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Uropathogen

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769381/tosr-mediated-regulation-of-adhesins-and-biofilm-formation-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#1
Courtney L Luterbach, Valerie S Forsyth, Michael D Engstrom, Harry L T Mobley
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains utilize a variety of adherence factors that assist in colonization of the host urinary tract. TosA (<u>t</u>ype <u>o</u>ne <u>s</u>ecretion <u>A</u>) is a nonfimbrial adhesin that is predominately expressed during murine urinary tract infection (UTI), binds to kidney epithelial cells, and promotes survival during invasive infections. The tosRCBDAEF operon encodes the secretory machinery necessary for TosA localization to the E...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765378/epithelial-c5ar1-signaling-enhances-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-adhesion-to-human-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells
#2
Yun Song, Kun-Yi Wu, Weiju Wu, Zhao-Yang Duan, Ya-Feng Gao, Liang-Dong Zhang, Tie Chong, Malgorzata A Garstka, Wuding Zhou, Ke Li
Recent work in a murine model of ascending urinary tract infection has suggested that C5a/C5aR1 interactions play a pathogenic role in the development of renal infection through enhancement of bacterial adhesion/colonization to renal tubular epithelial cells (RTECs). In the present study, we extended these observations to human. We show that renal tubular epithelial C5aR1 signaling is involved in promoting uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) adhesion/invasion of host cells. Stimulation of primary cultures of RTEC with C5a resulted in significant increases in UPEC adhesion/invasion of the RTEC...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760961/ctx-m-15-is-established-in-most-multidrug-resistant-uropathogenic-enterobacteriaceae-and-pseudomonaceae-from-hospitals-in-nigeria
#3
David Olusoga Ogbolu, O A Terry Alli, Mark Alexander Webber, Adeolu Sunday Oluremi, Omoboriowo Moses Oloyede
β-Lactam antibiotics are widely used to treat urinary tract infections in Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the presence and characteristics of extended spectrum β-lactamases in commonly isolated uropathogenic Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in Nigeria. Fifty non-duplicate GNB isolates consisting of Escherichia coli , 19; Klebsiella pneumoniae , 21; and Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 10 were obtained from three tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. The antibiotic susceptibility testing of all isolates to a panel of antibiotics including minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and extended spectrum β-lactamases was determined...
April 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758033/phylogenetic-relationships-biofilm-formation-motility-antibiotic-resistance-and-extended-virulence-genotypes-among-escherichia-coli-strains-from-women-with-community-onset-primitive-acute-pyelonephritis
#4
Arianna Pompilio, Valentina Crocetta, Vincenzo Savini, Dezemona Petrelli, Marta Di Nicola, Silvia Bucco, Luigi Amoroso, Mario Bonomini, Giovanni Di Bonaventura
The present work set out to search for a virulence repertoire distinctive for Escherichia coli causing primitive acute pyelonephritis (APN). To this end, the virulence potential of 18 E. coli APN strains was genotypically and phenotypically assessed, comparatively with 19 strains causing recurrent cystitis (RC), and 16 clinically not significant (control, CO) strains. Most of the strains belong to phylogenetic group B1 (69.8%; p<0.01), and APN strains showed unique features, which are the presence of phylogroup A, and the absence of phylogroup B2 and non-typeable strains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748997/the-recycling-endosome-and-bacterial-pathogens
#5
REVIEW
Samual C Allgood, M Ramona Neunuebel
Bacterial pathogens have developed a wide range of strategies to survive within human cells. A number of pathogens multiply in a vacuolar compartment, while others can rupture the vacuole and replicate in the host cytosol. A common theme among many bacterial pathogens is the use of specialized secretion systems to deliver effector proteins into the host cell. These effectors can manipulate the host's membrane trafficking pathways to remodel the vacuole into a replication-permissive niche and prevent degradation...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740035/antimicrobial-photodynamic-therapy-mediated-by-methylene-blue-and-potassium-iodide-to-treat-urinary-tract-infection-in-a-female-rat-model
#6
Ying-Ying Huang, Anton Wintner, Patrick C Seed, Timothy Brauns, Jeffrey A Gelfand, Michael R Hamblin
Drug-resistant urinary tract infections (UTIs) are difficult and sometimes impossible to treat. Many UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). We developed an intact rat model of UTI, by catheterizing female rats and introducing a bioluminescent UPEC strain into the female rat bladder which lasted for up to six days. We recently showed that antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) of a bacterial infection mediated by the well-known phenothiazinium salt, methylene blue (MB) could be strongly potentiated by addition of the non-toxic salt potassium iodide (KI)...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739958/trpv1-and-the-mcp-1-ccr2-axis-modulate-post-uti-chronic-pain
#7
John M Rosen, Ryan E Yaggie, Patrick J Woida, Richard J Miller, Anthony J Schaeffer, David J Klumpp
The etiology of chronic pelvic pain syndromes remains unknown. In a murine urinary tract infection (UTI) model, lipopolysaccharide of uropathogenic E. coli and its receptor TLR4 are required for post-UTI chronic pain development. However, downstream mechanisms of post-UTI chronic pelvic pain remain unclear. Because the TRPV1 and MCP-1/CCR2 pathways are implicated in chronic neuropathic pain, we explored their role in post-UTI chronic pain. Mice were infected with the E. coli strain SΦ874, known to produce chronic allodynia, and treated with the TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738037/clinical-and-laboratory-features-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-young-infants
#8
Denise Swei Lo, Larissa Rodrigues, Vera Hermina Kalika Koch, Alfredo Elias Gilio
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common serious bacterial infection in young infants. Signs and symptoms are often nonspecific. OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical, demographic and laboratory features of UTI in infants ≤ 3 months old. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of infants ≤ 3 months old with UTI diagnosed in a pediatric emergency department, for the period 2010-2012. UTI was defined as ≥ 50,000 colony-forming units per milliliter of a single uropathogen isolated from bladder catheterization...
