3-brazil
#1
Lew K Sprenger, Ursula Y Yoshitani, Andreia Buzatti, Marcelo B Molento
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from wild birds and mammals from the State of Paraná. In total, 220 stool samples were sent to Parasitic Diseases Laboratory of the Federal University of Paraná during 13 months (Jan/2013-Jan/2014). A total of 52.7% (116/220) of the animals were positive for cysts, oocysts, eggs and/or trophozoites. In birds, the positivity rate was 37.9% (25/66) and mammals was 59.1% (91/154). Strongyloidea superfamily eggs were observed in 37...
January 11, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338807/genetic-diversity-of-blastocystis-in-non-primate-animals
#2
Emma L Betts, Eleni Gentekaki, Adele Thomasz, Vicki Breakell, Angus I Carpenter, Anastasios D Tsaousis
Blastocystis is an anaerobic protist, commonly inhabiting the intestinal tract of both humans and other animals. Blastocystis is extremely diverse comprising 17 genetically distinct subtypes in mammals and birds. Pathogenicity of this enteric microbe is currently disputed and knowledge regarding its distribution, diversity and zoonotic potential is fragmentary. Most research has focused on Blastocystis from primates, while sampling from other animals remains limited. Herein, we investigated the prevalence and distribution of Blastocystis in animals held within a conservation park in South East England...
January 17, 2018: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336512/using-field-data-to-quantify-chemical-impacts-on-wildlife-population-viability
#3
Jelle P Hilbers, Renske P J Hoondert, Aafke M Schipper, Mark A J Huijbregts
Environmental pollution is an important driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, to date, the effects of chemical exposure on wildlife populations have been quantified for only a few species, mainly due to a lack of appropriate laboratory data to quantify chemical impacts on vital rates. In this study we developed a method to quantify the effects of toxicant exposure on wildlife population persistence based on field monitoring data. We established field-based vital rate-response functions for toxicants, using quantile regression to correct for the influences of confounding factors on the vital rates observed, and combined the response curves with population viability modelling...
January 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333678/supplementary-feeding-as-a-source-of-multiresistant-salmonella-in-endangered-egyptian-vultures
#4
Guillermo Blanco
Wild birds have repeatedly been highlighted as vectors in the dissemination of livestock and human pathogens. Here, the occurrence, serotypes and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella were assessed in adult Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus), to test the hypothesis that infection is associated with the consumption of swine carcasses provided at supplementary feeding stations (SFSs). Faeces of year-round resident griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) were also tested to assess whether infection was acquired in the breeding grounds of both species or in the African wintering quarters of Egyptian vultures...
January 14, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325579/the-return-of-the-iberian-lynx-to-portugal-local-voices
#5
Margarida Lopes-Fernandes, Clara Espírito-Santo, Amélia Frazão-Moreira
BACKGROUND: Ethnographic research can help to establish dialog between conservationists and local people in reintroduction areas. Considering that predator reintroductions may cause local resistance, we assessed attitudes of different key actor profiles to the return of the Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) to Portugal before reintroduction started in 2015. We aimed to characterize a social context from an ethnoecological perspective, including factors such as local knowledge, perceptions, emotions, and opinions...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320475/warfare-and-wildlife-declines-in-africa-s-protected-areas
#6
Joshua H Daskin, Robert M Pringle
Large-mammal populations are ecological linchpins, and their worldwide decline and extinction disrupts many ecosystem functions and services. Reversal of this trend will require an understanding of the determinants of population decline, to enable more accurate predictions of when and where collapses will occur and to guide the development of effective conservation and restoration policies. Many correlates of large-mammal declines are known, including low reproductive rates, overhunting, and habitat destruction...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298338/population-structure-of-giraffes-is-affected-by-management-in-the-great-rift-valley-kenya
#7
Zoe Muller
Giraffe populations in East Africa have declined in the past thirty years yet there has been limited research on this species. This study had four objectives: i) to provide a baseline population assessment for the two largest populations of Rothschild's giraffes in Kenya, ii) to assess whether there are differences in population structure between the two enclosed populations, iii) to assess the potential and possible implications of different management practices on enclosed giraffe populations to inform future decision-making, and iv) to add to the availability of information available about giraffes in the wild...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298311/when-roads-appear-jaguars-decline-increased-access-to-an-amazonian-wilderness-area-reduces-potential-for-jaguar-conservation
#8
Santiago Espinosa, Gerardo Celis, Lyn C Branch
