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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088466/teneurin-2-tenm2-deficiency-induces-ucp1-expression-in-differentiating-human-fat-cells
#1
D Tews, T Fromme, M Keuper, S M Hofmann, K M Debatin, M Klingenspor, M Wabitsch, P Fischer-Posovszky
Under certain conditions UCP1 expressing adipocytes arise in white adipose tissue depots of both mice and humans. It is still not fully understood whether these cells differentiate de novo from specific progenitor cells or if they transdifferentiate from mature white adipocytes. Performing expression pattern analysis comparing adipocyte progenitor cells from deep and subcutaneous neck adipose tissue, we recently identified teneurin-2 (TENM2) enriched in white adipocyte progenitor cells. Here we tested whether TENM2 deficiency in adipocyte progenitor cells would lead to a brown adipocyte phenotype...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087595/is-epicardial-fat-depot-associated-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Maddalena Gaeta, Francesco Bandera, Federico Tassinari, Capasso Lorenzo, Miriam Cargnelutti, Gabriele Pelissero, Alexis Elias Malavazos, Cristian Ricci
AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the leading rhythm disorder in western countries. A direct relationship between left atrium (LA) enlargement and electromechanical remodelling has been established. A causative link between epicardial fat (EF), visceral adipose tissue deposited around the heart, and AF has been hypothesized. Several reports suggested the association between EF and the presence of AF. The aim of this study was to verify the relationship between AF and EF depot, performing a meta-analysis of observational case series studies...
January 13, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077863/what-have-human-experimental-overfeeding-studies-taught-us-about-adipose-tissue-expansion-and-susceptibility-to-obesity-and-metabolic-complications
#3
REVIEW
D J Cuthbertson, T Steele, J P Wilding, J C G Halford, J A Harrold, M Hamer, F Karpe
Overfeeding experiments, in which we impose short-term positive energy balance, help unravel the cellular, physiological and behavioural adaptations to nutrient excess. These studies mimic longer-term mismatched energy expenditure and intake. There is considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in the magnitude of weight gain when exposed to similar relative caloric excess reflecting variable activation of compensatory adaptive mechanisms. Significantly, given similar relative weight gain, individuals may be protected from/predisposed to metabolic complications (insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, hypertension), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070205/plasticity-of-adipose-tissue-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding-in-male-mice
#4
Hao-Neng Tang, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Shu-Wen Tan, Yue Guo, Jun Tang, Ci-La Zhou, Hou-De Zhou
BACKGROUND: Fasting is the most widely prescribed and self-imposed strategy for treating excessive weight gain and obesity, and has been shown to exert a number of beneficial effects. The aim of the present study was to determine the exact role of fasting and subsequent refeeding on fat distribution in mice. METHODS: C57/BL6 mice fasted for 24 to 72 h and were then subjected to refeeding for 72 h. At 24, 48 and 72 h of fasting, and 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of refeeding, the mice were sacrificed, and serum and various adipose tissues were collected...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063476/short-communication-immunohistochemical-localization-of-the-immune-cell-marker-cd68-in-bovine-adipose-tissue-impact-of-tissue-alterations-and-excessive-fat-accumulation-in-dairy-cows
#5
S Häussler, D Germeroth, L Laubenthal, L F Ruda, J Rehage, S Dänicke, H Sauerwein
With the onset of lactation energy from feed intake is mostly insufficient to meet the requirements of dairy cows. Lipid mobilization from adipose tissue (AT) could lead to a compromised inflammatory response enhancing the incidence for diseases. In addition, tissue alterations can occur, displaying areas of necrosis and inflammation. Furthermore, over-conditioned cows mobilizing more lipids from AT than thin cows are prone to develop metabolic disorders. This might lead to an increased infiltration of phagocytic immune cells into AT...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062507/brown-adipose-tissue-regulates-small-artery-function-through-nadph-oxidase-4-derived-hydrogen-peroxide-and-redox-sensitive-protein-kinase-g-1%C3%AE
#6
Malou Friederich-Persson, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Patrik Persson, Augusto C Montezano, Rhian M Touyz
OBJECTIVE: Biomedical interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) has increased since the discovery of functionally active BAT in adult humans. Although white adipose tissue (WAT) influences vascular function, vascular effects of BAT are elusive. Thus, we investigated the regulatory role and putative vasoprotective effects of BAT, focusing on hydrogen peroxide, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (Nox4), and redox-sensitive signaling. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Vascular reactivity was assessed in wild-type and Nox4-knockout mice (Nox4(-/-)) by wire myography in the absence and presence of perivascular adipose tissue of different phenotypes from various adipose depots: (1) mixed WAT/BAT (inguinal adipose tissue) and (2) WAT (epididymal visceral fat) and BAT (intrascapular fat)...
