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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640452/role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-health-and-disease-a-matter-of-fat
#1
Bénédicte Gaborit, Coralie Sengenes, Patricia Ancel, Alexis Jacquier, Anne Dutour
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a small but very biologically active ectopic fat depot that surrounds the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, thermogenic capacity, unique transcriptome, secretory profile, and simply measurability, epicardial fat has drawn increasing attention among researchers attempting to elucidate its putative role in health and cardiovascular diseases. The cellular crosstalk between epicardial adipocytes and cells of the vascular wall or myocytes is high and suggests a local role for this tissue...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638930/-different-adipose-tissue-depots-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-human
#2
Ran Wang, Xiao-Nan Li
Obesity is characterized by abnormal and excessive adipose tissue accumulated in the body. Compared with peripheral obesity (the accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue), abdominal obesity (the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue) is associated with increased risk of the metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and dyslipidemia. Adipose tissue is a highly heterogeneous endocrine organ. Adipose tissue depots differ significantly in anatomy, cell biology, glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in endocrine regulation...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634585/high-plasma-glucagon-levels-correlate-with-waist-to-hip-ratio-suprailiac-skinfold-thickness-and-deep-subcutaneous-abdominal-and-intraperitoneal-adipose-tissue-depots-in-nonobese-asian-indian-males-with-type-2-diabetes-in-north-india
#3
Shajith Anoop, Anoop Misra, Surya Prakash Bhatt, Seema Gulati, Harsh Mahajan, Gokulraj Prabakaran
We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (n = 81; BMI < 25 kg/m(2)) with T2DM of less than one-year duration and nonobese males without diabetes (n = 30) were evaluated for the following: anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, W-HR, and truncal skinfolds), whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass), and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT), retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume))...
2017: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630692/liver-fat-a-relevant-target-for-dietary-intervention-summary-of-a-unilever-workshop
#4
REVIEW
Harry P F Peters, Patrick Schrauwen, Petra Verhoef, Christopher D Byrne, David J Mela, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Ulf Risérus, Frits R Rosendaal, Vera Schrauwen-Hinderling
Currently it is estimated that about 1 billion people globally have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition in which liver fat exceeds 5 % of liver weight in the absence of significant alcohol intake. Due to the central role of the liver in metabolism, the prevalence of NAFLD is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and other risk factors of metabolic diseases. However, the contribution of liver fat to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD, relative to other ectopic fat depots and to other risk markers, is unclear...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629569/in-depth-analysis-of-interreader-agreement-and-accuracy-in-categorical-assessment-of-brown-adipose-tissue-in-18-fdg-pet-ct
#5
Anton S Becker, Caroline Zellweger, Khoschy Schawkat, Sanja Bogdanovic, Valerie Doan Phi van, Hannes W Nagel, Christian Wolfrum, Irene A Burger
PURPOSE: To evaluate the interreader agreement of a three-tier craniocaudal grading system for brown fat activation and investigate the accuracy of the distinction between the three grades. MATERIALS AND METHODS: After IRB approval, 340 cases were retrospectively selected from patients undergoing (18)FDG-PET/CT between 2007 and 2015 at our institution, with 85 cases in each grade and 85 controls with no active brown fat. Three readers evaluated all cases independently...
June 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625910/a-high-fat-diet-enhances-the-sensitivity-of-chick-adipose-tissue-to-the-effects-of-centrally-injected-neuropeptide-y-on-gene-expression-of-adipogenesis-associated-factors
#6
Guoqing Wang, Carli A Williams, Betty R McConn, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later...
June 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624865/bone-marrow-fat-contributes-to-insulin-sensitivity-and-adiponectin-secretion-in-premenopausal-women
#7
Federica Ermetici, Silvia Briganti, Alessandra Delnevo, Paola Cannaò, Giovanni Di Leo, Stefano Benedini, Ileana Terruzzi, Francesco Sardanelli, Livio Luzi
PURPOSE: Bone marrow fat is a functionally distinct adipose tissue that may contribute to systemic metabolism. This study aimed at evaluating a possible association between bone marrow fat and insulin sensitivity indices. METHODS: Fifty obese (n = 23) and non-obese (n = 27) premenopausal women underwent proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure vertebral bone marrow fat content and unsaturation index at L4 level. Abdominal visceral, subcutaneous fat, and epicardial fat were also measured using magnetic resonance imaging...