April 26, 2018: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729161/antimicrobial-susceptibility-patterns-of-escherichia-coli-in-children-and-adults-with-urinary-tract-infections
#9
Yaroslav O Mykhalko
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common pathology in children and adults that is caused mainly by Gram-negative bacteria among which Escherichia coli plays an outstanding role. UTIs treatment demands empiric antibiotic therapy and knowing of antimicrobial local susceptibility and resistance patterns is crucial for making a decision about an agent for the first line therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the local susceptibility patterns of uropathogenic E...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712844/-escherichia-coli-cultures-maintain-stable-subpopulation-structure-during-long-term-evolution
#10
Megan G Behringer, Brian I Choi, Samuel F Miller, Thomas G Doak, Jonathan A Karty, Wanfeng Guo, Michael Lynch
How genetic variation is generated and maintained remains a central question in evolutionary biology. When presented with a complex environment, microbes can take advantage of genetic variation to exploit new niches. Here we present a massively parallel experiment where WT and repair-deficient ( ∆mutL ) Escherichia coli populations have evolved over 3 y in a spatially heterogeneous and nutritionally complex environment. Metagenomic sequencing revealed that these initially isogenic populations evolved and maintained stable subpopulation structure in just 10 mL of medium for up to 10,000 generations, consisting of up to five major haplotypes with many minor haplotypes...
April 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710295/effect-of-5-day-nitrofurantoin-vs-single-dose-fosfomycin-on-clinical-resolution-of-uncomplicated-lower-urinary-tract-infection-in-women-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Angela Huttner, Anna Kowalczyk, Adi Turjeman, Tanya Babich, Caroline Brossier, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Katarzyna Kosiek, Begoña Martinez de Tejada, Xavier Roux, Shachaf Shiber, Ursula Theuretzbacher, Elodie von Dach, Dafna Yahav, Leonard Leibovici, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Johan W Mouton, Stephan Harbarth
Importance: The use of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin has increased since guidelines began recommending them as first-line therapy for lower urinary tract infection (UTI). Objective: To compare the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin in women with uncomplicated cystitis. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multinational, open-label, analyst-blinded, randomized clinical trial including 513 nonpregnant women aged 18 years and older with symptoms of lower UTI (dysuria, urgency, frequency, or suprapubic tenderness), a positive urine dipstick result (with detection of nitrites or leukocyte esterase), and no known colonization or previous infection with uropathogens resistant to the study antibiotics...
May 1, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706289/urinary-antimicrobial-peptides-potential-novel-biomarkers-of-obstructive-uropathy
#12
S Gupta, A R Jackson, D G DaJusta, D J McLeod, S A Alpert, V R Jayanthi, K McHugh, A R Schwaderer, B Becknell, C B Ching
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have historically been evaluated for their role in protecting against uropathogens. However, there is mounting evidence to support their expression in noninfectious injury, with unclear meaning as to their function. It is possible that AMPs represent urothelial injury. Urinary tract obstruction is known to alter the urothelium; however, AMPs have not been evaluated for expression in this noninfectious injury. OBJECTIVE: A pilot study to compare urinary AMP expression in children undergoing surgical intervention for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) with nonobstructed controls...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700406/sub-noxious-intravesical-lipopolysaccharide-triggers-bladder-inflammation-and-symptom-onset-in-a-transgenic-autoimmune-cystitis-model-a-mapp-network-animal-study
#13
Paul Kogan, Suming Xu, Yaoqin Wang, Michael A O'Donnell, Susan K Lutgendorf, Catherine S Bradley, Andrew Schrepf, Karl J Kreder, Yi Luo
Patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) can potentially develop symptom flares after exposure to minor bladder irritants such as subclinical bacterial infection. To reproduce this symptom onset, we intravesically instilled a sub-noxious dose of uropathogenic E. coli component lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in young URO-OVA/OT-I mice, a transgenic autoimmune cystitis model that spontaneously develops bladder inflammation at ≥10 weeks of age. Female URO-OVA/OT-I mice (6-weeks old) were treated intravesically with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or PBS containing a sub-noxious dose (1 μg) of LPS...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697470/update-on-techniques-to-prevent-infections-associated-with-prostate-needle-biopsy
#14
Matteo Fontana, Luca Boeri, Emanuele Montanari
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postbiopsy infections (PBIs) are among the most common complications associated with transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB). This article discusses the pathogenesis of TRUSPB-associated infectious complications and reviews the most recent findings on techniques to prevent PBIs. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk stratification is a powerful tool for identifying TRUSPB candidates whom warrant additional preventive measures. Bowel preparation with povidone-iodine-based enemas and needle disinfection with formalin solution are simple and attractive strategies, but their effectiveness needs to be thoroughly assessed...
