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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212318/alcohol-%C3%A2-adipose%C3%A2-tissue%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-lipid%C3%A2-dysregulation
#1
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Chronic alcohol consumption perturbs lipid metabolism as it increases adipose tissue lipolysis and leads to ectopic fat deposition within the liver and the development of alcoholic fatty liver disease. In addition to the recognition of the role of adipose tissue derived fatty acids in liver steatosis, alcohol also impacts other functions of adipose tissue and lipid metabolism. Lipid balance in response to long-term alcohol intake favors adipose tissue loss and fatty acid efflux as lipolysis is upregulated and lipogenesis is either slightly decreased or unchanged...
February 16, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209760/glucoraphanin-ameliorates-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-through-adipose-tissue-browning-and-reduction-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-mice
#2
Naoto Nagata, Liang Xu, Susumu Kohno, Yusuke Ushida, Yudai Aoki, Ryohei Umeda, Nobuo Fuke, Fen Zhuge, Yinhua Ni, Mayumi Nagashimada, Chiaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Suganuma, Shuichi Kaneko, Tsuguhito Ota
Low-grade sustained inflammation links obesity to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, therapeutic approaches to improve systemic energy balance and chronic inflammation in obesity are limited. Pharmacological activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) alleviates obesity and insulin resistance in mice; however, Nrf2 inducers are not clinically available owing to safety concerns. Thus, we examined whether dietary glucoraphanin, a stable precursor of the Nrf2 inducer sulforaphane, ameliorates systemic energy balance, chronic inflammation, insulin resistance, and NAFLD in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198147/intrahepatic-fat-abdominal-adipose-tissues-and-metabolic-state-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#3
Anat Yaskolka Meir, Lilac Tene, Noa Cohen, Ilan Shelef, Dan Schwarzfuchs, Yftach Gepner, Hila Zelicha, Michal Rein, Nitzan Bril, Dana Serfaty, Shira Kenigsbuch, Yoash Chassidim, Benjamin Sarusy, Dror Dicker, Joachim Thiery, Uta Ceglarek, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Meir J Stampfer, Assaf Rudich, Iris Shai
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic-fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous-adipose tissue (SAT) is controversial. While IHF > 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat sub-depots, pancreatic and renal-sinus fats. METHODS: We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat sub-depots, %pancreatic and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
February 14, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179100/nutrition-modulates-fto-and-irx3-gene-transcript-levels-but-does-not-alter-their-dna-methylation-profiles-in-rat-white-adipose-tissues
#4
Joanna Nowacka-Woszuk, Ewa Pruszynska-Oszmalek, Maciej Szydlowski, Izabela Szczerbal
The fat mass and obesity associated (Fto) and iroquois homeobox 3 (Irx3) genes have been recognised as important obesity-related genes. Studies on the expression of these genes in the fat tissue of human and mouse have produced inconsistent results, while similar data on rat are limited. Environmental factors such as diet, should be considered as potential modulators of gene transcript levels through epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation. The aim of this study was to evaluate transcription levels and DNA methylation profiles of rat Fto and Irx3 genes in two white adipose tissue depots in response to high-fat and high-protein diets...
February 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161439/lipid-signaling-and-fat-storage-in-the-dark-eyed-junco
#5
Jacqueline M Ho, Christine M Bergeon Burns, Nikki M Rendon, Kimberly A Rosvall, Heather B Bradshaw, Ellen D Ketterson, Gregory E Demas
Seasonal hyperphagia and fattening promote survivorship in migratory and wintering birds, but reduced adiposity may be more advantageous during the breeding season. Factors such as photoperiod, temperature, and food predictability are known environmental determinants of fat storage, but the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are less clear. Endocannabinoids and other lipid signaling molecules regulate multiple aspects of energy balance including appetite and lipid metabolism. However, these functions have been established primarily in mammals; thus the role of lipid signals in avian fat storage remains largely undefined...