June 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611394/identification-of-the-ectoenzyme-cd38-as-a-marker-of-committed-preadipocytes
#8
A Carrière, Y Jeanson, J-A Côté, C Dromard, A Galinier, S Menzel, C Barreau, S Dupuis-Coronas, E Arnaud, A Girousse, V Cuminetti, J Paupert, B Cousin, C Sengenes, F Koch-Nolte, A Tchernof, L Casteilla
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Characterization of the adipocyte cellular lineage is required for a better understanding of white adipose tissue homeostasis and expansion. While several studies have focused on the phenotype of the most immature adipocyte progenitors, very few tools exist to identify committed cells. In haematopoiesis, the CD38 ectoenzyme is largely used to delineate various stages of stem cell lineage commitment. We hypothesize that this marker could be used to identify committed preadipocytes...
June 14, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596551/automated-segmentation-of-human-cervical-supraclavicular-adipose-tissue-in-magnetic-resonance-images
#9
Elin Lundström, Robin Strand, Anders Forslund, Peter Bergsten, Daniel Weghuber, Håkan Ahlström, Joel Kullberg
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT), with a major site in the cervical-supraclavicular depot, is a promising anti-obesity target. This work presents an automated method for segmenting cervical-supraclavicular adipose tissue for enabling time-efficient and objective measurements in large cohort research studies of BAT. Fat fraction (FF) and R2(*) maps were reconstructed from water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 25 subjects. A multi-atlas approach, based on atlases from nine subjects, was chosen as automated segmentation strategy...
June 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595579/omental-adipose-tissue-is-a-more-suitable-source-of-canine-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#10
Francisca Bahamondes, Estefania Flores, Gino Cattaneo, Flavia Bruna, Paulette Conget
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic tool in veterinary medicine. Currently the subcutaneous adipose tissue is the leading source of MSCs in dogs. MSCs derived from distinct fat depots have shown dissimilarities in their accessibility and therapeutic potential. The aims of our work were to determine the suitability of omental adipose tissue as a source of MSCs, according to sampling success, cell yield and paracrine properties of isolated cells, and compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue...
June 8, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594137/increased-adipocyte-size-macrophage-infiltration-and-adverse-local-adipokine-profile-in-perirenal-fat-in-cushing-s-syndrome
#11
Sean H P P Roerink, Margreet A E M Wagenmakers, Johan F Langenhuijsen, Dov B Ballak, Hanne M M Rooijackers, Frank C d'Ancona, François M van Dielen, Jan W A Smit, Theo S Plantinga, Romana T Netea-Maier, Ad R M M Hermus
OBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in fat cell size, macrophage infiltration, and local adipose tissue adipokine profiles in different fat depots in patients with active Cushing's syndrome. METHODS: Subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue of 10 patients with Cushing's syndrome was compared to adipose tissue of 10 gender-, age-, and BMI-matched controls with regard to adipocyte size determined by digital image analysis on hematoxylin and eosin stainings, macrophage infiltration determined by digital image analysis on CD68 stainings, and adipose tissue leptin and adiponectin levels using fluorescent bead immunoassays and ELISA techniques...
June 8, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588096/cns-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-activation-regulates-feeding-behavior-white-fat-browning-and-body-weight
#12
Jennifer E Richard, Lorena López-Ferreras, Belén Chanclón, Kim Eerola, Peter Micallef, Karolina P Skibicka, Ingrid Wernstedt Asterholm
Pharmacological β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β3AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β3ARs in adipose tissue. However, β3ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brainstem and hypothalamus that provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588036/brown-fat-depots-in-adult-humans-remain-static-in-their-locations-on-pet-ct-despite-changes-in-seasonality
#13
Terence A Jones, Narendra L Reddy, Sarah C Wayte, Oludolapo Adesanya, Georgios K Dimitriadis, Charles E Hutchinson, Thomas M Barber
Active brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans has been demonstrated through use of positron emission tomography with 2-deoxy-2-(fluorine-18) fluoro-D-glucose integrated with computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET/CT) scans. The aim of our study was to determine whether active human BAT depots shown on (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans remain static in their location over time. This was a retrospective study. Adult human subjects (n = 15) who had had (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging (n = 38 scans in total) for clinical reasons were included on the basis of (18)F-FDG uptake patterns consistent with BAT activity...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585213/microrna-and-adipogenesis
#14
Ayse Basak Engin
In obesity, the process of adipogenesis largely determines the number of adipocytes in body fat depots. Adipogenesis is regulated by several adipocyte-selective microRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors that modulate adipocyte proliferation and differentiation. However, some miRNAs block expression of master regulators of adipogenesis. Additionally, specific miRNAs have been implicated in adipocyte differentiation and mature adipocyte functions. While, each miRNA targets multiple mRNAs, which may coordinate or antagonize each other's functions, several miRNAs are dysregulated in other tissues during obesity-related comorbidities...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582523/the-interplay-between-adipose-tissue-and-the-cardiovascular-system-is-fat-always-bad
#15
Ioannis Akoumianakis, Charalambos Antoniades
Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, clinical research has revealed a paradoxically protective role for obesity in patients with chronic diseases including CVD, suggesting that the biological "quality" of adipose tissue (AT) may be more important than overall AT mass or body weight. Importantly, AT is recognized as a dynamic organ secreting a wide range of biologically active adipokines, microRNAs, gaseous messengers and other metabolites that affect the cardiovascular system in both endocrine and paracrine ways...