April 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695842/a-new-role-for-zinc-limitation-in-bacterial-pathogenicity-modulation-of-%C3%AE-hemolysin-from-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Elsa Velasco, Suning Wang, Marianna Sanet, Jorge Fernández-Vázquez, Daniel Jové, Estibaliz Glaría, Annabel F Valledor, Thomas V O'Halloran, Carlos Balsalobre
Metal limitation is a common situation during infection and can have profound effects on the pathogen's success. In this report, we examine the role of zinc limitation in the expression of a virulence factor in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. The pyelonephritis isolate J96 carries two hlyCABD operons that encode the RTX toxin α-hemolysin. While the coding regions of both operons are largely conserved, the upstream sequences, including the promoters, are unrelated. We show here that the two hlyCABD operons are differently regulated...
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683762/regulation-of-hemolysin-in-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-fine-tunes-killing-of-human-macrophages
#16
Ambika M V Murthy, Minh-Duy Phan, Kate M Peters, Nguyen Thi Khanh Nhu, Rodney A Welch, Glen C Ulett, Mark A Schembri, Matthew J Sweet
Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) causes the majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are a major global public health concern. UPEC uses numerous mechanisms to subvert the innate immune system, including targeting macrophage functions. We recently showed that some UPEC strains rapidly kill human macrophages via an NLRP3-independent pathway, and also trigger NLRP3-dependent IL-1β processing. In this study, we used random transposon mutagenesis in the reference strain CFT073 to identify UPEC genes that mediate human macrophage cell death...
April 23, 2018: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672580/value-of-perioperative-genitourinary-screening-culture-and-colonization-status-in-predicting-early-urinary-tract-infection-after-renal-transplantation
#17
Ahram Han, Sanghyun Ahn, Seung-Kee Min, Jongwon Ha, Yon Su Kim, Curie Ahn, Sang-Il Min
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess whether patients colonized with certain organisms in the genitourinary tract would have greater urinary tract infection (UTI) risk during the post-transplantation period, and whether information on the perioperatively colonized organisms may help identify the causal organisms during early UTI. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the culture results of preoperative urine, preoperative urethral swab, and postoperative urinary catheter tip specimens of 420 renal transplant recipients...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662840/activation-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-pathway-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-is-virulence-factor-dependent-and-influences-colonization-of-bladder-epithelial-cells
#18
Isak Demirel, Alexander Persson, Annelie Brauner, Eva Särndahl, Robert Kruse, Katarina Persson
The NLRP3 inflammasome and IL-1β release have recently been suggested to be important for the progression of urinary tract infection (UTI). However, much is still unknown regarding the interaction of UPEC and the NLRP3 inflammasome. The purpose of this study was to elucidate what virulence factors uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) use to modulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent IL-1β release and the role of NLRP3 for UPEC colonization of bladder epithelial cells. The bladder epithelial cell line 5637, CRISPR/Cas9 generated NLRP3, caspase-1 and mesotrypsin deficient cell lines and transformed primary bladder epithelial cells (HBLAK) were stimulated with UPEC isolates and the non-pathogenic MG1655 strain...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662539/urogenital-tuberculosis-the-cause-of-ineffective-antibacterial-therapy-for-urinary-tract-infections
#19
Ekaterina Kulchavenya, Andrey Cherednichenko
Background: Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is one of the great imitators; it is commonly masked by urinary tract infections (UTIs). We aimed to estimate how many UGTB patients were among patients with a long history of UTIs. Material and Methods: A total of 244 patients with recurrent UTIs and suspected UGTB were enrolled in an open, noncomparative prospective study. Their urine and expressed prostate secretion or ejaculate were cultured (a total of 1446 samples), and 421 isolates with growth of ⩾104 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml were investigated for drug resistance...
March 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660523/inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-mediated-virulence-in-serratia-marcescens-by-bacillus-subtilis-r-18
#20
Kannan Rama Devi, Subramaniyan Srinivasan, Arumugam Veera Ravi
Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic human pathogen causing various nosocomial infections, most importantly urinary tract infections (UTIs). It exhibits increased resistance towards the conventional antibiotics. This study was aimed to evaluate the anti-virulence effect of a rhizosphere soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis strain R-18 against the uropathogen S. marcescens. First, the bacterial cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) of B. subtilis strain R-18 was evaluated for its quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) potential against biomarker strain Chromobacterium violaceum and the test pathogen S...
April 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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