Roads are a main threat to biodiversity conservation in the Amazon, in part, because roads increase access for hunters. We examine how increased landscape access by hunters may lead to cascading effects that influence the prey community and abundance of the jaguar (Panthera onca), the top Amazonian terrestrial predator. Understanding such ecological effects originating from anthropogenic actions is essential for conservation and management of wildlife populations in areas undergoing infrastructure development...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297822/early-onset-of-the-reproductive-season-in-captive-white-tailed-deer-odocoileus-virginianus-veraecrucis-in-eastern-mexico
#9
Concepción Ahuja-Aguirre, Omar Pérez-Gutiérrez, Lorena López-deBuen, Susana Rojas-Maya, Felipe Montiel-Palacios
The white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) inhabits a wide latitudinal range in the Americas. Deer species dwelling throughout wide latitudinal ranges have developed subspecies with variations in their reproductive seasonality. In northern subspecies of white-tailed deer, such as those from Canada and the United States, the breeding season occurs from October through December. Odocoileus virginianus veraecrucis is a subspecies that inhabits eastern Mexico, and because its reproductive season has not been studied, it is believed to be similar to that from northern subspecies...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297748/floral-fragrance-analysis-of-prosthechea-cochleata-orchidaceae-an-endangered-native-epiphytic-orchid-in-florida
#10
Haleigh A Ray, Charles J Stuhl, Jennifer L Gillett-Kaufman
South Florida is home to a number of native species of orchids. The Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge has 27 known species, including Prosthechea cochleata, the clamshell orchid, which is listed as endangered on Florida's Regulated Plant Index. In a prior study done on this species in Mexico, P. cochleata was found to produce no floral fragrance at the particular study location. However, blooming orchids of this species at the University of Florida in Gainesville, were noted to be fragrant. In this paper, we document the presence of floral fragrance compounds from P...
January 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289828/elevated-nitrate-alters-the-metabolic-activity-of-embryonic-zebrafish
#11
Sarah M Conlin, M Scarlett Tudor, Juyoung Shim, Julie A Gosse, Andrew Neilson, Heather J Hamlin
Nitrate accumulation in aquatic reservoirs from agricultural pollution has often been overlooked as a water quality hazard, yet a growing body of literature suggests negative effects on human and wildlife health following nitrate exposure. This research seeks to understand differences in oxygen consumption rates between different routes of laboratory nitrate exposure, whether via immersion or injection, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Embryos were exposed within 1 h post fertilization (hpf) to 0, 10, and 100 mg/L NO3-N with sodium nitrate, or to counter ion control (CIC) treatments using sodium chloride...
December 28, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282711/more-invaders-do-not-result-in-heavier-impacts-the-effects-of-nonnative-bullfrogs-on-native-anurans-are-mitigated-by-high-densities-of-nonnative-crayfish
#12
Xuan Liu, Supen Wang, Zunwei Ke, Chaoyuan Cheng, Yihua Wang, Fang Zhang, Feng Xu, Xianping Li, Xu Gao, Changnan Jin, Wei Zhu, Shaofei Yan, Yiming Li
1.With accelerating species introductions in an era of globalization, co-occurring alien species have become increasingly common. Understanding the combined ecological impacts of multiple invaders is not only crucial for wildlife managers attempting to ameliorate biodiversity loss but also provides key insights into invasion success and species coexistence mechanisms in natural ecosystems. Compared with much attentions given to single invader impacts, little is known about the impacts of multiple co-occurring invaders...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281673/taxonomic-differences-of-gut-microbiomes-drive-cellulolytic-enzymatic-potential-within-hind-gut-fermenting-mammals
#13
Emma C L Finlayson-Trick, Landon J Getz, Patrick D Slaine, Mackenzie Thornbury, Emily Lamoureux, Jamie Cook, Morgan G I Langille, Lois E Murray, Craig McCormick, John R Rohde, Zhenyu Cheng
Host diet influences the diversity and metabolic activities of the gut microbiome. Previous studies have shown that the gut microbiome provides a wide array of enzymes that enable processing of diverse dietary components. Because the primary diet of the porcupine, Erethizon dorsatum, is lignified plant material, we reasoned that the porcupine microbiome would be replete with enzymes required to degrade lignocellulose. Here, we report on the bacterial composition in the porcupine microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250332/within-sample-variation-in-snowshoe-hare-faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolite-measurements
#14
Diana J R Lafferty, Alexander V Kumar, Sarah Whitcher, Klaus Hackländer, L Scott Mills
Faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGM) concentrations are used increasingly as a non-invasive measure to index physiological stress experienced by diverse taxa. However, FGM may not be evenly distributed throughout a faecal mass or faecal pellet group. Moreover, within-sample variation in FGM measurements associated with different sampling and/or processing techniques is rarely reported despite potentially having important implications for inferring stress levels in free-ranging wildlife. Using a captive collection of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus), we (i) assessed repeatability of FGM measurements (i...
