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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719363/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-human-adipose-tissue-could-it-explain-low-vitamin-d-status-in-obesity
#1
Adryana Cordeiro, Alejandro Santos, Miguel Bernardes, Andrea Ramalho, Maria João Martins
Obesity and a low vitamin D (VD) status, as well as a positive association between them, are prevalent worldwide. Additionally, a low VD status has been positively correlated with metabolic dysfunction (although not so convincingly as for obesity). The VD receptor (VDR) mediates VD biological actions in adipose tissue (AT), where VD can be activated or inactivated/degraded through specific hydroxylation steps. Additionally, AT can also store and release VD when needed. A lower VD activation/VD inactivation ratio and an impaired VDR signaling in AT could contribute to metabolic dysfunction besides the aforementioned association between obesity and VD status...
July 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702474/targeting-visceral-fat-by-intraperitoneal-delivery-of-novel-aav-serotype-vector-restricting-off-target-transduction-in-liver
#2
Wei Huang, Xianglan Liu, Nicholas J Queen, Lei Cao
It is challenging to genetically manipulate fat in adults. We demonstrate that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of an engineered adeno-associated virus (AAV) serotype Rec2 leads to high transduction of multiple visceral fat depots at a dose of 1 to 2 orders lower than commonly used doses for systemic gene delivery. To target adipose tissue, we develop a single AAV vector harboring two expression cassettes: one using the CBA promoter to drive transgene expression and one using the liver-specific albumin promoter to drive a microRNA-targeting WPRE sequence that only exists in this AAV vector...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700654/body-composition-changes-in-male-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-aging-or-disease-process
#3
Li-Wen Lee, Chieh-Mo Lin, Hung-Chou Li, Pei-Lin Hsiao, An-Chi Chung, Chu-Jung Hsieh, Pi-Chi Wu, Shu-Feng Hsu
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) mainly affects middle-age and elderly adults. It is unclear if the presence of muscle wasting and fat accumulation in patients with COPD is age or disease-related. This study investigated the effect of age and COPD disease severity on body composition with the aim of identifying a biomarker(s) for COPD. METHODS: Healthy subjects and patients with COPD of different severity were recruited. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze total and segmental body composition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696961/current-body-composition-measurement-techniques
#4
Thaisa Lemos, Dympna Gallagher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the most innovative and precise, available methods for quantification of in-vivo human body composition. RECENT FINDINGS: Body composition measurement methods are continuously being perfected. Ongoing efforts involve multisegmental and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, quantitative magnetic resonance for total body water, fat, and lean tissue measurements, imaging to further define ectopic fat depots...
July 10, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694155/denervation-as-a-tool-for-testing-sympathetic-control-of-white-adipose-tissue
#5
REVIEW
Ruth B S Harris
This review summarizes the evidence derived from studies utilizing denervation procedures to demonstrate sympathetic control of white adipose tissue metabolism and body fat mass. A majority of the work demonstrating neural control of white fat was performed in the Bartness laboratory with Siberian hamsters as the predominant experimental model. These animals experience dramatic changes in body fat mass in response to changes in photoperiod, however, the mechanisms identified in hamsters have been reproduced or further elucidated by experiments with other animal models...
July 7, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686851/characterization-of-brown-adipose-like-tissue-in%C3%A2-trauma-induced-heterotopic-ossification-in%C3%A2-humans
#6
Elizabeth A Salisbury, Austin R Dickerson, Thomas A Davis, Jonathan A Forsberg, Alan R Davis, Elizabeth A Olmsted-Davis
Heterotopic ossification (HO), the abnormal formation of bone within soft tissues, is a major complication after severe trauma or amputation. Transient brown adipocytes have been shown to be a critical regulator of this process in a mouse model of HO. In this study, we evaluated the presence of brown fat within human HO lesions. Most of the excised tissue samples displayed histological characteristics of bone, fibroproliferative cells, blood vessels, and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed extensive expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a definitive marker of brown adipocytes, within HO-containing tissues but not normal tissues...
July 4, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684864/induction-of-thermogenic-adipocytes-molecular-targets-and-thermogenic-small-molecules
#7
REVIEW
No-Joon Song, Seo-Hyuk Chang, Dean Y Li, Claudio J Villanueva, Kye Won Park
Adipose tissue is a central metabolic organ that controls energy homeostasis of the whole body. White adipose tissue (WAT) stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy in the form of heat through mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1). A newly identified adipose tissue called 'beige fat' (BAT-like) is produced through a process called WAT browning. This tissue mainly resides in WAT depots and displays intermediate characteristics of both WAT and BAT...
