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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441423/reproductive-parameters-and-cub-survival-of-brown-bears-in-the-rusha-area-of-the-shiretoko-peninsula-hokkaido-japan
#1
Michito Shimozuru, Masami Yamanaka, Masanao Nakanishi, Jun Moriwaki, Fumihiko Mori, Masakatsu Tsujino, Yuri Shirane, Tsuyoshi Ishinazaka, Shinsuke Kasai, Takane Nose, Yasushi Masuda, Toshio Tsubota
Knowing the reproductive characteristics of a species is essential for the appropriate conservation and management of wildlife. In this study, we investigated the demographic parameters, including age of primiparity, litter size, inter-birth interval, reproductive rate, and cub survival rate, of Hokkaido brown bears (Ursus arctos yesoensis) in the Rusha area on the Shiretoko Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan, based on a long-term, individual-based monitoring survey. A total of 15 philopatric females were observed nearly every year from 2006 to 2016, and these observations were used to estimate reproductive parameters...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440021/global-patterns-and-trends-in-human-wildlife-conflict-compensation
#2
Jeremy Ravenelle, Philip J Nyhus
Human-wildlife conflict is a major conservation challenge, and compensation for wildlife damage is a widely used economic tool to mitigate this conflict. The effectiveness of this management tool is widely debated. The relative importance of factors associated with compensation success is unclear and little is known about global geographic or taxonomic differences in the application of compensation programs. We carried out a review of the compensation scholarship to examine geographic and taxonomic gaps, analyze patterns of positive and negative comments related to compensation, and assess the relative magnitude of global compensation payments...
April 25, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438918/does-the-impact-of-biodiversity-differ-between-emerging-and-endemic-pathogens-the-need-to-separate-the-concepts-of-hazard-and-risk
#3
REVIEW
Parviez R Hosseini, James N Mills, Anne-Hélène Prieur-Richard, Vanessa O Ezenwa, Xavier Bailly, Annapaola Rizzoli, Gerardo Suzán, Marion Vittecoq, Gabriel E García-Peña, Peter Daszak, Jean-François Guégan, Benjamin Roche
Biodiversity is of critical value to human societies, but recent evidence that biodiversity may mitigate infectious-disease risk has sparked controversy among researchers. The majority of work on this topic has focused on direct assessments of the relationship between biodiversity and endemic-pathogen prevalence, without disentangling intervening mechanisms; thus study outcomes often differ, fuelling more debate. Here, we suggest two critical changes to the approach researchers take to understanding relationships between infectious disease, both endemic and emerging, and biodiversity that may help clarify sources of controversy...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438915/conservation-development-and-the-management-of-infectious-disease-avian-influenza-in-china-2004-2012
#4
Tong Wu, Charles Perrings
There is growing evidence that wildlife conservation measures have mixed effects on the emergence and spread of zoonotic disease. Wildlife conservation has been found to have both positive (dilution) and negative (contagion) effects. In the case of avian influenza H5N1 in China, the focus has been on negative effects. Lakes and wetlands attracting migrating waterfowl have been argued to be disease hotspots. We consider the implications of waterfowl conservation for H5N1 infections in both poultry and humans between 2004 and 2012...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438909/interacting-effects-of-land-use-and-climate-on-rodent-borne-pathogens-in-central-kenya
#5
Hillary S Young, Douglas J McCauley, Rodolfo Dirzo, Charles L Nunn, Michael G Campana, Bernard Agwanda, Erik R Otarola-Castillo, Eric R Castillo, Robert M Pringle, Kari E Veblen, Daniel J Salkeld, Kristin Stewardson, Robert Fleischer, Eric F Lambin, Todd M Palmer, Kristofer M Helgen
Understanding the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on zoonotic disease risk is both a critical conservation objective and a public health priority. Here, we evaluate the effects of multiple forms of anthropogenic disturbance across a precipitation gradient on the abundance of pathogen-infected small mammal hosts in a multi-host, multi-pathogen system in central Kenya. Our results suggest that conversion to cropland and wildlife loss alone drive systematic increases in rodent-borne pathogen prevalence, but that pastoral conversion has no such systematic effects...
June 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429851/impacts-of-taxonomic-inertia-for-the-conservation-of-african-ungulate-diversity-an-overview
#6
Spartaco Gippoliti, Fenton P D Cotterill, Dietmar Zinner, Colin P Groves
We review the state of African ungulate taxonomy over the last 120 years, with an emphasis on the introduction of the polytypic species concept and the discipline's general neglect since the middle of the 20th century. We single out negative consequences of 'orthodox' taxonomy, highlighting numerous cases of neglect of threatened lineages, unsound translocations that led to lineage introgression, and cases of maladaptation to local conditions including parasitic infections. Additionally, several captive breeding programmes have been hampered by chromosome rearrangements caused by involuntary lineage mixing...
