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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782655/cross-scale-occupancy-dynamics-of-a-post-fire-specialist-in-response-to-variation-across-a-fire-regime
#1
Morgan W Tingley, Andrew N Stillman, Robert L Wilkerson, Christine A Howell, Sarah C Sawyer, Rodney B Siegel
1.Fire creates challenges and opportunities for wildlife through rapid destruction, modification, and creation of habitat. Fire has spatially variable effects on landscapes, however, and for species that benefit from the ephemeral resource patches created by fire, it is critical to understand characteristics of fires that promote post-fire colonization and persistence, and the spatial scales on which they operate. 2.Using a model post-fire specialist, the black-backed woodpecker (Picoides arcticus), we examined how colonization and persistence varied across two spatial scales as a function of four characteristics of fire regimes - fire severity, fire size, fire ignition date, and number of years since fire...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781169/effects-of-urbanization-on-the-population-structure-of-freshwater-turtles-across-the-united-states
#2
David R Bowne, Bradley J Cosentino, Laurel J Anderson, Christopher P Bloch, Sandra Cooke, Patrick W Crumrine, Jason Dallas, Alexandra Doran, Jerald J Dosch, Daniel L Druckenbrod, Richard D Durtsche, Danielle Garneau, Kristen S Genet, Todd S Fredericksen, Peter A Kish, Mary Beth Kolozsvary, Frank T Kuserk, Erin S Lindquist, Carol Mankiewicz, James G March, Timothy J Muir, K Greg Murray, Madeline N Santulli, Frank J Sicignano, Peter D Smallwood, Rebecca A Urban, Kathy Winnett-Murray, Craig R Zimmermann
Landscape-scale alterations that accompany urbanization may negatively affect the population structure of wildlife species such as freshwater turtles. Changes to nesting sites and higher mortality rates due to vehicular collisions and increased predator populations may particularly affect immature turtles and mature female turtles. We hypothesized that the proportions of adult female and immature turtles in a population will negatively correlate with landscape urbanization. As a collaborative effort of the Ecological Research as Education Network (EREN), we sampled freshwater turtle populations in 11 states across the central and eastern United States...
May 20, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778210/rabbit-haemorrhagic-disease-cross-protection-and-comparative-pathogenicity-of-gi-2-rhdv2-b-and-gi-1b-rhdv-lagoviruses-in-a-challenge-trial
#3
Carlos Calvete, Manuel Mendoza, Ana Alcaraz, María P Sarto, María P Jiménez-de-Bagüéss, Antonio J Calvo, Fernando Monroy, Jorge H Calvo
European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) are severely affected by rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD). Caused by a lagovirus, the disease leads to losses in the rabbit industry and has implications for wildlife conservation. Past RHD outbreaks have been caused by GI.1/RHDV genotype viruses. A new virus belonging to the GI.2/RHDV2/b genotype emerged in 2010, quickly spreading and replacing the former in several countries; however, limited data are available on its pathogenicity and epidemiological factors. The present work extends these issues and evaluates cross-protection between both genotypes...
June 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769131/echinococcus-multilocularis-and-echinococcus-shiquicus-in-a-small-mammal-community-on-the-eastern-tibetan-plateau-host-species-composition-molecular-prevalence-and-epidemiological-implications
#4
Xu Wang, Jiayu Liu, Qingqiu Zuo, Zhiqiang Mu, Xiaodong Weng, Xiaohui Sun, Junyao Wang, Belgees Boufana, Philip S Craig, Patrick Giraudoux, Francis Raoul, Zhenghuan Wang
BACKGROUND: The eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau is now recognized as an endemic region with the highest reported human infection rates in the world of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. Existing epidemiological studies on AE have mainly focused on the synanthropic environment, while basic parasitological and ecological aspects in wildlife host species remain largely unknown, especially for small mammal hosts. Therefore, we examined small mammal host species composition, occurrence, and the prevalence of both E...
