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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152173/state-space-mark-recapture-estimates-reveal-a-recent-decline-in-abundance-of-north-atlantic-right-whales
#1
Richard M Pace, Peter J Corkeron, Scott D Kraus
North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis Müller 1776) present an interesting problem for abundance and trend estimation in marine wildlife conservation. They are long lived, individually identifiable, highly mobile, and one of the rarest of cetaceans. Individuals are annually resighted at different rates, primarily due to varying stay durations among several principal habitats within a large geographic range. To date, characterizations of abundance have been produced that use simple accounting procedures with differing assumptions about mortality...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152170/responses-of-two-marine-top-predators-to-an-offshore-wind-farm
#2
Gillian C Vallejo, Kate Grellier, Emily J Nelson, Ross M McGregor, Sarah J Canning, Fiona M Caryl, Nancy McLean
Quantifying the likely effects of offshore wind farms on wildlife is fundamental before permission for development can be granted by any Determining Authority. The effects on marine top predators from displacement from important habitat are key concerns during offshore wind farm construction and operation. In this respect, we present evidence for no significant displacement from a UK offshore wind farm for two broadly distributed species of conservation concern: common guillemot (Uria aalge) and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena)...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143466/tuberculosis-serosurveillance-and-management-practices-of-captive-african-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-the-kavango-zambezi-transfrontier-conservation-area
#3
L E Rosen, T G Hanyire, J Dawson, C M Foggin, A L Michel, K P Huyvaert, M A Miller, F J Olea-Popelka
Transfrontier conservation areas represent an international effort to encourage conservation and sustainable development. Their success faces a number of challenges, including disease management in wildlife, livestock and humans. Tuberculosis (TB) affects humans and a multitude of non-human animal species and is of particular concern in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area encompasses five countries, including Zimbabwe, and is home to the largest contiguous population of free-ranging elephants in Africa...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140722/reproductive-impacts-of-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-on-wildlife-species-implications-for-conservation-of-endangered-species
#4
Christopher W Tubbs, Caitlin E McDonough
Wildlife have proven valuable to our understanding of the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on human health by contributing considerably to our understanding of the mechanisms and consequences of EDC exposure. But the threats EDCs present to populations of wildlife species themselves are significant, particularly for endangered species whose existence is vulnerable to any reproductive perturbation. However, few studies address the threats EDCs pose to endangered species owing to challenges associated with their study...
November 15, 2017: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140522/ecodrug-a-database-connecting-drugs-and-conservation-of-their-targets-across-species
#5
Bas Verbruggen, Lina Gunnarsson, Erik Kristiansson, Tobias Österlund, Stewart F Owen, Jason R Snape, Charles R Tyler
Pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific molecular targets in humans and these targets generally have orthologs in other species. This provides opportunities for the drug discovery community to use alternative model species for drug development. It also means, however, there is potential for mode of action related effects in non-target wildlife species as many pharmaceuticals reach the environment through patient use and manufacturing wastes. Acquiring insight in drug target ortholog predictions across species and taxonomic groups has proven difficult because of the lack of an optimal strategy and because necessary information is spread across multiple and diverse sources and platforms...
November 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131835/no-evidence-of-critical-slowing-down-in-two-endangered-hawaiian-honeycreepers
#6
Jessica C Rozek, Richard J Camp, J Michael Reed
There is debate about the current population trends and predicted short-term fates of the endangered forest birds, Hawai`i Creeper (Loxops mana) and Hawai`i `Ākepa (L. coccineus). Using long-term population size estimates, some studies report forest bird populations as stable or increasing, while other studies report signs of population decline or impending extinction associated with introduced Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus) increase. Reliable predictors of impending population collapse, well before the collapse begins, have been reported in simulations and microcosm experiments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130757/international-barcode-of-life-focus-on-big-biodiversity-in-south-africa
#7
Sarah J Adamowicz, Peter M Hollingsworth, Sujeevan Ratnasingham, Michelle van der Bank
Participants in the 7th International Barcode of Life Conference (Kruger National Park, South Africa, 20-24 November 2017) share the latest findings in DNA barcoding research and its increasingly diversified applications. Here, we review prevailing trends synthesized from among 429 invited and contributed abstracts, which are collated in this open-access special issue of Genome. Hosted for the first time on the African continent, the 7th Conference places special emphasis on the evolutionary origins, biogeography, and conservation of African flora and fauna...
