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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475146/the-fate-of-trace-organic-contaminants-during-anaerobic-digestion-of-primary-sludge-a-pilot-scale-study
#1
Hop V Phan, Richard Wickham, Sihuang Xie, James A McDonald, Stuart J Khan, Hao H Ngo, Wenshan Guo, Long D Nghiem
A pilot-scale study was conducted to investigate the fate of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) during anaerobic digestion of primary sludge. Of the 44 TrOCs monitored, 24 were detected in all primary sludge samples. Phase distribution of TrOCs was correlated well with their hydrophobicity (>67% mass in the solid phase when LogD > 1.5). The pilot-scale anaerobic digester achieved a steady performance with a specific methane yield of 0.39-0.92 L/gVSremoved and methane composition of 63-65% despite considerable variation in the primary sludge...
February 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474744/contrast-in-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#2
REVIEW
Nirav Patel, Pavani Kolakalapudi, Garima Arora
The utility and role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) as a non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality has been well recognized in the field of cardiovascular disease. Use of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has further enhanced CMR's ability to determine structural, functional, and prognostic information in various cardiovascular diseases. The delivery and distribution of gadolinium as an extracellular agent allows the detection of edema, fibrosis, and infiltration in the myocardium. The pattern of LGE in cardiomyopathies enables us to distinguish among various disease processes non-invasively...
February 23, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474742/deep-feature-classification-of-angiomyolipoma-without-visible-fat-and-renal-cell-carcinoma-in-abdominal-contrast-enhanced-ct-images-with-texture-image-patches-and-hand-crafted-feature-concatenation
#3
Hansang Lee, Helen Hong, Junmo Kim, Dae Chul Jung
PURPOSE: To develop an automatic deep feature classification (DFC) method for distinguishing benign angiomyolipoma without visible fat (AMLwvf) from malignant clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) from abdominal contrast-enhanced computer tomography (CE CT) images. METHODS: A dataset including 80 abdominal CT images of 39 AMLwvf and 41 ccRCC patients was used. We proposed a DFC method for differentiating the small renal masses (SRM) into AMLwvf and ccRCC using the combination of hand-crafted and deep features, and machine learning classifiers...
February 23, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474507/pnpla3-association-with-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-a-cohort-of-heavy-drinkers
#4
Bhanu Prakash Kolla, Terry D Schneekloth, Joanna Biernacka, Vijay Shah, Konstantinos N Lazaridis, Jennifer Geske, Victor Karpyak
Aims: Prior studies have established variation at the PNPLA3gene to be associated with a risk of developing alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We attempt to replicate this finding and other potential genetic variations previously associated with ALD utilizing a case-control design in a cohort of subjects with alcohol use disorders. Short summary: This case-control study performed in a US clinical sample of heavy drinkers, replicates the previously reported association between ALD and rs738409 polymorphism in the PNPLA3gene in heavy drinkers...
February 21, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474414/reproductive-ecology-and-stand-structure-of-joshua-tree-forests-across-climate-gradients-of-the-mojave-desert
#5
Samuel B St Clair, Joshua Hoines
Climate change is restructuring plant populations and can result in range shifts depending on responses at various life stages of plants. In 2013, a widespread and episodic flowering event provided an opportunity to characterize how Joshua tree's reproductive success and population structure vary in response to the climate variability across its range. We examined the reproductive success and stand structure of 10 Joshua tree populations distributed across the Mojave Desert. Joshua tree density varied by more than an order of magnitude across sites...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474144/investigation-of-nonionophoric-coccidiostat-residues-in-feed-as-a-consequence-of-carryover
#6
Loredana Annunziata, Pierina Visciano, Arianna Stramenga, Maria Novella Colagrande, Guido Campana, Giampiero Scortichini, Giacomo Migliorati, Dario Compagnone
Residues of nonionophoric coccidiostats at carryover concentrations in feedstuffs collected from feed mills or animal farms in central Italy were detected as part of the official controls carried out from 2011 through 2016. The 118 samples were collected on the production line or during feed distribution and storage to determine the sampling sites at major risk of cross-contamination. For determination of nonionophoric coccidiostats, a fast, easy, and cheap method was developed and validated. Feed samples were extracted with acetonitrile-methanol and directly injected for liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474006/why-allometric-variation-in-mammalian-metabolism-is-curvilinear-on-the-logarithmic-scale
#7
Gary C Packard
Studies performed over the last 20 years have repeatedly documented a slight convex curvature (relative to the x-axis) in double-logarithmic plots of basal metabolic rate (BMR) versus body mass in mammals. This curvilinear pattern has usually been interpreted in the context of a simple, two-parameter power function on the arithmetic scale, y  =  a  ×  xb , with the exponent in the equation supposedly increasing systematically with body size. An equation of this form has caused concern among ecologists because a variable exponent is inconsistent with an assumption underlying the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE)...