May 16, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768481/complexity-in-african-savannas-direct-indirect-and-cascading-effects-of-animal-densities-rainfall-and-vegetation-availability
#5
Tim Leeuwis, Mike Peel, Willem F de Boer
Savanna ecosystems are popular subjects for interaction studies. Multiple studies have been done on the impact of elephants on vegetation, the impact of grass and browse availability on animal densities or on competition between herbivore species. Previous studies showed that elephant densities are frequently negatively correlated with densities of tall trees, and that browse and grass availability are correlated with browser and grazer density respectively. Additionally, a competition effect between browse and grass availability has been reported...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768469/misidentification-of-sex-for-lampsilis-teres-yellow-sandshell-and-its-implications-for-mussel-conservation-and-wildlife-management
#6
Megan C Hess, Kentaro Inoue, Eric T Tsakiris, Michael Hart, Jennifer Morton, Jack Dudding, Clinton R Robertson, Charles R Randklev
Correct identification of sex is an important component of wildlife management because changes in sex ratios can affect population viability. Identification of sex often relies on external morphology, which can be biased by intermediate or nondistinctive morphotypes and observer experience. For unionid mussels, research has demonstrated that species misidentification is common but less attention has been given to the reliability of sex identification. To evaluate whether this is an issue, we surveyed 117 researchers on their ability to correctly identify sex of Lampsilis teres (Yellow Sandshell), a wide ranging, sexually dimorphic species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757526/drivers-of-flea-siphonaptera-community-structure-in-sympatric-wild-carnivores-in-northwestern-mexico
#7
Andrés M López-Pérez, Kenneth Gage, Andre V Rubio, John Montenieri, Libertad Orozco, Gerardo Suzan
Host identity, habitat type, season, and interspecific interactions were investigated as determinants of the community structure of fleas on wild carnivores in northwestern Mexico. A total of 540 fleas belonging to seven species was collected from 64 wild carnivores belonging to eight species. We found that the abundances of some flea species are explained by season and host identity. Pulex irritans and Echidnophaga gallinacea abundances were significantly higher in spring than in fall season. Flea communities on carnivore hosts revealed three clusters with a high degree of similarity within each group that was explained by the flea dominance of E...
June 2018: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751256/peer-pressure-on-the-riverbank-assessing-catch-and-release-anglers-willingness-to-sanction-others-bad-behavior
#8
Meaghan L Guckian, Andy J Danylchuk, Steven J Cooke, Ezra M Markowitz
Given the well-documented impacts of angler behavior on the biological fitness of angled and released fish, optimizing the conservation value of catch-and-release angling hinges on the extent to which anglers are willing to adopt recommended best practices and refrain from harmful ones. One potentially powerful mechanism underlying adoption of best practices is the social pressure anglers can apply to one another to enforce community norms and values. Past work in other domains demonstrates that forms of interpersonal communication-including social sanctioning-can foster context-appropriate social norms and increase cooperative behavior; yet to date, little research has examined these dynamics in the context of species conservation...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736327/the-effect-of-using-games-in-teaching-conservation
#9
Cedric Kai Wei Tan, Jiin Woei Lee, Adeline Hii, Yen Yi Loo, Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz, David W Macdonald
Games are an increasingly popular approach for conservation teaching. However, we know little about the effectiveness of the games on students' experiences and knowledge acquisition. Many current games are supplemental games (SG) that have no meaningful interaction with the subject matter. We adapted the experiential gaming (EG) model where students were immersed in goal-orientated tasks found in real-life situations, and they tackled questions to complete actions for their main task. Classroom-based games were created for eight different conservation topics for an annual Wildlife Conservation Course and an annual Diploma in International Wildlife Conservation Practice...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710649/culture-and-molecular-based-detection-of-swine-adapted-salmonella-shed-by-avian-scavengers
#10
Guillermo Blanco, Juan A Díaz de Tuesta
Salmonella can play an important role as a disease agent in wildlife, which can then act as carriers and reservoirs of sanitary importance at the livestock-human interface. Transmission from livestock to avian scavengers can occur when these species consume contaminated carcasses and meat remains in supplementary feeding stations and rubbish dumps. We compared the performance of PCR-based detection with conventional culture-based methods to detect Salmonella in the faeces of red kites (Milvus milvus) and griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in central Spain...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709862/supplementary-feeding-stations-for-conservation-of-vultures-could-be-an-important-source-of-monophasic-salmonella-typhimurium-1-4-5-12-i
#11
Clara Marin, Cristobal Torres, Francisco Marco-Jiménez, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar, Sandra Sevilla, Teresa Ayats, Santiago Vega
Vultures are nature's most successful scavengers, feeding on the carcasses of dead animals present in the field. Availability of domestic carrion has been unstable due to rapidly changing agro-grazing economies and increasing sanitary regulations that may require burial or burning of livestock carcasses. Thus, several griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus) recoveries are based on European legislation that guarantees the animals' welfare, avoids intense persecution of the vultures and allows the feeding of threatened wildlife in supplementary feeding stations (SFS)...