December 22, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058734/high-fat-diet-and-fish-oil-affect-adipocyte-metabolism-in-a-depot-specific-manner
#7
Letícia F Terra, Aline R M Lobba
It is well known that the white adipose tissue (WAT) plays a central role in the control of metabolism; therefore it can be related to several disorders, such as obesity, type-2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome, mainly by inflammation and hypertrophy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
January 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057582/a-nutritional-perspective-on-ucp1-dependent-thermogenesis
#8
REVIEW
M Luisa Bonet, Josep Mercader, Andreu Palou
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is the hallmark protein responsible for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). UCP1 activity is protective against body fat accumulation. UCP1 has re-gained researchers' attention in the context of obesity following the realization that BAT is present and can be activated in adult humans and of inducible UCP1-expressing cells in white fat depots. UCP1-mediated thermogenesis is activated by specific food compounds, which function by stimulating sympathetic nervous system activity to adipose tissues and/or by acting on the adipose cells directly or indirectly, through humoral factors released upon their intake...
January 2, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054299/gastric-plication-improves-glycemia-partly-by-restoring-the-altered-expression-of-aquaglyceroporins-in-adipose-tissue-and-the-liver-in-obese-rats
#9
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Sara Becerril, Rafael Moncada, Víctor Valentí, Secundino Fernández, Beatriz Ramírez, Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Graça Soveral, María M Malagón, Carlos Diéguez, Amaia Rodríguez, Gema Frühbeck
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication is a minimally invasive bariatric surgical procedure, where the greater curvature is plicated inside the gastric lumen. Our aims were to analyze the effectiveness of gastric plication on the resolution of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and fatty liver in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and to evaluate changes in glycerol metabolism, a key substrate for adiposity and gluconeogenesis, in adipose tissue and the liver. METHODS: Male Wistar DIO rats (n = 58) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and gastric plication) or dietary interventions [fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) or pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by gastric-plicated animals]...
January 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053001/cancer-cachexia-differentially-regulates-visceral-adipose-tissue-turnover
#10
Felipe de Oliveira Franco, Magno Alves Lopes, Felipe Dos Santos Henriques, Rodrigo X Neves, Cesário Bianchi Filho, Miguel Luiz Batista Júnior
Cancer cachexia (CC) is a progressive metabolic syndrome that is marked by severe body weight loss. Metabolic disarrangement of fat tissues is a very early event in CC, followed by adipose tissue (AT) atrophy and remodelling. However, there is little information regarding the possible involvement of cellular turnover in this process. Thus, we evaluated the effect of CC on AT turnover of mesenteric (ME) and retroperitoneal (RP) AT depots as possible factors that contribute to AT atrophy. CC was induced by a subcutaneous injection of Walker tumour cells (2x10(7)) in Wistar rats...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049691/pdgfr%C3%AE-controls-the-balance-of-stromal-and-adipogenic-cells-during-adipose-tissue-organogenesis
#11
Chengyi Sun, William L Berry, Lorin E Olson
Adipose tissue is distributed in depots throughout the body with specialized roles in energy storage and thermogenesis. PDGFRα is a marker of adipocyte precursors, and increased PDGFRα activity causes adipose tissue fibrosis in adult mice. However, the function of PDGFRα during adipose tissue organogenesis is unknown. Here, by analyzing mice with juxtamembrane or kinase domain point mutations that increase PDGFRα activity (V561D or D842V), we found that PDGFRα activation inhibits embryonic white adipose tissue organogenesis in a tissue-autonomous manner...
January 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046152/divergent-selection-on-intramuscular-fat-in-rabbits-responses-to-selection-and-genetic-parameters
#12
M Martínez-Álvaro, P Hernández, A Blasco
A divergent selection experiment on intramuscular fat (IMF) was performed in rabbits. The aim of this study is to estimate the response to selection, the correlated responses in carcass and meat quality traits, and their genetic parameters. Selection criterion was the averaged phenotypic value of IMF measured at 9 wk of age in 2 full-sibs of the candidate. Traits considered were IMF, BW, chilled carcass weight, reference carcass weight, scapular and perirenal fat weights, carcass and meat color, pH, protein and fatty acid composition of meat...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008171/induction-of-lipogenesis-in-white-fat-during-cold-exposure-in-mice-link-to-lean-phenotype
#13
P Flachs, K Adamcova, P Zouhar, C Marques, P Janovska, I Viegas, J G Jones, K Bardova, M Svobodova, J Hansikova, O Kuda, M Rossmeisl, U Liisberg, A G Borkowska, K Kristiansen, L Madsen, J Kopecky
Background/ObjectiveFutile substrate cycling based on lipolytic release of fatty acids (FA) from intracellular triacylglycerols (TAG) and their re-esterification (TAG/FA cycling), as well as de novo FA synthesis (DNL), represent the core energy-consuming biochemical activities of white adipose tissue (WAT). We aimed to characterize their roles in cold-induced thermogenesis and energy homeostasis.MethodsMale obesity-resistant A/J and obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice maintained at 30 °C were exposed to 6 °C for 2 or 7 days...