February 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161177/influence-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-vitamin-e-on-performance-energy-metabolism-and-change-of-fat-depot-mass-in-transitional-dairy-cows
#6
S Schäfers, D von Soosten, U Meyer, C Drong, J Frahm, J Kluess, C Raschka, J Rehage, A Tröscher, W Pelletier, S Dänicke
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and vitamin E as well as their interaction on performance variables and lipomobilization during late pregnancy and early lactation (wk 6 antepartum until wk 10 postpartum). For this purpose, 59 pluriparous German Holstein cows were assigned to 4 dietary groups in a 2 × 2 design with the factors CLA and vitamin E at 2 levels. For this trial, we selected cows with a high body condition score because they are more likely to mobilize fat and consequently are at a higher risk of developing ketosis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151993/adipose-tissue-macrophages-impair-preadipocyte-differentiation-in-humans
#7
Li Fen Liu, Colleen M Craig, Lorna L Tolentino, Okmi Choi, John Morton, Homero Rivas, Samuel W Cushman, Edgar G Engleman, Tracey McLaughlin
AIM: The physiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood. Impaired adipocyte differentiation and localized inflammation characterize adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant humans. The directionality of this relationship is not known, however. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adipose tissue inflammation is causally-related to impaired adipocyte differentiation. METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous(SAT) and visceral(VAT) adipose tissue was obtained from 20 human participants undergoing bariatric surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148928/subcutaneous-fat-loss-is-greater-than-visceral-fat-loss-with-diet-and-exercise-weight-loss-promoting-drugs-and-bariatric-surgery-a-critical-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
C Merlotti, V Ceriani, A Morabito, A E Pontiroli
Aim of this review is to compare visceral and subcutaneous fat loss with all available strategies (diet and exercise, weight-loss promoting agents, and bariatric surgery). Eighty-nine studies, all full papers, were analysed to evaluate visceral and subcutaneous fat changes, measured through ultrasound, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and expressed as thickness, weight, area, and volume. Studies were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model). Intervention effect (absolute and percent changes of visceral and subcutaneous fat) was expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD), with 95% confidence intervals (C...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144263/neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-as-a-possible-indicator-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#9
Adalet Ozcicek, Fatih Ozcicek, Gursel Yildiz, Aysu Timuroglu, Levent Demirtas, Mutlu Buyuklu, Ufuk Kuyrukluyildiz, Emin Murat Akbas, Ergun Topal, Kultigin Turkmen
INTRODUCTION: Chronic inflammation is a major risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is the true visceral fat depot of the heart. The relationship between coronary artery disease and EAT was shown in healthy subjects and ESRD patients. In the present study we aimed to investigate the relationship between EAT and inflammation parameters including neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in hemodialysis (HD) patients...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137715/postmenopausal-women-with-greater-paracardial-fat-have-more-coronary-artery-calcification-than-premenopausal-women-the-study-of-women-s-health-across-the-nation-swan-cardiovascular-fat-ancillary-study
#10
Samar R El Khoudary, Kelly J Shields, Imke Janssen, Matthew J Budoff, Susan A Everson-Rose, Lynda H Powell, Karen A Matthews
BACKGROUND: Volumes of paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) are greater after menopause. Interestingly, PAT but not EAT is associated with estradiol decline, suggesting a potential role of menopause in PAT accumulation. We assessed whether volumes of heart fat depot (EAT and PAT) were associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC) in women at midlife and whether these associations were modified by menopausal status and estradiol levels. METHODS AND RESULTS: EAT and PAT volumes and CAC were measured using electron beam computed tomography scans...
January 29, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131135/bone-fat-interaction
#11
REVIEW
Elizabeth Rendina-Ruedy, Clifford J Rosen
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is a recently identified endocrine organ capable of modulating a host of responses. Given its intimate proximity to the bone microenvironment, the impact marrow adipocytes exert on bone has attracted much interest and scientific inquiry. Although many questions and controversies remain about marrow adipocytes, multiple conditions/disease states in which alterations occur have provided clues about their function. The consensus is that MAT is associated inversely with bone density and quality...
March 2017: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128075/under-the-surface-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-biology
#12
REVIEW
Vlatka Pandžić Jakšić, Danijela Grizelj
The global obesity epidemic enhanced contemporary interest in adipose tissue biology. Two structurally and functionally distinct depots, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), are spread throughout the body. Their distribution was recognized to be a major determinant of metabolic risk. Unlike VAT, SAT showed some protective endocrine and inflammatory features that might explain the occurrence of obese but metabolically healthy persons. The unique developmental gene expression signature, angiogenesis, and adipogenic potential of SAT determines its growth ability under the positive energy balance...
December 2016: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124506/liraglutide-causes-large-and-rapid-epicardial-fat-reduction
#13
Gianluca Iacobellis, Mahshid Mohseni, Suzy D Bianco, Pritisheel K Banga
OBJECTIVE: Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), the visceral fat depot of the heart, is a modifiable cardiovascular risk factor and emerging therapeutic target. Liraglutide, an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1, is indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Liraglutide has recently been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. Nevertheless, whether liraglutide could reduce EAT is unknown. METHODS: To test the hypothesis, a 6-month randomized, open-label, controlled study was performed in 95 type 2 diabetic subjects with body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m(2) and hemoglobinA1c ≤8% on metformin monotherapy...