June 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580279/brown-adipose-tissue-bat-specific-vaspin-expression-is-increased-after-obesogenic-diets-and-cold-exposure-and-linked-to-acute-changes-in-dna-methylation
#16
Juliane Weiner, Kerstin Rohde, Kerstin Krause, Konstanze Zieger, Nora Klöting, Susan Kralisch, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Matthias Blüher, Yvonne Böttcher, John T Heiker
OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated anti-diabetic and anti-obesogenic properties of visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) and so evoked its potential use for treatment of obesity-related diseases. The aim of the study was to unravel physiological regulators of vaspin expression and secretion with a particular focus on its role in brown adipose tissue (BAT) biology. METHODS: We analyzed the effects of obesogenic diets and cold exposure on vaspin expression in liver and white and brown adipose tissue (AT) and plasma levels...
June 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571817/development-of-orbital-adipose-derived-stem-cells-as-a-model-for-studying-the-formation-of-baggy-lower-eyelids
#17
Xi Chen, Guangpeng Liu
In old population, there is often a protrusion of the orbital fat pad underlying the skin in the lower eyelids, giving an aspect of palpable pouches. It is generally thought that orbital fat hyperplasia is the main contributing factor to the formation of baggy lower eyelids, and resection of excessive orbital fat pad is routinely performed during the eyelid cosmetic surgery. In our clinical study, however, it was revealed that the adipocytes in orbital fat tissue from older people became smaller compared to those from the young individuals...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571802/a-homologous-stem-cell-therapy-for-obesity-and-its-related-metabolic-disorders
#18
Dinh-Toi Chu, Yang Tao
Obesity and overweight have become a leading health problem in the world. But we have not yet had any optimal therapy to prevent this health issue. Accumulating evidence suggests that there is existence of functional brown/brite adipocytes in both infants and adult humans, and the activated brown/brite can burn energy by generating heat. These adipocytes can be differentiated from stem cells and transplantation of pre-activated human thermogenic adipocytes in vitro benefits to glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity and reduces body fat in normal or obese immunodeficient mice...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568315/relationships-between-the-genes-expressed-in-the-mesenteric-adipose-tissue-of-beef-cattle-and-feed-intake-and-gain
#19
A K Lindholm-Perry, H C Cunningham, L A Kuehn, J L Vallet, J W Keele, A P Foote, K M Cammack, H C Freetly
Mesenteric fat, a depot within the visceral fat, accumulates in cattle during maturation and finishing and may be a potential source of production inefficiency. The aim of this study was to determine whether the genes expressed in the mesenteric fat of steers were associated with body weight gain and feed intake. Sixteen steers chosen by their rank of distance from the bivariate mean for gain and feed intake were used for this study. Mesenteric fat was obtained and evaluated for differences in gene expression...
May 31, 2017: Animal Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567337/body-mass-index-is-associated-with-region-dependent-metabolic-reprogramming-of-adipose-tissue
#20
Marco G Alves, Ângela Moreira, Marta Guimarães, Mário Nora, Mario Sousa, Pedro F Oliveira, Mariana P Monteiro
Adipose tissue (AT) is involved in dysmetabolism pathogenesis. Regional fat distribution and functioning may contribute to obesity-related metabolic disorders and adverse health outcomes. Specific fat depots are suggested to possess unique biological properties, but specific metabolic profiles of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) remain unknown. We aimed to characterize VAT and SAT glucose metabolism, and their correlation with body mass index (BMI). AT samples from patients (n = 12; F:M, 9:3) with a mean age of 46 years (26-83 years) and an average BMI of 29...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
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