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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142011/effect-of-distinct-lifestyle-interventions-on-mobilization-of-fat-storage-pools-the-central-mri-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Yftach Gepner, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Hila Zelicha, Lilac Tene, Anat Yaskolka Meir, Gal Tsaban, Noa Cohen, Nitzan Bril, Michal Rein, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Oded Komy, Arik Wolak, Yoash Chassidim, Rachel Golan, Hilla Avni-Hassid, Avital Bilitzky, Benjamin Sarusi, Eyal Goshen, Elad Shemesh, Yaakov Henkin, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Assaf Rudich, Meir J Stampfer, Iris Shai
Background -We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. Methods -We performed an eighteen-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to iso-caloric low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA;80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership)...
November 15, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141038/depot-specific-inflammation-with-decreased-expression-of-atm2-in-white-adipose-tissues-induced-by-high-margarine-lard-intake
#2
Nannan Wang, Jie Guo, Fuding Liu, Mingxia Wang, Chuntao Li, Lihong Jia, Lingling Zhai, Wei Wei, Yinglong Bai
A high-fat diet has been recognized as an important risk factor of obesity, with variable impacts of different fatty acid compositions on the physiological process. To understand the effects of a high-margarine/lard diet, which is a major source of trans fatty acids (TFAs)/ saturated fatty acids (SFAs), elaidic acid as a biomarker of margarine intake was used to screen affected adipokines on mature human adipocytes in vitro. Weaned male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet enriched with margarine/lard to generate obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) models, which were then used to explore the inflammatory responses of depot-specific white adipose tissue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140808/randomized-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-aged-garlic-extract-with-supplements-versus-placebo-on-adipose-tissue-surrogates-for-coronary-atherosclerosis-progression
#3
Irfan Zeb, Naser Ahmadi, Ferdinand Flores, Matthew J Budoff
AIMS: Increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), pericardial adipose tissue (PAT), periaortic adipose tissue (PaAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) are mediators of metabolic risk, and are associated with the severity of coronary artery calcium (CAC). Aged garlic extract (AGE) has been shown to reduce the progression of coronary atherosclerosis. This study evaluates the effect of AGE with supplements (AGE+S) on EAT, PAT, SAT, and PaAT. METHODS: Sixty asymptomatic participants participated in a randomized trial evaluating the effect of AGE+S versus placebo on coronary atherosclerosis progression, and underwent CAC at baseline and after 12 months of treatment...
November 14, 2017: Coronary Artery Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138472/functional-characterization-of-the-ucp1-associated-oxidative-phenotype-of-human-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#4
Kanta Chechi, Pierre Voisine, Patrick Mathieu, Mathieu Laplante, Sébastian Bonnet, Frédéric Picard, Philippe Joubert, Denis Richard
Brown fat presence and metabolic activity has been associated with lower body mass index, higher insulin sensitivity and better cardiometabolic profile in humans. We, and others, have previously reported the presence of Ucp1, a marker of brown adipocytes, in human epicardial adipose tissue (eAT). Characterization of the metabolic activity and associated physiological relevance of Ucp1 within eAT, however, is still awaited. Here, we validate the presence of Ucp1 within human eAT and its 'beige' nature. Using in-vitro analytical approaches, we further characterize its thermogenic potential and demonstrate that human eAT is capable of undergoing enhanced uncoupling respiration upon stimulation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137352/maternal-high-calorie-diet-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-senescence-phenotype-in-subcutaneous-fat-of-newborn-mice
#5
Daniele Lettieri-Barbato, Fabiana D'Angelo, Francesca Sciarretta, Giuseppe Tatulli, Flavia Tortolici, Maria Rosa Ciriolo, Katia Aquilano
Mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and senescence-like features are observed in adipose depots in aging and obesity. Herein, we evaluated how maternal high calorie diet (HCD) may impact on subcutaneous adipose tissue (sAT) of the newborn mice. Adult C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided in three groups: normal calorie diet (NCD), HCD and HCD supplemented with niacin 8 weeks before mating. Mothers and pups were then sacrificed and metabolic and molecular analyses were carried out on sAT. HCD induced mitochondria dysfunction in mothers without inflammation and senescence, whereas in pups we also revealed the occurrence of senescent phenotype...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119718/glucocorticoids-suppress-brown-adipose-tissue-function-in-humans-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#6
Moe Thuzar, W Phillip Law, Jeyakantha Ratnasingam, Christina Jang, Goce Dimeski, Ken Ky Ho
AIM: To investigate the effect of glucocorticoids on BAT function in humans MATERIALS & METHODS: In a randomised double-blind cross-over design, 13 healthy adults underwent 1 week of oral prednisolone (15mg/day) and placebo treatment with an intervening 2-week wash-out period. BAT function was assessed in response to cooling (19(0) C) and to a standardised meal, by measuring fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake using Positron Emission Tomography-Computed Tomography and skin temperatures overlying the supraclavicular (SCL) BAT depots using infrared thermography...