February 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118051/the-relationship-between-brown-adipose-tissue-content-in-supraclavicular-fat-depots-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-prediabetes
#14
Ekaterina Koksharova, Dmitry Ustyuzhanin, Yury Philippov, Alexander Mayorov, Marina Shestakova, Merab Shariya, Sergey Ternovoy, Ivan Dedov
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and its role in metabolism and obesity remains an important topic in the recent literature. This study evaluated the influence of the BAT triglyceride content measured by proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and prediabetes on insulin sensitivity. METHODS: A total of 25 patients with DM2 and prediabetes (45.9 ± 10.1 years old, body mass index [BMI] of 31...
February 2017: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112821/a-pilot-study-on-the-correlation-between-fat-fraction-values-and-glucose-uptake-values-in-supraclavicular-fat-by-simultaneous-pet-mri
#15
Andrew McCallister, Le Zhang, Alex Burant, Laurence Katz, Rosa Tamara Branca
PURPOSE: To assess the spatial correlation between MRI and 18F-fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) maps of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to measure differences in fat fraction (FF) between glucose avid and non-avid regions of the supraclavicular fat depot using a hybrid FDG-PET/MR scanner. METHODS: In 16 healthy volunteers, mean age of 30 and body mass index of 26, FF, R2*, and FDG uptake maps were acquired simultaneously using a hybrid PET/MR system while employing an individualized cooling protocol to maximally stimulate BAT...
January 23, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109166/a-novel-dual-amylin-and-calcitonin-receptor-agonist-dacra-kbp-089-induces-weight-loss-through-a-reduction-in-fat-but-not-lean-mass-while-improving-food-preference
#16
Sofie Gydesen, Sara Toftegaard Hjuler, Zenia Freving, Kim Vietz Andreassen, Nina Sonne, Lars I Hellgren, Morten Asser Karsdal, Kim Henriksen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Obesity and associated co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, are major health challenges - hence, development of weight loss therapies with the ability to reduce the co-morbidities is key. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of the dual amylin and calcitonin receptor agonist (DACRA), KBP-089, on bodyweight, glucose homeostasis, and fatty acid accumulation in liver and muscle tissue, food preference was investigated...
January 21, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105114/in-utero-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-induces-metabolic-disorder-and-increases-fat-accumulation-in-visceral-depots-of-c57bl-6j-mice-offspring
#17
Hailun Gu, Yali Liu, Wei Wang, Lifeng Ding, Weiping Teng, Li Liu
Excessive visceral fat accumulation is associated with metabolic disorders. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a candidate environmental obesogen, affects lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. Perinatal exposure to DEHP may be associated with metabolic disorders of dams and offspring. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure of pregnant dams to DEHP on the metabolism and fat distribution of their offspring, and to determine the mechanisms for these effects. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were administered DEHP via gavage (0...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104743/active-brown-fat-during-18fdg-pet-ct-imaging-defines-a-patient-group-with-characteristic-traits-and-an-increased-probability-of-brown-fat-redetection
#18
Carlos Gerngroß, Johanna Schretter, Martin Klingenspor, Markus Schwaiger, Tobias Fromme
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) provides a means of non-shivering thermogenesis. In humans, active BAT can be visualized by (18)F-fluoro-desoxyglucose (FDG) uptake as detected by positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computer tomography (CT). The retrospective analysis of clinical scans is a valuable source to identify anthropometric parameters that influence BAT mass and activity and thus the potential efficacy of envisioned drugs targeting this tissue to treat metabolic disease. We analyzed 2854 FDG-PET/CT scans from 1644 patients and identified 98 scans from 81 patients with active BAT...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100477/inability-to-replete-white-adipose-tissue-during-the-recovery-phase-of-sepsis-is-associated-with-increased-autophagy-apoptosis-and-proteasome-activity
#19
Kristen T Crowell, David I Soybel, Charles H Lang
Adipose tissue is an important energy depot and endocrine organ, and the degree of adiposity impacts the host response to infection. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which white adipose tissue (WAT) is lost acutely and then restored after resolution of sepsis. Therefore, signaling pathways governing protein synthesis, autophagy, apoptosis and the ubiquitin-proteasome were investigated to identify potential mechanisms mediating the acute (24 h) loss of WAT after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) as well as the failure to replenish WAT during recovery (day 10)...
January 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#20
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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