April 21, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429061/natural-resource-management-schemes-as-entry-points-for-integrated-landscape-approaches-evidence-from-ghana-and-burkina-faso
#7
Samson Foli, Mirjam A F Ros-Tonen, James Reed, Terry Sunderland
In recognition of the failures of sectoral approaches to overcome global challenges of biodiversity loss, climate change, food insecurity and poverty, scientific discourse on biodiversity conservation and sustainable development is shifting towards integrated landscape governance arrangements. Current landscape initiatives however very much depend on external actors and funding, raising the question of whether, and how, and under what conditions, locally embedded resource management schemes can serve as entry points for the implementation of integrated landscape approaches...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428848/modeling-activity-patterns-of-wildlife-using-time-series-analysis
#8
Jindong Zhang, Vanessa Hull, Zhiyun Ouyang, Liang He, Thomas Connor, Hongbo Yang, Jinyan Huang, Shiqiang Zhou, Zejun Zhang, Caiquan Zhou, Hemin Zhang, Jianguo Liu
The study of wildlife activity patterns is an effective approach to understanding fundamental ecological and evolutionary processes. However, traditional statistical approaches used to conduct quantitative analysis have thus far had limited success in revealing underlying mechanisms driving activity patterns. Here, we combine wavelet analysis, a type of frequency-based time-series analysis, with high-resolution activity data from accelerometers embedded in GPS collars to explore the effects of internal states (e...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422973/camera-trap-arrays-improve-detection-probability-of-wildlife-investigating-study-design-considerations-using-an-empirical-dataset
#9
Kelly M O'Connor, Lucas R Nathan, Marjorie R Liberati, Morgan W Tingley, Jason C Vokoun, Tracy A G Rittenhouse
Camera trapping is a standard tool in ecological research and wildlife conservation. Study designs, particularly for small-bodied or cryptic wildlife species often attempt to boost low detection probabilities by using non-random camera placement or baited cameras, which may bias data, or incorrectly estimate detection and occupancy. We investigated the ability of non-baited, multi-camera arrays to increase detection probabilities of wildlife. Study design components were evaluated for their influence on wildlife detectability by iteratively parsing an empirical dataset (1) by different sizes of camera arrays deployed (1-10 cameras), and (2) by total season length (1-365 days)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414723/prevalence-and-determinants-of-stereotypic-behaviours-and-physiological-stress-among-tigers-and-leopards-in-indian-zoos
#10
Janice Vaz, Edward J Narayan, R Dileep Kumar, K Thenmozhi, Krishnamoorthy Thiyagesan, Nagarajan Baskaran
India's charismatic wildlife species are facing immense pressure from anthropogenic-induced environmental perturbations. Zoos play a major role in the conservation of threatened species, but their adaptation in captivity is posing a major challenge globally. Stress from inadequate adaptation could lead to suppression of cognitive functioning and increased display of stereotypic behaviour. It is thus necessary to measure biological traits like behaviour, stress physiology, and contextual factors driving the animals maintained at zoos...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414429/sublethal-lead-exposure-alters-movement-behavior-in-free-ranging-golden-eagles
#11
Frauke Ecke, Navinder J Singh, Jon M Arnemo, Anders Bignert, Björn Helander, Åsa M M Berglund, Hans Borg, Caroline Bröjer, Karin Holm, Michael Lanzone, Tricia Miller, Åke Nordström, Jannikke Räikkönen, Ilia Rodushkin, Erik Ågren, Birger Hörnfeldt
Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free-ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos)...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413836/assessment-of-the-perceived-effects-and-management-challenges-of-mikania-micrantha-invasion-in-chitwan-national-park-buffer-zone-community-forest-nepal
#12
Akriti Khadka
The effects of invasion by Mikania micrantha in the buffer zone of Chitwan National Park (CNP) of Nepal are well documented; however the studies were confined to appraising the perception of household and did not assess the changes in livelihood activities after the invasion. This study presents the effects of invasion of M. micrantha on the livelihood of buffer zone of the Chitwan National Park; hence addressing the gap in information and shows the complex effect of M. micrantha on rural livelihood. The study used a questionnaire survey to 170 households in the CNP of Nepal...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412523/progenitor-strain-introduction-of-mycobacterium-bovis-at-the-wildlife-livestock-interface-can-lead-to-clonal-expansion-of-the-disease-in-a-single-ecosystem
#13
Anzaan Dippenaar, Sven David Charles Parsons, Michele Ann Miller, Tiny Hlokwe, Nicolaas Claudius Gey van Pittius, Sabir Abdu Adroub, Abdallah Musa Abdallah, Arnab Pain, Robin Mark Warren, Anita Luise Michel, Paul David van Helden
Mycobacterium bovis infects multiple wildlife species and domesticated cattle across South Africa, and negatively impacts on livestock trade and movement of wildlife for conservation purposes. M. bovis infection was first reported in the Kruger National Park (KNP) in South Africa during the 1990s, and has since spread to infect numerous animal host species throughout the park and across South Africa. Whole genome sequencing data of 17 M. bovis isolates were analyzed to investigate the genomic diversity among M...