2017: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247477/finding-politically-feasible-conservation-policies-the-case-of-wildlife-trafficking
#15
Timothy C Haas, Sam M Ferreira
Conservation management is of increasing importance in ecology as most ecosystems nowadays are essentially managed ones. Conservation managers work within a political-ecological system when they develop and attempt to implement a conservation plan that is designed to meet particular conservation goals. In this article, we develop a decision support tool that can identify a conservation policy for a managed wildlife population that is both sustainable and politically feasible. Part of our tool consists of a simulation model composed of interacting influence diagrams...
December 16, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243311/husbandry-protocols-for-the-band-tailed-pigeon-patagioenas-fasciata-albilinea-at-the-wcs-bronx-zoo-for-future-conservation-management-programs
#16
David A Oehler, Ben J Novak, Susan C Schmid, Ken J Huth, Aniko I Totha, Tapan Audhya
From 2015 to 2016 we determined the husbandry protocols involved in the captive rearing of the Band-tailed Pigeon (BTPI), Patagioenas fascinate albilinea, for use as a tool in the future management of like extant and extinct avian taxa. Current and historical ex-situ conservation management of BTPIs and the closely related Passenger Pigeon, Ectopistes migratorius, is limited in scope and required further examination. Focus on the BTPI within zoos and private aviculture facilities is currently lacking. New pressures on the wild populations and future examination of the parameters involved in the possible restoration of the Passenger Pigeon may rely on a complete understanding of these conservation management techniques...
December 15, 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236707/translating-statistical-species-habitat-models-to-interactive-decision-support-tools
#17
Lyndsie S Wszola, Victoria L Simonsen, Erica F Stuber, Caitlyn R Gillespie, Lindsey N Messinger, Karie L Decker, Jeffrey J Lusk, Christopher F Jorgensen, Andrew A Bishop, Joseph J Fontaine
Understanding species-habitat relationships is vital to successful conservation, but the tools used to communicate species-habitat relationships are often poorly suited to the information needs of conservation practitioners. Here we present a novel method for translating a statistical species-habitat model, a regression analysis relating ring-necked pheasant abundance to landcover, into an interactive online tool. The Pheasant Habitat Simulator combines the analytical power of the R programming environment with the user-friendly Shiny web interface to create an online platform in which wildlife professionals can explore the effects of variation in local landcover on relative pheasant habitat suitability within spatial scales relevant to individual wildlife managers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236703/rural-protein-insufficiency-in-a-wildlife-depleted-west-african-farm-forest-landscape
#18
Björn Schulte-Herbrüggen, Guy Cowlishaw, Katherine Homewood, J Marcus Rowcliffe
INTRODUCTION: Wildlife is an important source of protein for many people in developing countries. Yet wildlife depletion due to overexploitation is common throughout the humid tropics and its effect on protein security, especially for vulnerable households, is poorly understood. This is problematic for both sustainable rural development and conservation management. METHODS: This study investigates a key dimension of protein security in a cash-crop farming community living in a wildlife-depleted farm-forest landscape in SW Ghana, a region where protein-energy malnutrition persists...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232534/detection-of-dengue-virus-in-bat-flies-diptera-streblidae-of-common-vampire-bats-desmodus-rotundus-in-progreso-hidalgo-mexico
#19
Judith Abundes-Gallegos, Monica Salas-Rojas, Guillermo Galvez-Romero, Leonardo Perea-Martínez, Cirani Y Obregón-Morales, Juan B Morales-Malacara, Bruno B Chomel, Matthew J Stuckey, Hayde Moreno-Sandoval, Anahi García-Baltazar, Benjamin Nogueda-Torres, Gerardo Zuñiga, Alvaro Aguilar-Setién
Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in wild animals. Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites (bat flies) and their common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico...
December 12, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218742/prevalence-of-foot-disorders-in-captive-sardinian-partridges-alectoris-barbara-barbara-bonnaterre-1790-as-useful-indicators-of-fitness-to-natural-environment
#20
M G Cappai, A Abd El-Wahab, G Arru, M Muzzeddu, W Pinna
Foot health represents an issue in wild avifauna breeding practices. In particular, prevalence of digital ulceration (DU) and foot pad dermatitis (FPD) are valid indicators of welfare in wildlife conservation centres and may be interpreted as to fitness for bird's reintroduction into the wild. This study meant to test the effects of raising practices on foot pad health in captive Sardinian partridges (Alectoris barbara barbara Bonnaterre, 1790) reared for biodiversity conservation, to assess welfare and fitness to reintroduction into nature...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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