November 8, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119565/non-invasive-methods-for-the-assessment-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-humans
#7
Maria Chondronikola, Scott Beeman, Richard L Wahl
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a recently rediscovered tissue in people that has shown promise as a potential therapeutic target against obesity and its metabolic abnormalities. Reliable non-invasive assessment of BAT volume and activity is critical to allow evaluating its importance for metabolic control. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in combination with 2-deoxy-2-[(18) F]fluoroglucose ((18) F-FDG) administration is currently the most frequently used and most established method for the detection and quantification of activated BAT in humans...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110748/perinatal-maternal-high-fat-diet-induces-early-obesity-and-sex-specific-alterations-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-white-and-brown-adipose-tissue-of-weanling-rat-offspring
#8
Mariana M Almeida, Camilla P Dias-Rocha, André S Souza, Mariana F Muros, Leonardo S Mendonca, Carmen C Pazos-Moura, Isis H Trevenzoli
Perinatal maternal high-fat (HF) diet programmes offspring obesity. Obesity is associated with overactivation of the endocannabinoid system (ECS) in adult subjects, but the role of the ECS in the developmental origins of obesity is mostly unknown. The ECS consists of endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors (cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1) and cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2)) and metabolising enzymes. We hypothesised that perinatal maternal HF diet would alter the ECS in a sex-dependent manner in white and brown adipose tissue of rat offspring at weaning in parallel to obesity development...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101431/the-emerging-role-of-bone-marrow-adipose-tissue-in-bone-health-and-dysfunction
#9
REVIEW
Thomas H Ambrosi, Tim J Schulz
Replacement of red hematopoietic bone marrow with yellow adipocyte-rich marrow is a conserved physiological process among mammals. The extent of this conversion is influenced by a wide array of pathological and non-pathological conditions. Of particular interest is the observation that some marrow adipocyte-inducing factors seem to oppose each other, for instance obesity and caloric restriction. Intriguingly, several important molecular characteristics of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) are distinct from the classical depots of white and brown fat tissue...
December 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101335/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-potentially-novel-roles-of-homeobox-genes-in-adipose-deposition-in-fat-tailed-sheep
#10
Danju Kang, Guangxian Zhou, Shiwei Zhou, Jie Zeng, Xiaolong Wang, Yu Jiang, Yuxin Yang, Yulin Chen
Adipose tissues are phenotypically, metabolically and functionally heterogeneous based on the sites of their deposition. Undesirable fat deposits in the body are often detrimental to animal and human health. To unravel the potential underlying mechanisms governing accumulation of adipose tissues in various regions of the body, i.e., subcutaneous (SAT), visceral (VAT) and tail (TAT), we profiled transcriptomes from Tan sheep, a Chinese indigenous breed with notable fat tail using RNA-seq. Upon comparison, we identified a total of 1,058 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the three adipose types (218, 324, and 795 in SAT/VAT, SAT/TAT, and VAT/TAT, respectively), from which several known key players were identified that are involved in lipid metabolic process, Wnt signals, Vitamin A metabolism, and transcriptional regulation of adipocyte differentiation...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075334/association-of-body-mass-index-and-visceral-fat-with-aortic-valve-calcification-and-mortality-after-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-the-obesity-paradox-in-severe-aortic-stenosis
#11
Jennifer Mancio, Paulo Fonseca, Bruno Figueiredo, Wilson Ferreira, Monica Carvalho, Nuno Ferreira, Pedro Braga, Alberto Rodrigues, Antonio Barros, Ines Falcao-Pires, Adelino Leite-Moreira, Vasco Gama Ribeiro, Nuno Bettencourt
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC) and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS). However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. AIMS: To determine the association of body mass index (BMI) and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072701/caspase-2-deficiency-enhances-whole-body-carbohydrate-utilisation-and-prevents-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#12
Claire H Wilson, Andrej Nikolic, Stephen J Kentish, Marianne Keller, George Hatzinikolas, Loretta Dorstyn, Amanda J Page, Sharad Kumar
Caspase-2 has been shown to be involved in metabolic homeostasis. Here, we show that caspase-2 deficiency alters basal energy metabolism by shifting the balance in fuel choice from fatty acid to carbohydrate usage. At 4 weeks of age, whole-body carbohydrate utilisation was increased in Casp2(-/-) mice and was maintained into adulthood. By 17 weeks of age, Casp2(-/-) mice had reduced white adipose mass, smaller white adipocytes decreased fasting blood glucose and plasma triglycerides but maintained normal insulin levels...
October 26, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071103/definition-of-new-cut-offs-of-bmi-and-waist-circumference-based-on-body-composition-and-insulin-resistance-differences-between-children-adolescents-and-adults
#13
M Hübers, M Pourhassan, W Braun, C Geisler, M J Müller
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m(-2)). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATtotal, SATtrunk) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography...
September 2017: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066304/regulation-of-lipid-metabolism-in-adipose-depots-of-fat-tailed-and-thin-tailed-lambs-during-negative-and-positive-energy-balances
#14
Hossein Zakariapour Bahnamiri, Abolfazl Zali, Mahdi Ganjkhanlou, Mostafa Sadeghi, Hossein Moradi Shahrbabak
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of negative and positive energy balances on gene expression of regulators and enzymes controlling lipogenesis and lipolysis in muscle and adipose depots of fat-tailed and thin-tailed lambs. Lambs were slaughtered during neutral, negative and positive energy balances for sample collection. Real time q-PCR was conducted to measure the gene expression. Expression of PPARγ was increased in response to positive energy balance regardless of genotype and type of tissue (P<0...