April 13, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409186/social-and-spatial-relationships-driving-landowner-attitudes-towards-aquatic-conservation-in-a-piedmont-blue-ridge-landscape
#14
Samuel N Chambers, Robert F Baldwin, Elizabeth Dennis Baldwin, William C Bridges, Nakisha Fouch
More than half of land in the U.S. is privately owned and covers most of known endangered species habitat. An understanding of private landowners' attitudes towards conservation may help to bridge the science-practice gap in regards to conservation initiatives. Aquatic biodiversity is particularly imperiled; in the United States headwaters and isolated wetlands receive little protection through regulations, becoming a focus of conservation planning. In an effort to assess how landowners view such efforts, a 27-question mixed methods survey was mailed to 409 landowners in the Blue Ridge and Piedmont ecoregions of South Carolina with wetland areas and where land was owned by a family or individual, not a corporation...
April 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408215/prevalence-genetic-diversity-and-potential-clinical-impact-of-blood-borne-and-enteric-protozoan-parasites-in-native-mammals-from-northern-australia
#15
Amanda Barbosa, Andrea Reiss, Bethany Jackson, Kristin Warren, Andrea Paparini, Graeme Gillespie, Danielle Stokeld, Peter Irwin, Una Ryan
A molecular survey was conducted to provide baseline information on the prevalence, genetic diversity and potential clinical impacts of blood-borne and enteric protozoans in native wild mammals from the Northern Territory (NT). A total of 209 blood and 167 faecal samples were collected from four target species; the northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) and brush-tailed rabbit-rat (Conilurus penicillatus). Blood samples were screened by PCR at the 18S rRNA gene for trypanosomes, piroplasms and haemogregarines, with faecal samples tested for Cryptosporidium spp...
April 4, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394461/successful-treatment-of-infertility-in-a-female-sumatran-orangutan-pongo-abelii
#16
Neil Maclachlan, Gordon Hunt, Sarah Fowkes, Melissa Frost, John Miller, Gari Purcell-Jones, Peter Sullivan, Alberto Barbon, Andrew Routh, Francisco J López, Eluned C Price
In 2011, a female Sumatran orangutan housed at Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust became infertile following a massive antepartum hemorrhage in labor and the delivery of a stillborn infant. The placenta was infected with Pantoea sp. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) revealed blocked fallopian tubes, and pressurized fallopian tube perfusion was used to reverse the tubal occlusion. She subsequently conceived and following an intensive training program, we were able to measure umbilical artery waveform analysis for fetal well-being and placental localization to exclude placenta previa, which could complicate pregnancy and lead to catastrophic hemorrhage...
March 2017: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388643/effects-of-childhood-experience-with-nature-on-tolerance-of-urban-residents-toward-hornets-and-wild-boars-in-japan
#17
Tetsuro Hosaka, Koun Sugimoto, Shinya Numata
Urban biodiversity conservation often aims to promote the quality of life for urban residents by providing ecosystem services as well as habitats for diverse wildlife. However, biodiversity inevitably brings some disadvantages, including problems and nuisances caused by wildlife. Although some studies have reported that enhancement of nature interaction among urban children promotes their affective attitude toward of favorable animals, its effect on tolerance toward problem-causing wildlife is unknown. In this study, we assessed the tolerance of 1,030 urban residents in Japan toward hornets and wild boar, and analyzed the effects of childhood experience with nature on tolerance using a structural equation model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386447/ambidextrous-ungulates-have-more-flexible-behaviour-bolder-personalities-and-migrate-less
#18
R Found, C C St Clair
Studies of wildlife have shown consistent individual variation in behavioural plasticity, which affects the rate of adaptation to changing environments. More flexible individuals may thus be more prone to habituation and conflict behaviour, but these applications of personality to wildlife management are little explored. Behavioural lateralization reflects cerebral specialization that may predict diverse expressions of behavioural plasticity. We recorded front-limb biases (i.e. handedness) in wild elk (Cervus canadensis), a species with facultative migration and high rates of habituation inside protected areas...
February 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382488/micro-credit-and-community-wildlife-management-complementary-strategies-to-improve-conservation-outcomes-in-serengeti-national-park-tanzania
#19
Emmanuel Kaaya, Margaret Chapman
Community wildlife management programs in African protected areas aim to deliver livelihood and social benefits to local communities in order to bolster support for their conservation objectives. Most of these benefits are delivered at the community level. However, many local people are also seeking more individual or household-level livelihood benefits from community wildlife management programs because it is at this level that many of the costs of protected area conservation are borne. Because community wildlife management delivers few benefits at this level, support for their conservation objectives amongst local people often declines...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361266/genomic-epidemiology-and-management-of-salmonella-in-island-ecosystems-used-for-takahe-conservation
#20
Zoë L Grange, Patrick J Biggs, Shanna P Rose, Brett D Gartrell, Nicola J Nelson, Nigel P French
Translocation and isolation of threatened wildlife in new environments may have unforeseen consequences on pathogen transmission and evolution in host populations. Disease threats associated with intensive conservation management of wildlife remain speculative without gaining an understanding of pathogen dynamics in meta-populations and how location attributes may determine pathogen prevalence. We determined the prevalence and population structure of an opportunistic pathogen, Salmonella, in geographically isolated translocated sub-populations of an endangered New Zealand flightless bird, the takahe (Porphyrio hochstetteri)...
March 30, 2017: Microbial Ecology
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