April 27, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707637/guns-germs-and-trees-determine-density-and-distribution-of-gorillas-and-chimpanzees-in-western-equatorial-africa
#12
Samantha Strindberg, Fiona Maisels, Elizabeth A Williamson, Stephen Blake, Emma J Stokes, Rostand Aba'a, Gaspard Abitsi, Anthony Agbor, Ruffin D Ambahe, Parfait C Bakabana, Martha Bechem, Antoine Berlemont, Bruno Bokoto de Semboli, Patrick R Boundja, Nicolas Bout, Thomas Breuer, Genevieve Campbell, Pauwel De Wachter, Marc Ella Akou, Fidel Esono Mba, Anna T C Feistner, Bernard Fosso, Roger Fotso, David Greer, Clement Inkamba-Nkulu, Calixte F Iyenguet, Kathryn J Jeffery, Max Kokangoye, Hjalmar S Kühl, Stephanie Latour, Bola Madzoke, Calixte Makoumbou, Guy-Aimé F Malanda, Richard Malonga, Victor Mbolo, David B Morgan, Prosper Motsaba, Gabin Moukala, Brice S Mowawa, Mizuki Murai, Christian Ndzai, Tomoaki Nishihara, Zacharie Nzooh, Lilian Pintea, Amy Pokempner, Hugo J Rainey, Tim Rayden, Heidi Ruffler, Crickette M Sanz, Angelique Todd, Hilde Vanleeuwe, Ashley Vosper, Ymke Warren, David S Wilkie
We present a range-wide assessment of sympatric western lowland gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla and central chimpanzees Pan troglodytes troglodytes using the largest survey data set ever assembled for these taxa: 59 sites in five countries surveyed between 2003 and 2013, totaling 61,000 person-days of fieldwork. We used spatial modeling to investigate major drivers of great ape distribution and population trends. We predicted density across each taxon's geographic range, allowing us to estimate overall abundance: 361,900 gorillas and 128,700 chimpanzees in Western Equatorial Africa-substantially higher than previous estimates...
April 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707430/genetic-divergence-and-fine-scale-population-structure-of-the-common-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-montagu-found-in-the-gulf-of-guayaquil-ecuador
#13
Rosa de Los Ángeles Bayas-Rea, Fernando Félix, Rommel Montufar
The common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus , is widely distributed along the western coast of South America. In Ecuador, a resident population of bottlenose dolphins inhabits the inner estuarine area of the Gulf of Guayaquil located in the southwestern part of the country and is under threat from different human activities in the area. Only one genetic study on South American common bottlenose dolphins has been carried out to date, and understanding genetic variation of wildlife populations, especially species that are identified as threatened, is crucial for defining conservation units and developing appropriate conservation strategies...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707429/reconciling-the-conservation-of-the-purple-swamphen-porphyrio-porphyrio-and-its-damage-in-mediterranean-rice-fields-through-sustainable-non-lethal-techniques
#14
Rubén Moreno-Opo, Josep Piqué
Resolving human-wildlife conflicts requires the assessment and implementation of appropriate technical measures that minimize negative impacts on socio-economic uses, including agriculture, and ensure the adequate protection of biological diversity. Rice paddies are widely distributed in the western Mediterranean region. Because of their high productivity, they can be a good habitat for waterbirds, including the purple swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio , particularly in areas where natural wetlands have been removed or reduced...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704044/using-cluster-analysis-to-compartmentalize-a-large-managed-wetland-based-on-physical-biological-and-climatic-geospatial-attributes
#15
Ian Hahus, Kati Migliaccio, Kyle Douglas-Mankin, Geraldine Klarenberg, Rafael Muñoz-Carpena
Hierarchical and partitional cluster analyses were used to compartmentalize Water Conservation Area 1, a managed wetland within the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southeast Florida, USA, based on physical, biological, and climatic geospatial attributes. Single, complete, average, and Ward's linkages were tested during the hierarchical cluster analyses, with average linkage providing the best results. In general, the partitional method, partitioning around medoids, found clusters that were more evenly sized and more spatially aggregated than those resulting from the hierarchical analyses...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702585/anthropogenic-food-subsidy-to-a-commensal-carnivore-the-value-and-supply-of-human-faeces-in-the-diet-of-free-ranging-dogs