November 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121066/probability-of-lek-collapse-is-lower-inside-sage-grouse-core-areas-effectiveness-of-conservation-policy-for-a-landscape-species
#8
Emma Suzuki Spence, Jeffrey L Beck, Andrew J Gregory
Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) occupy sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats in 11 western states and 2 Canadian provinces. In September 2015, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced the listing status for sage-grouse had changed from warranted but precluded to not warranted. The primary reason cited for this change of status was that the enactment of new regulatory mechanisms was sufficient to protect sage-grouse populations. One such plan is the 2008, Wyoming Sage Grouse Executive Order (SGEO), enacted by Governor Freudenthal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107366/correlations-between-hair-and-tissue-mercury-concentrations-in-icelandic-arctic-foxes-vulpes-lagopus
#9
Gabriele Treu, Oliver Krone, Ester Rut Unnsteinsdóttir, Alex D Greenwood, Gábor Á Czirják
Monitoring organic pollutants in wildlife is a common approach to evaluate environmental health, chemical exposure and to make hazard assessments. However, pollutant concentrations measured from different tissue types among studies impede direct comparisons of levels and toxicity benchmarks among species and regions. For example, mercury (Hg) is a metal of both natural and anthropogenic origin which poses health risks for marine and arctic biota in particular. Although hair is recognized as the least invasive sample type for Hg exposure measurement in wildlife, measurements in previous studies have used different tissues among individuals and species...
October 26, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104616/consumption-based-conservation-targeting-linking-biodiversity-loss-to-upstream-demand-through-a-global-wildlife-footprint
#10
Justin Kitzes, Eric Berlow, Erin Conlisk, Karlheinz Erb, Katsunori Iha, Neo Martinez, Erica A Newman, Christoph Plutzar, Adam B Smith, John Harte
Although most conservation efforts address the direct, local causes of biodiversity loss, effective long-term conservation will require complementary efforts to reduce the upstream economic pressures, such as demands for food and forest products, which ultimately drive these downstream losses. Here, we present a wildlife footprint analysis that links global losses of wild birds to consumer purchases across 57 economic sectors in 129 regions. The United States, India, China, and Brazil have the largest regional wildlife footprints, while per-person footprints are highest in Mongolia, Australia, Botswana, and the United Arab Emirates...
September 2017: Conservation Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100611/saving-the-birds-oliver-l-austin-s-collaboration-with-japanese-scientists-in-revising-wildlife-policies-in-us-occupied-japan-1946-1950
#11
Annika A Culver
In postwar Tokyo, ornithologist Oliver L. Austin's leadership of the Wildlife Branch of the Natural Resources Section (NRS) for the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) serves as an intriguing lens into the reconstruction of Japanese conservation activities. His experiences as a scientist working on wildlife policies in US-occupied Korea (1945-1946) and Japan (1946-1949) illuminate the war's impact on individuals and their environment. Austin collaborated closely with elite Japanese colleagues, despite their ruined laboratories, burnt collections, inadequate shelter, and despair...
October 31, 2017: Endeavour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095901/structural-connectivity-at-a-national-scale-wildlife-corridors-in-tanzania
#12
Jason Riggio, Tim Caro
Wildlife corridors can help maintain landscape connectivity but novel methods must be developed to assess regional structural connectivity quickly and cheaply so as to determine where expensive and time-consuming surveys of functional connectivity should occur. We use least-cost methods, the most accurate and up-to-date land conversion dataset for East Africa, and interview data on wildlife corridors, to develop a single, consistent methodology to systematically assess wildlife corridors at a national scale using Tanzania as a case study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081540/harvesting-wildlife-affected-by-climate-change-a-modelling-and-management-approach-for-polar-bears
#13
Eric V Regehr, Ryan R Wilson, Karyn D Rode, Michael C Runge, Harry L Stern
The conservation of many wildlife species requires understanding the demographic effects of climate change, including interactions between climate change and harvest, which can provide cultural, nutritional or economic value to humans.We present a demographic model that is based on the polar bear Ursus maritimus life cycle and includes density-dependent relationships linking vital rates to environmental carrying capacity (K). Using this model, we develop a state-dependent management framework to calculate a harvest level that (i) maintains a population above its maximum net productivity level (MNPL; the population size that produces the greatest net increment in abundance) relative to a changing K, and (ii) has a limited negative effect on population persistence...
