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Fat depot

Takeshi Akama, Tae-Hwa Chun
The visceral (VIS) and subcutaneous (SQ) fat pads are developmentally distinct white adipose tissue depots and contribute differently to inflammation and insulin resistance associated with obesity. The basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional regulator transcription factor 21 (TCF21) is a marker gene for white adipose tissues and is abundantly expressed in VIS-derived adipose stem cells (ASCs), but not in SQ-derived ASCs. However, TCF21's role in regulating fat depot-specific gene expression and function is incompletely understood...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ryan R Witt, John J Rodger, John C Rodger
Lucrin Depot (AbbVie), a 1-month microsphere gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist preparation, was investigated as a potential agent to synchronise cycling in the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata). Forty-eight randomly selected females were treated with 5 or 10mgkg-1 Lucrin Depot (n=24 per dose). Eighteen females per treatment had their reproductive activity scored at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks using two ovarian (Graafian follicle and corpus luteum status) and two reproductive tract (uterine and vaginal muscularity and vascularity) parameters that formed a reproductive activity score...
March 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Xiaoli Hou, Yongzhao Zhang, Wei Li, Alexander J Hu, Chi Luo, Wenhui Zhou, Jamie K Hu, Stefano G Daniele, Jinfeng Wang, Jinghao Sheng, Yongsheng Fan, Andrew S Greenberg, Stephen R Farmer, Miaofen G Hu
Whereas white adipose tissue depots contribute to the development of metabolic diseases, brown and beige adipose tissue has beneficial metabolic effects. Here we show that CDK6 regulates beige adipocyte formation. We demonstrate that mice lacking the CDK6 protein or its kinase domain (K43M) exhibit significant increases beige cell formation, enhanced energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance, and improved insulin sensitivity, and are more resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Re-expression of CDK6 in Cdk6-/- mature or precursor cells, or ablation of RUNX1 in K43M mature or precursor cells, reverses these phenotypes...
March 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Jens Lund, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Lotte Lauritzen
Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line of research suggests that browning of white adipose depots and activation of uncoupled respiration in brown fat contributes to these effects. This mini-review summarizes the observations in rodents, highlights several mechanisms that might explain these observations and discusses the translational potential...
March 9, 2018: Adipocyte
Jane J Lee, Alison Pedley, Udo Hoffmann, Joseph M Massaro, Daniel Levy, Michelle T Long
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a heterogeneous condition and specific patterns of body fat distribution are differentially associated with cardiometabolic risk factors. It is not currently known which fat depots contribute most to individual cardiometabolic risk factors. We examined the associations among eight different fat depots accumulated in various anatomical regions and the relationship between these fat depots and multiple cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: Participants were from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (seventh examination) and Third Generation (first examination) who also participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study between 2002 and 2005...
March 5, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Lingyan Wu, Lina Zhang, Bohan Li, Haowen Jiang, Yanan Duan, Zhifu Xie, Lin Shuai, Jia Li, Jingya Li
Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Heather N Koopman
The Odontocetes (toothed whales) possess two types of specialized fat and, therefore, represent an interesting group when considering the evolution and function of adipose tissue. All whales have a layer of superficial blubber, which insulates and streamlines, provides buoyancy and acts as an energy reserve. Some toothed whales deposit large amounts of wax esters, rather than triacylglycerols, in blubber, which is unusual. Waxes have very different physical and physiological properties, which may impact blubber function...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Laura Palanker Musselman, Ronald P Kühnlein
Excess adipose fat accumulation, or obesity, is a growing problem worldwide in terms of both the rate of incidence and the severity of obesity-associated metabolic disease. Adipose tissue evolved in animals as a specialized dynamic lipid storage depot: adipose cells synthesize fat (a process called lipogenesis) when energy is plentiful and mobilize stored fat (a process called lipolysis) when energy is needed. When a disruption of lipid homeostasis favors increased fat synthesis and storage with little turnover owing to genetic predisposition, overnutrition or sedentary living, complications such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease are more likely to arise...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Cristina Salmerón
White adipose tissue (AT) is the main lipid storage depot in vertebrates. Initially considered to be a simple lipid store, AT has recently been recognized as playing a role as an endocrine organ that is implicated in processes such as energy homeostasis and as a rich source of stem cells. Interest in adipogenesis has increased not only because of the prevalence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in humans, but also in aquaculture because of the excessive fat deposition experienced in some cultured fish species, which may compromise both their welfare and their final product quality...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Hyuek Jong Lee
White adipose tissue (WAT) expansion is associated with angiogenesis. Although, activation of lipolysis by exercise induces adipocyte hypotrophy and reduction of fat mass, it is poorly understood whether exercise regulates angiogenesis by altering angiogenic gene expression in WAT. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks voluntary wheel running exercise on angiogenic gene expression in adipose tissues. Male C57BL/6J mice performed voluntary wheel running for 6 weeks. At 24 hr after the last exercise training, tibialis anterior (TA), soleus (Sol), epididymal WAT (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and brown adipose tissue (BAT) were isolated and then the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), angiopoietin1 (Ang1), Ang2, platelet-derived growth factor B (PDGF-B) and their corresponding receptors were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
February 2018: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Aneta Stefanidis, Nicole M Wiedmann, Sonika Tyagi, Andrew M Allen, Matthew J Watt, Brian J Oldfield
OBJECTIVE: The potential for brown adipose tissue (BAT) to be targeted as a therapeutic option to combat obesity has been heightened by the discovery of a brown-like form of inducible "beige" adipose tissue in white fat which has overlapping structural and functional properties to "classical" BAT. The likelihood that both beige and brown fat are recruited functionally by neural mechanisms, taken together with the lack of a detailed understanding of the nature of changes in the nervous system when white adipose tissue (WAT) is transformed to brown, provides the impetus for this study...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Guoqing Wang, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
The goal of this research was to determine the effect of dietary macronutrient composition on peripheral neuropeptide Y (NPY)-induced changes in adipose tissue dynamics in chicks. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric diets from the day of hatch: high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF), or high protein (HP). On day 4 post-hatch, 0 (vehicle), 60, or 120 µg/kg BW of NPY was injected intraperitoneally, and subcutaneous, clavicular and abdominal adipose tissue samples were collected at 1 and 3 h post-injection...
