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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333995/better-living-through-conifer-removal-a-demographic-analysis-of-sage-grouse-vital-rates
#1
John P Severson, Christian A Hagen, Jason D Tack, Jeremy D Maestas, David E Naugle, James T Forbes, Kerry P Reese
Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) obligate wildlife species such as the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) face numerous threats including altered ecosystem processes that have led to conifer expansion into shrub-steppe. Conifer removal is accelerating despite a lack of empirical evidence on grouse population response. Using a before-after-control-impact design at the landscape scale, we evaluated effects of conifer removal on two important demographic parameters, annual survival of females and nest survival, by monitoring 219 female sage-grouse and 225 nests in the northern Great Basin from 2010 to 2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328924/scientific-crowdsourcing-in-wildlife-research-and-conservation-tigers-panthera-tigris-as-a-case-study
#2
Özgün Emre Can, Neil D'Cruze, Margaret Balaskas, David W Macdonald
With around 3,200 tigers (Panthera tigris) left in the wild, the governments of 13 tiger range countries recently declared that there is a need for innovation to aid tiger research and conservation. In response to this call, we created the "Think for Tigers" study to explore whether crowdsourcing has the potential to innovate the way researchers and practitioners monitor tigers in the wild. The study demonstrated that the benefits of crowdsourcing are not restricted only to harnessing the time, labor, and funds from the public but can also be used as a tool to harness creative thinking that can contribute to development of new research tools and approaches...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328146/conservation-and-the-four-rs-which-are-rescue-rehabilitation-release-and-research
#3
REVIEW
Graham H Pyke, Judit K Szabo
Vertebrate animals can be injured or threatened with injury through human activities, thus warranting their 'rescue'. Details of wildlife Rescue, Rehabilitation, Release, and associated Research (our 4 R's) are often recorded in large databases, resulting in a wealth of information. This information has huge research potential and can contribute to our understanding of animal biology, anthropogenic impacts on wildlife, and species conservation. However, such databases have been little used, few studies have evaluated factors influencing success of rehabilitation and/or release, recommended actions to conserve threatened species have rarely arisen, and direct benefits for species conservation are yet to be demonstrated...
March 22, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325981/tracking-data-from-nine-free-roaming-cheetahs-acinonyx-jubatus-collared-in-the-thabazimbi-area-limpopo-province-south-africa
#4
Kelly Marnewick, Samantha Page-Nicholson, Lizanne Roxburgh, Michael J Somers
BACKGROUND: In partnership with the University of Pretoria, the Endangered Wildlife Trust's Carnivore Conservation Programme collared six male and three female free-roaming Cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in the Thabazimbi area in Limpopo Province, South Africa. This study was undertaken to determine the spatial ecology of free-roaming Cheetahs that occur outside of formal protected areas on private ranchland, where they frequently come into conflict with, and are sometimes killed by, private landowners...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323562/corynebacterium-pseudotuberculosis-infection-in-patagonian-huemul-hippocamelus-bisulcus
#5
Nelly Morales, Dennis Aldridge, Andrea Bahamonde, Julio Cerda, Claudio Araya, Rodrigo Muñoz, María Esther Saldías, Claudio Lecocq, Marcela Fresno, Pedro Abalos, Patricio Retamal
Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an intracellular bacteria and the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis in domestic and wildlife species. We report C. pseudotuberculosis infection in Patagonian huemul ( Hippocamelus bisulcus ) from the Cerro Castillo National Reserve, Region of Aysen, Chile. Subcutaneous abscesses in the abdominal and pectoral regions from two animals were sampled and bacteriologic isolation was performed. In both cases, we isolated a C. pseudotuberculosis strain belonging to the ovine genotype...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323544/host-diet-affects-the-morphology-of-a-butterfly-parasite
#6
Kevin Ming-Kong Hoang, Leiling Tao, Jacobus C de Roode, Mark D Hunter
Understanding host-parasite interactions is essential for ecological research, wildlife conservation and health management. While most studies focus on numerical traits of parasite groups, such as changes in parasite load, less focus is placed on the traits of individual parasites, such as parasite size and shape (parasite morphology). Parasite morphology has significant effects on parasite fitness, such as initial colonization of hosts, avoidance of host immune defenses, and the availability of resources for parasite replication...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318825/riparian-erosion-vulnerability-model-based-on-environmental-features
#7
Alejandra Botero-Acosta, Maria L Chu, Jorge A Guzman, Patrick J Starks, Daniel N Moriasi
Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317843/winter-temperatures-limit-population-growth-rate-of-a-migratory-songbird
#8
Bradley K Woodworth, Nathaniel T Wheelwright, Amy E Newman, Michael Schaub, D Ryan Norris
Understanding the factors that limit and regulate wildlife populations requires insight into demographic and environmental processes acting throughout the annual cycle. Here, we combine multi-year tracking data of individual birds with a 26-year demographic study of a migratory songbird to evaluate the relative effects of density and weather at the breeding and wintering grounds on population growth rate. Our results reveal clear support for opposing forces of winter temperature and breeding density driving population dynamics...