October 2017: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074881/rancher-reported-efficacy-of-lethal-and-non-lethal-livestock-predation-mitigation-strategies-for-a-suite-of-carnivores
#14
J D Scasta, B Stam, J L Windh
Pastoralists have dealt with livestock losses from predators for millennia, yet effective mitigation strategies that balance wildlife conservation and sustainable agriculture are still needed today. In Wyoming, USA, 274 ranchers responded to a retrospective survey, and rated the efficacy of predation mitigation strategies for foxes, dogs, coyotes, wolves, bobcats, mountain lions, bears, and birds (buzzards, eagles, hawks, ravens). Rancher reported efficacy of mitigation varied by predator species, mitigation strategy, and lethality of strategies, but not livestock type...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073202/questionnaire-survey-of-the-pan-african-trade-in-lion-body-parts
#15
Vivienne L Williams, Andrew J Loveridge, David J Newton, David W Macdonald
The African lion is in decline across its range, and consumptive utilisation and trade of their body parts and skins has been postulated as a cause for concern. We undertook a pan-African questionnaire and literature survey to document informed opinion and evidence for the occurrence of domestic and international trade and consumption in African lion body parts across current and former range states. Sixty-five people from 18 countries participated in the online questionnaire survey (run from July 2014 to May 2015), with information provided for 28 countries (including 20 out of 24 countries believed to have extant populations)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073161/effectiveness-of-different-types-of-hair-traps-for-brown-bear-research-and-monitoring
#16
Teresa Berezowska-Cnota, Ignacio Luque-Márquez, Isabel Elguero-Claramunt, Katarzyna Bojarska, Henryk Okarma, Nuria Selva
Non-invasive sampling by hair-trapping is increasingly used worldwide in wildlife research. Despite this rise and the potential of hair samples for ecology and conservation studies, the relative performance of hair collection devices has been rarely tested. Here, we compare the effectiveness of five types of hair traps for brown bears Ursus arctos in the Carpathian Mountains (SE Poland) and test the effects of trap type, season, number of days elapsed since trap installation and trap features on the trapping success in order to provide recommendations for optimal sampling in future studies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069079/conservation-of-reef-manta-rays-manta-alfredi-in-a-unesco-world-heritage-site-large-scale-island-development-or-sustainable-tourism
#17
Steven Thomas Kessel, Nasreldin Alhasan Elamin, David James Yurkowski, Tarik Chekchak, Ryan Patrick Walter, Rebecca Klaus, Graham Hill, Nigel Edward Hussey
A large reef manta ray (Manta alfredi) aggregation has been observed off the north Sudanese Red Sea coast since the 1950s. Sightings have been predominantly within the boundaries of a marine protected area (MPA), which was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in July 2016. Contrasting economic development trajectories have been proposed for the area (small-scale ecotourism and large-scale island development). To examine space-use, Wildlife Computers® SPOT 5 tags were secured to three manta rays. A two-state switching Bayesian state space model (BSSM), that allowed movement parameters to switch between resident and travelling, was fit to the recorded locations, and 50% and 95% kernel utilization distributions (KUD) home ranges calculated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068083/threats-to-biodiversity-from-cumulative-human-impacts-in-one-of-north-america-s-last-wildlife-frontiers
#18
Nancy Shackelford, Rachel J Standish, William Ripple, Brian M Starzomski
Land-use change is the largest proximate threat to biodiversity, yet remains one of the most complex to manage. In British Columbia (BC), where large mammals roam extensive tracts of intact habitat, continued land-use development is of global concern. Extant mammal diversity in BC is unrivalled in North America owing, in part, to its unique position at the intersection of alpine, boreal and temperate biomes. Despite high conservation values, understanding of cumulative ecological impacts from human development is limited...
October 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067718/estimating-the-extinction-date-of-the-thylacine-with-mixed-certainty-data
#19
Colin J Carlson, Alexander L Bond, Kevin R Burgio
The thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), one of Australia's most characteristic megafauna, was the largest marsupial carnivore until hunting, and potentially disease, drove it to extinction in 1936. Though thylacines were restricted to Tasmania for two millennia prior to their extinction, recent "plausible" sightings on the Cape York Peninsula in northern Queensland have emerged, leading some to speculate the species may persist, undetected. Here we show that the continued survival of the thylacine is entirely implausible based on most current mathematical theories of extinction...
October 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065128/a-statistically-rigorous-sampling-design-to-integrate-avian-monitoring-and-management-within-bird-conservation-regions
#20
David C Pavlacky, Paul M Lukacs, Jennifer A Blakesley, Robert C Skorkowsky, David S Klute, Beth A Hahn, Victoria J Dreitz, T Luke George, David J Hanni
Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations...
2017: PloS One
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