March 3, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Valentina Caracciolo, Jeanette Young, Donna Gonzales, Yinchun Ni, Stephen J Flowers, Ross Summer, Scott A Waldman, Jason K Kim, Dae Young Jung, Hye Lim Noh, Taekyoon Kim, Perry J Blackshear, Danielle O'Connell, Robert C Bauer, Caleb B Kallen
Obesity is associated with adipose tissue inflammation that contributes to insulin resistance. Zinc Finger Protein 36 (Zfp36) is an mRNA-binding protein that reduces inflammation by binding to cytokine transcripts and promoting their degradation. We hypothesized that myeloid-specific deficiency of Zfp36 would lead to increased adipose tissue inflammation and reduced insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese mice. As expected, wild type (Control) mice became obese and diabetic on a high-fat diet and obese mice with myeloid-specific loss of Zfp36 (KO) demonstrated increased adipose tissue and liver cytokine mRNA expression compared to Control mice...
March 6, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nadeeja N Wijayatunga, Mandana Pahlavani, Nishan S Kalupahana, Kameswara Rao Kottapalli, Preethi H Gunaratne, Cristian Coarfa, Latha Ramalingam, Naima Moustaid-Moussa
Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq...
February 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Eun Jung Rhee
The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. One-thirds of world population is suffering from the deleterious effects of excessive fat and adipose tissue in their body. At the same time, the average life expectancy is becoming higher and higher every decade. Therefore, living healthy and longer is the dream for everyone. Simply being obese is not the primary cause for the consequence of obesity; rather, the depot where the fat is accumulated, is the primary key for the deleterious effects of obesity...
February 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Aaron M Magnuson, Josephine K Fouts, Daniel P Regan, Andrea D Booth, Steve W Dow, Michelle T Foster
Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat distribution commonly associated with increased central adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is described to be the greatest driver of obesity-induced inflammation, however evidence also supports that the intestines fundamentally contribute to the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease. The visceral adipose depot shares the same vasculature and lymph drainage as the small intestine. We hypothesize that the visceral lymph node, which drains adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract, is central to the exacerbation of systemic pro-inflammation...
March 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Russell T Turner, Stephen A Martin, Urszula T Iwaniec
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located in the bone marrow have the capacity to differentiate into multiple cell lineages, including osteoblast and adipocyte. Adipocyte density within marrow is inversely associated with bone mass during aging and in some pathological conditions, contributing to the prevailing view that marrow adipocytes play a largely negative role in bone metabolism. However, a negative association between marrow adipocytes and bone balance is not universal...
February 28, 2018: Current Osteoporosis Reports
Qiong A Wang, Fang Zhang, Lei Jiang, Risheng Ye, Yu An, Mengle Shao, Caroline Tao, Rana K Gupta, Philipp E Scherer
Adipose tissue is a dynamic organ that makes critical contributions to whole body metabolic homeostasis. Although recent studies have revealed that different fat depots have distinct molecular signatures, metabolic functions and adipogenic mechanisms, PPARγ is still widely viewed as the master regulator of adipogenesis and critical for maintaining mature adipocyte function. Using an inducible, adipocyte-specific knockout system, we explored the role of PPARγ in mature adipocytes in vivo Short-term PPARγ deficiency in adipocytes reduces whole body insulin sensitivity, but adipocytes are viable both in vitro and in vivo However, after high fat diet exposure, even short-term PPARγ deficiency leads to rapid adipocyte death...
February 26, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Julien Paccou, Guillaume Penel, Christophe Chauveau, Bernard Cortet, Pierre Hardouin
There is growing interest in the relationship between bone marrow fat (BMF) and skeletal health. Progress in clinical studies of BMF and skeletal health has been greatly enhanced by recent technical advances in our ability to measure BMF non-invasively. Magnetic resonance imagery (MRI) with or without spectroscopy is currently the standard technique for evaluating BMF content and composition in humans. This review focuses on clinical studies of marrow fat and its relationship with bone. The amount of marrow fat is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)...
February 27, 2018: Bone
Diane M Sepa-Kishi, Rolando B Ceddia
The white adipose tissue (WAT) exhibits great plasticity and can undergo "browning" and acquire features of the brown adipose tissue (BAT), which takes place following cold exposure, chronic endurance exercise or β3-adrenergic stimulation. WAT that underwent browning is characterized by the presence of "beige" adipocytes, which are morphologically similar to brown adipocytes, express uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and are considered thermogenically competent. Thus, inducing a BAT-like phenotype in the WAT could promote energy dissipation within this depot, reducing the availability of substrate that would otherwise be stored in the WAT...
February 21, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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