March 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316882/sympathy-for-the-devil-a-conservation-strategy-for-devil-and-manta-rays
#9
Julia M Lawson, Sonja V Fordham, Mary P O'Malley, Lindsay N K Davidson, Rachel H L Walls, Michelle R Heupel, Guy Stevens, Daniel Fernando, Ania Budziak, Colin A Simpfendorfer, Isabel Ender, Malcolm P Francis, Giuseppe Notarbartolo di Sciara, Nicholas K Dulvy
BACKGROUND: International trade for luxury products, medicines, and tonics poses a threat to both terrestrial and marine wildlife. The demand for and consumption of gill plates (known as Peng Yu Sai, "Fish Gill of Mobulid Ray") from devil and manta rays (subfamily Mobulinae, collectively referred to as mobulids) poses a significant threat to these marine fishes because of their extremely low productivity. The demand for these gill plates has driven an international trade supplied by largely unmonitored and unregulated catches from target and incidental fisheries around the world...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280561/temporally-and-spatially-partitioned-behaviours-of-spinner-dolphins-implications-for-resilience-to-human-disturbance
#10
Julian A Tyne, David W Johnston, Fredrik Christiansen, Lars Bejder
Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than flexible systems...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278693/dna-barcoding-revises-a-misidentification-on-mossy-frog-new-record-and-distribution-extension-of-theloderma-corticale-boulenger-1903-amphibia-anura-rhacophoridae
#11
Huayuan Huang, Zening Chen, Zhonghui Wei, Rongping Bu, Zhengjun Wu
As an endangered animal group, mossy frog (genus Theloderma) has attracted the attention of biologists and wildlife conservationists. Clarifying the taxonomic status and distribution of each species in Theloderma is important to determine the conservation status for each species, establish appropriate conservation strategies and probe the speciation process. Recently, we discovered a medium-sized species of mossy frog of the genus Theloderma in April 2015 during municipal surveys of amphibians in Dayao Mountain of Jinxiu...
February 16, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277549/the-final-oral-ebola-vaccine-trial-on-captive-chimpanzees
#12
Peter D Walsh, Drishya Kurup, Dana L Hasselschwert, Christoph Wirblich, Jason E Goetzmann, Matthias J Schnell
Could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? We used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (RABV) vectored vaccine against Ebola virus (EBOV), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. EBOV GP and RABV GP-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. Chimpanzee sera also showed robust neutralizing activity against RABV and pseudo-typed EBOV...
March 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273135/low-tortoise-abundances-in-pine-forest-plantations-in-forest-shrubland-transition-areas
#13
Roberto C Rodríguez-Caro, Cornelia S Oedekoven, Eva Graciá, José D Anadón, Stephen T Buckland, Miguel A Esteve-Selma, Julia Martinez, Andrés Giménez
In the transition between Mediterranean forest and the arid subtropical shrublands of the southeastern Iberian Peninsula, humans have transformed habitat since ancient times. Understanding the role of the original mosaic landscapes in wildlife species and the effects of the current changes as pine forest plantations, performed even outside the forest ecological boundaries, are important conservation issues. We studied variation in the density of the endangered spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) in three areas that include the four most common land types within the species' range (pine forests, natural shrubs, dryland crop fields, and abandoned crop fields)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265490/facilitating-permeability-of-landscapes-impacted-by-roads-for-protected-amphibians-patterns-of-movement-for-the-great-crested-newt
#14
Cátia Matos, Silviu Petrovan, Alastair I Ward, Philip Wheeler
Amphibian populations are highly vulnerable to road mortality and habitat fragmentation caused by road networks. Wildlife road tunnels are considered the most promising road mitigation measure for amphibians yet generally remain inadequately monitored, resulting in mixed success rates in the short-term and uncertain conservation benefits in the long-term. We monitored a complex multi-tunnel and fence system over five years and investigated the impact of the scheme on movement patterns of two newt species, including the largest known UK population of the great crested newt (Triturus cristatus), a European Protected Species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264705/improved-molecular-detection-of-babesia-infections-in-animals-using-a-novel-quantitative-real-time-pcr-diagnostic-assay-targeting-mitochondrial-dna
#15
Barbara A Qurollo, Nikole R Archer, Megan E Schreeg, Henry S Marr, Adam J Birkenheuer, Kaitlin N Haney, Brittany S Thomas, Edward B Breitschwerdt
BACKGROUND: Babesiosis is a protozoal, tick transmitted disease found worldwide in humans, wildlife and domesticated animals. Commonly used approaches to diagnose babesiosis include microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears, detection of circulating antibodies and PCR. To screen and differentiate canine Babesia infections many PCR assays amplify the 18S rRNA gene. These sequences contain hypervariable regions flanked by highly conserved regions allowing for amplification of a broad-range of Babesia spp...