November 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473073/insights-from-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-infrared-spectroscopy-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-on-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide-structural-dynamics-nad-vs-nadh
#8
Juan Camilo Molano-Arevalo, Walter Gonzalez, Kevin Jeanne Dit Fouque, Jaroslava Miksovska, Philippe Maitre, Francisco Fernandez-Lima
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) is found in all living cells where the oxidized (NAD+ ) and reduced (NADH) forms play important roles in many enzymatic reactions. However, little is known about NAD+ and NADH conformational changes and kinetics as a function of the cell environment. In the present work, an analytical workflow is utilized to study NAD+ and NADH dynamics as a function of the organic content in solution using fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy and in the gas-phase using trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) and infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) spectroscopy...
February 23, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472585/estradiol-signaling-mediates-gender-difference-in-visceral-adiposity-via-autophagy
#9
Zhipeng Tao, Louise D Zheng, Cayleen Smith, Jing Luo, Alex Robinson, Fabio A Almeida, Zongwei Wang, Aria F Olumi, Dongmin Liu, Zhiyong Cheng
Excessive adiposity (particularly visceral fat mass) increases the risks of developing metabolic syndrome. Women have lower deposit of visceral fat than men, and this pattern becomes diminished postmenopausally, but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that the gender difference in visceral fat distribution is controlled by an estradiol-autophagy axis. In C57BL/6J and wild-type control mice, a higher visceral fat mass was detected in the males than in the females, which was associated with lower expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and more active autophagy in males vs...
February 22, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472157/glioblastoma-presenting-with-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-territory-infarct
#10
Amy Farkas, Bruce Schlakman, Majid Khan, David Joyner
Acute ischemic stroke caused by a malignant mass has been described in the literature in few case reports. We describe an unusual case of acute ischemic middle cerebral artery distribution infarction secondary to glioblastoma.
February 20, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472131/species-fractionation-in-a-case-control-study-concerning-parkinson-s-disease-cu-amino-acids-discriminate-csf-of-pd-from-controls
#11
Desiree Willkommen, Marianna Lucio, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Malaz Gazzaz, Michael Schroeter, Ali Sigaroudi, Bernhard Michalke
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is affecting about 1% of the population above 65 years. Improvements in medicine support prolonged lifetime which increases the total concentration of humans affected by the disease. It is suggested that occupational and environmental exposure to metals like iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) can influence the risk for Parkinson's disease. These metals play a key role as cofactors in many enzymes and proteins. METHODS: In this case-control study, we investigated the Mn-, Fe-, Cu- and Zn-species in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by size-exclusion chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and the total concentration of these metals by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-sf-MS)...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471811/ethnic-differences-in-infectious-burden-and-the-association-with-metabolic-risk-factors-for-cardiovascular-disease-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#12
Lara Hartog, Martijn S van Rooijen, Joanne Ujčič-Voortman, Maria Prins, Irene G M van Valkengoed
BACKGROUND: The burden of metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as type 2 diabetes, elevated cholesterol and hypertension, is unequally distributed across ethnic groups. Recent findings suggest an association of infectious burden (IB) and metabolic risk factors, but data from ethnic groups are scarce. Therefore, we investigated ethnic differences in IB and its association with metabolic risk factors. METHODS: We included 440 Dutch, 320 Turkish and 272 Moroccan participants, 18-70 years, of the 2004 general health survey in Amsterdam, the Netherlands...
February 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471668/explained-and-unexplained-racial-and-regional-inequality-in-obesity-prevalence-in-the-united-states
#13
Keumseok Koh, Todd E Elder, Sue C Grady, Joe T Darden, Igor Vojnovic
OBJECTIVE: There are substantial racial and regional disparities in obesity prevalence in the United States. This study partitioned the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) and obesity prevalence rate gaps between non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites into the portion attributable to observable obesity risk factors and the remaining portion attributable to unobservable factors at the national and the state levels in the United States (U.S.) in 2010. DESIGN: This study used a simulated micro-population dataset combining common information from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the U...
February 22, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471336/diagnostics-for-onchocerciasis-in-the-era-of-elimination
#14
Thomas R Unnasch, Allison Golden, Vitaliano Cama, Paul T Cantey
In the past few years, efforts to eliminate onchocerciasis from Africa have intensified. These efforts are primarily based on the mass distribution of the anti-helminthic drug Mectizan™ (ivermectin). This program has led to the development of new guidelines by the World Health Organization for the verification that transmission has been suppressed and eventually eliminated. The requirements of diagnostic tools for this purpose differ in many ways from tests used to diagnose infection in individuals. In this review, we summarize the progress that has been made to identify diagnostics that meet the specialized requirements needed to verify onchocerciasis elimination, discuss why these tests were selected and summarize the needs that still exist to complete the arsenal of diagnostic tools that will be useful as the goal of elimination is achieved...