July 7, 2017: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684589/imaging-in-metabolic-research-adipose-tissue-and-liver
#8
Jesper Lundbom
Adipose tissue and liver are central tissues in whole body energy metabolism. Their composition, structure and function can be non-invasively imaged using a variety of measurement techniques, which provide a safe alternative to an invasive biopsy. Imaging of adipose tissue is focused on quantitating the distribution of adipose tissue in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue depots. Also detailed subdivisions of adipose tissue can be distinguished with modern imaging techniques. Adipose tissue accumulation or infiltration of other organs can also be imaged...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683287/the-sense-of-smell-impacts-metabolic-health-and-obesity
#9
Celine E Riera, Eva Tsaousidou, Jonathan Halloran, Patricia Follett, Oliver Hahn, Mafalda M A Pereira, Linda Engström Ruud, Jens Alber, Kevin Tharp, Courtney M Anderson, Hella Brönneke, Brigitte Hampel, Carlos Daniel de Magalhaes Filho, Andreas Stahl, Jens C Brüning, Andrew Dillin
Olfactory inputs help coordinate food appreciation and selection, but their role in systemic physiology and energy balance is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that mice upon conditional ablation of mature olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) are resistant to diet-induced obesity accompanied by increased thermogenesis in brown and inguinal fat depots. Acute loss of smell perception after obesity onset not only abrogated further weight gain but also improved fat mass and insulin resistance. Reduced olfactory input stimulates sympathetic nerve activity, resulting in activation of β-adrenergic receptors on white and brown adipocytes to promote lipolysis...
July 5, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673384/testosterone-therapy-of-men-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-study
#10
Line Velling Magnussen
The prevalence of chronic diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are increasing. The usage of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has escalated in the Western countries during the past decades especially in aging men without clear organic indication for TRT although the safety of long-term TRT has not been clarified regarding the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aging men with T2D have an increased risk of CVD and these patients are often characterized by lowered T-levels, ectopic fat depots, a deranged adipokine profile with e...
July 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672737/beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue-as-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-weight-loss-in-humans
#11
REVIEW
Baskaran Thyagarajan, Michelle T Foster
An imbalance between energy intake and expenditure leads to obesity. Adiposity associated with obesity progressively causes inflammation, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease. Excessive dietary intake of fat results in its accumulation and storage in the white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas energy expenditure by fat utilization and oxidation predominately occurs in the brown adipose tissue (BAT). Recently, the presence of a third type of fat, referred to as beige or brite (brown in white), has been recognized in certain kinds of WAT depots...
June 23, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665277/adipose-tissue-morphological-and-biochemical-characteristic-of-different-depots
#12
Eugenia Murawska-Ciałowicz
Adipose tissue is an organ that performs a lot of significant physiological functions, which is why its excess in the body results in pathological states in many of its organs and systems. Adipose tissue is not only a tissue which stores fat and plays a protective role. It is an important endocrine organ where signals sent from different tissues are generated and integrated. Adipose tissue is both morphologically and physiologically differentiated. However, due to their plasticity, adipocytes can undergo a transformation and change their structure and metabolism depending on the physiological state of the organism and the conditions to which it is exposed...
June 8, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664417/epicardial-adipose-tissue-at-the-heart-of-the-obesity-complications
#13
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
In recent years, the anatomic and functional contiguity of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) to myocardium and coronary arteries has gained increasing interest for its potential pathogenetic role in obesity-related cardiac diseases. Besides its known and attributed biochemical cardioprotective properties, it is becoming evident that, in metabolic disease states, EAT-secreted bioactive molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmias. EAT-derived inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxidative species may, indeed, play a part in the development of a local proatherogenic milieu by paracrine and vasocrine mechanisms of interaction...
June 29, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656591/the-relationship-between-adiposity-bone-density-and-microarchitecture-is-maintained-in-young-women-irrespective-of-diabetes-status
#14
N Abdalrahaman, C McComb, J E Foster, R S Lindsay, R Drummond, G A McKay, C G Perry, S Faisal Ahmed
BACKGROUND: The relationship between bone health and adiposity and how it may be affected in people with chronic metabolic conditions is complex. METHODS: 17 women with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and 9 age-matched healthy women with a median age of 22.6 yrs (range, 17.4, 23.8) were studied by 3T-MRI and MR spectroscopy to assess abdominal adiposity, tibial bone microarchitecture and vertebral bone marrow adiposity. Additional measures included DXA-based assessments of total body (TB), femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS) bone mineral density (BMD) and fat mass (FM)...