December 23, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005982/depot-dependent-effects-of-dexamethasone-on-gene-expression-in-human-omental-and-abdominal-subcutaneous-adipose-tissues-from-obese-women
#14
R Taylor Pickering, Mi-Jeong Lee, Kalypso Karastergiou, Adam Gower, Susan K Fried
Glucocorticoids promote fat accumulation in visceral compared to subcutaneous depots, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. To identify long-term changes in gene expression that are differentially sensitive or responsive to glucocorticoids in these depots, paired samples of human omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) adipose tissues obtained from obese women during elective surgery were cultured with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (Dex, 0, 1, 10, 25 and 1000 nM) for 7 days...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999858/frailty-syndrome-visceral-adipose-tissue-and-frailty-in-patients-with-symptomatic-severe-aortic-stenosis
#15
M Pinheiro, J Mancio, G Conceição, W Ferreira, M Carvalho, A Santos, L Vouga, V Gama Ribeiro, A Leite-Moreira, I Falcão-Pires, N Bettencourt
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), frailty is a clinically relevant measure of increased vulnerability that should be included in the preoperative risk assessment. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) derived phase angle (PA) reflects cell membrane integrity and function. Few studies are available on the relative contribution of adiposity distribution on frailty, and about the influences of frailty and visceral obesity in PA value. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate associations among frailty, visceral fat depots and PA in patients with symptomatic severe AS...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999105/hepatic-dpp4-dna-methylation-associates-with-fatty-liver
#16
Christian Baumeier, Sophie Saussenthaler, Anne Kammel, Markus Jähnert, Luisa Schlüter, Deike Hesse, Mickaël Canouil, Stephane Lobbens, Robert Caiazzo, Violeta Raverdy, François Pattou, Emma Nilsson, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Charlotte Ling, Philippe Froguel, Annette Schürmann, Robert W Schwenk
Hepatic DPP4 expression is elevated in subjects with ectopic fat accumulation in the liver. However, whether increased dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) is involved in the pathogenesis or is rather a consequence of metabolic disease is not known. We therefore studied the transcriptional regulation of hepatic Dpp4 in young mice prone to diet-induced obesity. Already at 6 weeks of age, expression of hepatic Dpp4 was increased in mice with high weight gain, independent of liver fat content. In the same animals, methylation of four intronic CpG sites was decreased, amplifying glucose-induced transcription of hepatic Dpp4 In older mice, hepatic triglyceride content was increased only in animals with elevated Dpp4 expression...
January 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994952/retinoic-acid-is-abundantly-detected-in-different-depots-of-adipose-tissue-by-sers
#17
Jayakumar Perumal, Sandhya Sriram, Hann Qian Lim, Malini Olivo, Shigeki Sugii
Retinoic acid (RA) is essential for early developmental processes and stem cell differentiation, but less is known about its contributions to adult tissues and stem cells including adipose tissue. We previously demonstrated that many genes involved in RA synthesis and downstream pathway are differentially expressed in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from visceral fat compared to those from subcutaneous fat, leading to changes in their early adipogenic functions. In order to study potential contributions of RA in adipose tissue, we measured tissue RA levels using a technique based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)...
October 2016: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983643/genetic-marker-discovery-in-complex-traits-a-field-example-on-fat-content-and-composition-in-pigs
#18
REVIEW
Ramona Natacha Pena, Roger Ros-Freixedes, Marc Tor, Joan Estany
Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976431/inhibition-of-adipose-tissue-ppar%C3%AE-prevents-increased-adipocyte-expansion-after-lipectomy-and-exacerbates-a-glucose-intolerant-phenotype
#19
A D Booth, A M Magnuson, K A Cox-York, Y Wei, D Wang, M J Pagliassotti, M T Foster
OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue plays a fundamental role in glucose homeostasis. For example, fat removal (lipectomy, LipX) in lean mice, resulting in a compensatory 50% increase in total fat mass, is associated with significant improvement in glucose tolerance. This study was designed to further examine the link between fat removal, adipose tissue compensation and glucose homeostasis using a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ; activator of adipogenesis) knockout mouse...
December 15, 2016: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958614/the-relationship-between-location-specific-epicardial-adipose-tissue-volume-and-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaque-burden-in-type-2-diabetic-patients
#20
Begum Uygur, Omer Celik, Derya Ozturk, Mehmet Erturk, Hafize Otcu, Fethi Emre Ustabasıoglu, Aydın Yıldırım
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Epicardial adipose tissue is a metabolically active visceral fat depot which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis. Due to its asymmetrical distribution, the relation between location-specific epicardial adipose tissue measurements and coronary atherosclerosis remains unclear. Our study investigated the relationship between location-specific epicardial adipose tissue volume and coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden which was detected by coronary computed tomography angiography in Type 2 diabetic patients without coronary artery disease history...
December 13, 2016: Kardiologia Polska
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