March 1, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471077/fabrication-of-antibody-loaded-microgels-using-microfluidics-and-thiol-ene-photoclick-chemistry
#15
Manuel Gregoritza, Kathrin Abstiens, Moritz Graf, Achim M Goepferich
Reducing burst effects, providing controlled release, and safeguarding biologics against degradation are a few of several highly attractive applications for microgels in the field of controlled release. However, the incorporation of proteins into microgels without impairing stability is highly challenging. In this proof of concept study, the combination of microfluidics and thiol-ene photoclick chemistry was evaluated for the fabrication of antibody-loaded microgels with narrow size distribution. Norbornene-modified eight-armed poly(ethylene glycol) with an average molecular mass of 10,000 Da, 20,000 Da, or 40,000 Da were prepared as macromonomers for microgel formation...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470860/investigation-of-the-in-vivo-metabolism-of-harpagoside-and-distribution-of-its-metabolites-in-rats-by-hplc-it-tof-ms-n
#16
Jing-Zhe Wang, Yi-Fan Zhang, Feng Xu, Ming-Ying Shang, Guang-Xue Liu, Shao-Qing Cai
Harpagoside, an iridoid glycoside, is the major bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese medicine Scrophulariae Radix. High-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector combined with electrospray ionization ion trap time-of-flight multistage mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-IT-TOF-MSn ) was used to profile and identify the metabolites of harpagoside in rats in vivo and to study the distribution of these metabolites in rats for the first time. A total of 45 metabolites were identified, 37 of which were postulated to be new compounds...
February 22, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470816/hepatic-subcellular-distribution-of-squalene-changes-according-to-the-experimental-setting
#17
Roberto Martínez-Beamonte, Olga Alda, Teresa Sanclemente, María J Felices, Sara Escusol, Carmen Arnal, Luis V Herrera-Marcos, Sonia Gascón, Joaquín C Surra, Jesús Osada, Mª Jesús Rodríguez-Yoldi
Squalene is the main unsaponifiable component of virgin olive oil, the main source of dietary fat in Mediterranean diet, traditionally associated with a less frequency of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, two experimental approaches were used. In the first, New Zealand rabbits fed for 4 weeks with a chow diet enriched in 1% sunflower oil for the control group, and in 1% of sunflower oil and 0.5% squalene for the squalene group. In the second, APOE KO mice received either Western diet or Western diet enriched in 0...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470440/membranes-a-variety-of-energy-landscapes-for-many-transfer-opportunities
#18
Patrice Bacchin
A membrane can be represented by an energy landscape that solutes or colloids must cross. A model accounting for the momentum and the mass balances in the membrane energy landscape establishes a new way of writing for the Darcy law. The counter-pressure in the Darcy law is no longer written as the result of an osmotic pressure difference but rather as a function of colloid-membrane interactions. The ability of the model to describe the physics of the filtration is discussed in detail. This model is solved in a simplified energy landscape to derive analytical relationships that describe the selectivity and the counter-pressure from ab initio operating conditions...
February 22, 2018: Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470286/genetic-variants-associated-with-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-in-hispanic-boys-with-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#19
John C Rausch, Joel E Lavine, Naga Chalasani, Xiuqing Guo, Soonil Kwon, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Jean P Molleston, Rohit Loomba, Elizabeth M Brunt, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Mark O Goodarzi, Kent D Taylor, Katherine P Yates, Jerome I Rotter
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) disproportionately affects Hispanic boys. Further, obesity and insulin resistance are major risk factors for NAFLD. No gene localization studies had been performed on children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. This study aims to identify genomic variants associated with increased adiposity and insulin resistance in a population of children with varying histologic severity of NAFLD. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association scan (GWAS) including 624,297 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed among all 22 autosomal chromosomes in 234 Hispanic boys (up to 18 years of age) who were consecutively recruited in a prospective cohort study in the Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Clinical Research Network Studies...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470075/a-combined-experimental-theoretical-study-of-the-oh-co-%C3%A2-h-co-2-reaction-dynamics
#20
Adriana Caracciolo, Dandan Lu, Nadia Balucani, Gianmarco Vanuzzo, Domenico Stranges, Xingan Wang, Jun Li, Hua Guo, Piergiorgio Casavecchia
A combined experimental/theoretical study is performed to advance our understanding of the dynamics of the prototypical tetra-atom, complex-forming reaction OH + CO→ H + CO2 , which is also of great practical relevance in combustion, Earth atmosphere and, potentially, Mars' atmosphere and interstellar chemistry. New crossed molecular beam experiments with mass spectrometric detection are analyzed together with the results from previous experiments and compared with quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations on a new, full-dimensional potential energy surface (PES)...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
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