October 21, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066093/anthropometric-dimensions-provide-reliable-estimates-of-abdominal-adiposity-a-validation-study
#15
Z Pintér, A Pósa, C Varga, I Horváth, A Palkó, Z Just, G Pálfi
Abdominal fat accumulation is a major risk factor for cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the study is to assess the possibility of developing accurate estimation equations based on body measurements to determine total abdominal (TFA), subcutaneous (SFA) and visceral fat area (VFA). Hungarian volunteers (n=198) aged between 20 and 81 years were enrolled in the study, which was conducted between July and November 2014. All persons underwent anthropometric measurements and computer tomographic (CT) scanning...
October 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064476/perirenal-fat-is-related-to-carotid-intima-media-thickness-in-children
#16
J Bassols, J-M Martínez-Calcerrada, A Prats-Puig, G Carreras-Badosa, S Xargay-Torrent, E Lizarraga-Mollinedo, M Feliu-Alsina, E Riera-Pérez, I Osiniri, F de Zegher, L Ibáñez, A López-Bermejo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: It is well known that increased abdominal fat is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk. Perirenal fat has been recently associated with CV risk in adults. However, studies with children are lacking. We investigated the relationship of perirenal fat and other abdominal fat depots (including preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT-a surrogate marker of CV risk) in prepubertal children, so as to identify novel markers that can be easily assessed and used in the early prevention of cardiovascular disease...
September 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038352/differential-relationships-of-hepatic-and-epicardial-fat-to-body-composition-in-hiv
#17
Lindsay T Fourman, Michael T Lu, Hang Lee, Kathleen V Fitch, Travis R Hallett, Jakob Park, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Takara L Stanley, Janet Lo, Steven K Grinspoon
HIV-infected patients commonly experience changes in central and peripheral fat content as well as ectopic fat accumulation. However, whether hepatic and epicardial fat stores relate differentially to body composition or how these associations are modified by HIV status has not been well explored. A previously recruited sample of 124 HIV-infected patients and 58 healthy controls had undergone dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT) from which body composition measures, liver-spleen ratio, and epicardial fat volume were obtained...
October 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035280/adipocyte-cannabinoid-receptor-cb1-regulates-energy-homeostasis-and-alternatively-activated-macrophages
#18
Inigo Ruiz de Azua, Giacomo Mancini, Raj Kamal Srivastava, Alejandro Aparisi Rey, Pierre Cardinal, Laura Tedesco, Cristina Maria Zingaretti, Antonia Sassmann, Carmelo Quarta, Claudia Schwitter, Andrea Conrad, Nina Wettschureck, V Kiran Vemuri, Alexandros Makriyannis, Jens Hartwig, Maria Mendez-Lago, Laura Bindila, Krisztina Monory, Antonio Giordano, Saverio Cinti, Giovanni Marsicano, Stefan Offermanns, Enzo Nisoli, Uberto Pagotto, Daniela Cota, Beat Lutz
Dysregulated adipocyte physiology leads to imbalanced energy storage, obesity, and associated diseases, imposing a costly burden on current health care. Cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1) plays a crucial role in controlling energy metabolism through central and peripheral mechanisms. In this work, adipocyte-specific inducible deletion of the CB1 gene (Ati-CB1-KO) was sufficient to protect adult mice from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic alterations and to reverse the phenotype in already obese mice...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029184/low-plasma-adiponectin-concentrations-predict-increases-in-visceral-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#19
Seung Jin Han, Edward J Boyko, Wilfred Y Fujimoto, Steven E Kahn, Donna L Leonetti
Context: Plasma adiponectin concentration has been shown to be inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) and insulin resistance in cross-sectional research. However, it is unclear whether adiponectin predicts future body composition and insulin resistance. Objective: To investigate the potential relationship between adiponectin concentration and future regional body fat distribution and insulin resistance. Design and Setting: Community-based prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029113/estrogen-metabolism-in-abdominal-subcutaneous-and-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-postmenopausal-women
#20
Natalia Hetemäki, Hanna Savolainen-Peltonen, Matti J Tikkanen, Feng Wang, Hanna Paatela, Esa Hämäläinen, Ursula Turpeinen, Mikko Haanpää, Veera Vihma, Tomi S Mikkola
CONTEXT: In postmenopausal women, adipose tissue (AT) levels of estrogens exceed circulating concentrations. While increased visceral AT after menopause is related to metabolic diseases, little is known about differences in estrogen metabolism between different AT depots. OBJECTIVE: We compared concentrations of and metabolic pathways producing estrone and estradiol in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral AT in postmenopausal women. DESIGN, SETTING, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: AT and serum samples were obtained from 37 postmenopausal women undergoing surgery for non-malignant gynecological reasons...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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