June 28, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651370/changes-in-visceral-adiposity-subcutaneous-adiposity-and-sex-hormones-in-the-diabetes-prevention-program
#15
Catherine Kim, Dana Dabelea, Rita R Kalyani, Costas A Christophi, George A Bray, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Christine H Darwin, Swaytha Yalamanchi, Elizabeth Barrett-Connor, Sherita Hill Golden, Edward J Boyko
Context: The degree to which changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) relate to corresponding changes in plasma sex steroids is not known. Objective: We examined whether changes in VAT and SAT areas assessed by computed tomography were associated with changes in sex hormones (dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEAS], testosterone, estradiol, estrone, and sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG]) among Diabetes Prevention Program participants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651187/association-of-ectopic-fat-with-abdominal-aorto-illiac-and-coronary-artery-calcification-in-african-ancestry-men
#16
Allison L Kuipers, Joseph M Zmuda, J Jeffrey Carr, James G Terry, Sangeeta Nair, Ryan Cvejkus, Clareann H Bunker, Alan L Patrick, Christina L Wassel, Iva Miljkovic
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is strong evidence that fat accumulating in non-adipose sites, "ectopic fat", is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including vascular calcification. Most previous studies of this association have assessed only a single ectopic fat depot. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of total, regional, and ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac calcification (AAC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 798 African ancestry men. METHODS: Participants (mean age 62) were from the Tobago Bone Health Study cohort...
June 16, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649807/microrna-196-regulates-hox-gene-expression-in-human-gluteal-adipose-tissue
#17
Adeline Divoux, Hui Xie, Jian-Liang Li, Kalypso Karastergiou, Ranjan J Perera, R Jeffrey Chang, Susan K Fried, Steven R Smith
OBJECTIVE: Lower body fat is associated with diminishing cardiometabolic risk. Physiological differences between gluteofemoral and abdominal subcutaneous adipocyte functions are known, but the molecular basis for depot differences in adipocyte function is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify depot differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression in human abdominal and gluteofemoral subcutaneous adipose tissues and their implication in gene regulation. METHODS: Abdominal and gluteofemoral adipose tissue aspirates obtained from 18 participants (9 male and 9 female, age 30 ± 1...
June 25, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649659/inflammation-of-mammary-adipose-tissue-occurs-in-overweight-and-obese-patients-exhibiting-early-stage-breast-cancer
#18
Charlotte Vaysse, Jon Lømo, Øystein Garred, Frøydis Fjeldheim, Trygve Lofteroed, Ellen Schlichting, Anne McTiernan, Hanne Frydenberg, Anders Husøy, Steinar Lundgren, Morten W Fagerland, Elin Richardsen, Erik A Wist, Catherine Muller, Inger Thune
Growing evidence indicates that adiposity is associated with breast cancer risk and negatively affects breast cancer recurrence and survival, a paracrine role of mammary adipose tissue being very likely in this process. In contrast to other adipose depots, occurrence of a sub-inflammatory state of mammary adipose tissue defined by dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages forming crown-like structures in overweight and obese subjects, remains only partially described. In a general population of breast cancer patients (107 patients) mostly undergoing breast-conserving surgery, we found a positive association between patient's body composition, breast adipocytes size, and presence of crown-like structures in mammary adipose tissue close to the tumor...
2017: NPJ Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640452/role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-health-and-disease-a-matter-of-fat
#19
Bénédicte Gaborit, Coralie Sengenes, Patricia Ancel, Alexis Jacquier, Anne Dutour
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a small but very biologically active ectopic fat depot that surrounds the heart. Given its rapid metabolism, thermogenic capacity, unique transcriptome, secretory profile, and simply measurability, epicardial fat has drawn increasing attention among researchers attempting to elucidate its putative role in health and cardiovascular diseases. The cellular crosstalk between epicardial adipocytes and cells of the vascular wall or myocytes is high and suggests a local role for this tissue...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638930/-different-adipose-tissue-depots-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-human
#20
Ran Wang, Xiao-Nan Li
Obesity is characterized by abnormal and excessive adipose tissue accumulated in the body. Compared with peripheral obesity (the accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue), abdominal obesity (the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue) is associated with increased risk of the metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and dyslipidemia. Adipose tissue is a highly heterogeneous endocrine organ. Adipose tissue depots differ significantly in anatomy, cell biology, glucose and lipid metabolism as well as in endocrine regulation...
June 25, 2017: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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