March 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259816/two-novel-real-time-cell-based-assays-quantify-beta-blocker-and-nsaid-specific-effects-in-effluents-of-municipal-wastewater-treatment-plants
#16
Kevin Bernhard, Cordula Stahl, Regina Martens, Heinz-R Köhler, Rita Triebskorn, Marco Scheurer, Manfred Frey
Pharmaceuticals, such as beta-blockers, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as well as their metabolites are introduced into the water cycle via municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents in all industrialized countries. As the amino acid sequences of the biological target molecules of these pharmaceuticals - the beta-1 adrenergic receptor for beta-blockers and the cyclooxygenase for NSAIDs - are phylogenetically conserved among vertebrates it is reasonable that wildlife vertebrates including fish physiologically respond in a similar way to them as documented in humans...
February 17, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238545/drawing-a-line-in-the-sand-effectiveness-of-off-highway-vehicle-management-in-california-s-sonoran-desert
#17
Nathan A Custer, Lesley A DeFalco, Kenneth E Nussear, Todd C Esque
Public land policies manage multiple uses while striving to protect vulnerable plant and wildlife habitats from degradation; yet the effectiveness of such policies are infrequently evaluated, particularly for remote landscapes that are difficult to monitor. We assessed the use and impacts of recreational vehicles on Mojave Desert washes (intermittent streams) in the Chemehuevi Desert Wildlife Management Area (DWMA) of southern California. Wash zones designated as open and closed to off-highway vehicle (OHV) activity were designed in part to protect Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) habitat while allowing recreation in designated areas...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231316/a-balanced-solution-to-the-cumulative-threat-of-industrialized-wind-farm-development-on-cinereous-vultures-aegypius-monachus-in-south-eastern-europe
#18
Dimitris P Vasilakis, D Philip Whitfield, Vassiliki Kati
Wind farm development can combat climate change but may also threaten bird populations' persistence through collision with wind turbine blades if such development is improperly planned strategically and cumulatively. Such improper planning may often occur. Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. We combined range use modelling and a Collision Risk Model (CRM) to predict the cumulative collision mortality for cinereous vulture under all operating and proposed wind farms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230049/broad-scale-lake-expansion-and-flooding-inundates-essential-wood-bison-habitat
#19
Jennifer B Korosi, Joshua R Thienpont, Michael F J Pisaric, Peter deMontigny, Joelle T Perreault, Jamylynn McDonald, Myrna J Simpson, Terry Armstrong, Steven V Kokelj, John P Smol, Jules M Blais
Understanding the interaction between the response of a complex ecosystem to climate change and the protection of vulnerable wildlife species is essential for conservation efforts. In the Northwest Territories (Canada), the recent movement of the Mackenzie wood bison herd (Bison bison athabascae) out of their designated territory has been postulated as a response to the loss of essential habitat following regional lake expansion. We show that the proportion of this landscape occupied by water doubled since 1986 and the timing of lake expansion corresponds to bison movements out of the Mackenzie Bison Sanctuary...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229044/lesser-snow-goose-helminths-show-recurring-and-positive-parasite-infection-diversity-relations
#20
Felipe Dargent, André Morrill, Ray T Alisauskas, J Daniel McLaughlin, Dave Shutler, Mark R Forbes
The patterns and mechanisms by which biological diversity is associated with parasite infection risk are important to study because of their potential implications for wildlife population's conservation and management. Almost all research in this area has focused on host species diversity and has neglected parasite diversity, despite evidence that parasites are important drivers of community structure and ecosystem processes. Here, we assessed whether presence or abundance of each of nine helminth species parasitizing lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens) was associated with indices of parasite diversity (i...
April 2017: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
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