#16
James R A Butler, Wendy Y Brown, Johan T du Toit
As the global population of free-ranging domestic dogs grows, there is increasing concern about impacts on human health and wildlife conservation. Effective management of dog populations requires reliable information on their diet, feeding behavior, and social ecology. Free-ranging dogs are reliant on humans, but anthropogenic food subsidies, particularly human faeces (i.e., coprophagy) have not previously been fully quantified. In this study we assess the contributions of different food types to the diet, and their influences on the social behaviour of free-ranging dogs in communal lands of rural Zimbabwe, with a focus on coprophagy...
April 27, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700860/summoning-compassion-to-address-the-challenges-of-conservation
#17
Arian D Wallach, Marc Bekoff, Chelsea Batavia, Michael P Nelson, Daniel Ramp
Conservation practice is informed by science, but also reflects ethical beliefs about how we ought to value and interact with the Earth's biota. As human activities continue to drive extinctions and diminish critical life-sustaining ecosystem processes, achieving conservation goals becomes increasingly urgent. In our determination to react decisively, conservation challenges can be handled without due deliberation, particularly when wildlife individuals are sacrificed "for the greater good" of wildlife collectives (populations, species, ecosystems)...
April 27, 2018: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697777/on-the-cutting-edge-of-research-to-conserve-at-risk-species-maximizing-impact-through-partnerships
#18
Shauna R Marquardt, Mandy Annis, Ryan G Drum, Stephanie Longstaff Hummel, David E Mosby, Tamara Smith
Today's conservation challenges are complex. Solving these challenges often requires scientific collaborations that extend beyond the scope, expertise, and capacity of any single agency, organization, or institution. Conservation efforts can benefit from interdisciplinary collaboration, scientific and technological innovations, and the leveraging of capacity and resources among partners. Here we explore a series of case studies demonstrating how collaborative scientific partnerships are furthering the mission of the U...
April 25, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686360/insular-threat-associations-within-taxa-worldwide
#19
Camille Leclerc, Franck Courchamp, Céline Bellard
The global loss of biodiversity can be attributed to numerous threats. While pioneer studies have investigated their relative importance, the majority of those studies are restricted to specific geographic regions and/or taxonomic groups and only consider a small subset of threats, generally in isolation despite their frequent interaction. Here, we investigated 11 major threats responsible for species decline on islands worldwide. We applied an innovative method of network analyses to disentangle the associations of multiple threats on vertebrates, invertebrates, and plants in 15 insular regions...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683551/changes-in-the-range-of-the-medicinal-herb-eriocaulon-buergerianum-koern-eriocaulaceae-under-climate-change
#20
Yi-Fei Xie, Li Yang, Rongyan Deng, Min-Hao Chen, Xiao-Feng Luan, Elisa Gottardi, Zhi-Xiang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Eriocaulon buergerianum Koern. (Eriocaulaceae) is one of the most common and least expensive herbal medicines for eye diseases. This species is facing potential threats from climate change. Insufficient biogeographical knowledge of this plant species can hinder its effective management for long-term population survival. METHODS: We integrated ecological niche modelling (Biomod2) with 70 records of E. buergerianum and 8 environmental variables to estimate the changes in distribution over time...
April 23, 2018: Plant Biology
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