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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800775/lack-of-high-bmi-related-features-in-adipocytes-and-inflammatory-cells-in-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-ifp
#1
Anja J de Jong, Inge R Klein-Wieringa, Stefan N Andersen, Joanneke C Kwekkeboom, Linda Herb-van Toorn, Badelog J E de Lange-Brokaar, Danny van Delft, John Garcia, Wu Wei, Huub J L van der Heide, Yvonne M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Annemarie M Zuurmond, Vedrana Stojanovic-Susulic, Rob G H H Nelissen, René E M Toes, Margreet Kloppenburg, Andreea Ioan-Facsinay
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Although the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) could be involved in this association, due to its intracapsular localization in the knee joint, there is currently little known about the effect of obesity on the IFP. Therefore, we investigated cellular and molecular body mass index (BMI)-related features in the IFP of OA patients. METHODS: Patients with knee OA (N = 155, 68% women, mean age 65 years, mean (SD) BMI 29...
August 11, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796027/heart-fat-in-hiv-marker-or-mediator-of-risk
#2
Jonathan Buggey, Chris T Longenecker
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review aims to summarize the literature describing the clinical impact of cardiac fat depots in patients with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: People living with HIV (PLHIV) have accelerated rates of cardiovascular disease, and are prone to the development of ectopic fat deposition. Specifically, PLHIV have higher volumes of epicardial and intracardiac fat quantified by noninvasive imaging. Higher volumes of epicardial fat may be related to antiretroviral therapy duration and chronic inflammation, independently of other measures of body adiposity such as BMI...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791737/bone-marrow-fat-changes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery-are-associated-with-loss-of-bone-mass
#3
Tiffany Y Kim, Ann V Schwartz, Xiaojuan Li, Kaipin Xu, Dennis M Black, Dimitry M Petrenko, Lygia Stewart, Stanley J Rogers, Andrew M Posselt, Jonathan T Carter, Dolores M Shoback, Anne L Schafer
Bone marrow fat is a unique fat depot that may regulate bone metabolism. Marrow fat is increased in states of low bone mass, severe underweight, and diabetes. However, longitudinal effects of weight loss and improved glucose homeostasis on marrow fat are unclear, as is the relationship between marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) changes. We hypothesized that after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, marrow fat changes are associated with BMD loss. We enrolled 30 obese women, stratified by diabetes status...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763833/deciphering-adipose-tissue-heterogeneity
#4
REVIEW
Matthew D Lynes, Yu-Hua Tseng
Obesity is an excess accumulation of adipose tissue mass, and, together with its sequelae, in particular type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome, obesity presents a major health crisis. Although obesity is simply caused by increased adipose mass, the heterogeneity of adipose tissue in humans means that the response to increased energy balance is highly complex. Individual subjects with similar phenotypes may respond very differently to the same treatments; therefore, obesity may benefit from a personalized precision medicine approach...
August 1, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763398/cardiovascular-fat-in-women-at-midlife-effects-of-race-overall-adiposity-and-central-adiposity-the-swan-cardiovascular-fat-study
#5
Carrie Hanley, Karen A Matthews, Maria M Brooks, Imke Janssen, Matthew J Budoff, Akira Sekikawa, Suresh Mulukutla, Samar R El Khoudary
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular fat (CF) is associated with greater coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Postmenopausal women have greater CF volumes than premenopausal women, and the association between specific CF depot volumes and CHD risk is more pronounced after menopause. Race, central adiposity, and visceral adiposity are important factors that could impact CF volumes. Whether racial differences in CF volumes and in their associations with central (visceral fat [VAT]) and general adiposity (body mass index [BMI]) exist in midlife women have not been addressed before...
July 31, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762561/diet-induced-obesity-causes-visceral-but-not-subcutaneous-lymph-node-hyperplasia-via-increases-in-specific-immune-cell-populations
#6
A M Magnuson, D P Regan, J K Fouts, A D Booth, S W Dow, M T Foster
OBJECTIVES: The spatial proximity of adipose depots to secondary lymph nodes allows a unique relation between the two systems. Obesity, predominately visceral adiposity, links to numerous diseases; hence, we postulate that secondary lymphatics within this region contributes to disease risk. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard CHOW (18% kcal fat) or Western diet (45% kcal fat) for 7 weeks. Visceral and subcutaneous lymph nodes and associated adipose depots they occupy were excised...
August 1, 2017: Cell Proliferation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762019/epicardial-adipose-tissue-as-a-metabolic-transducer-role-in-heart-failure-and-coronary-artery-disease
#7
REVIEW
Vaibhav B Patel, Saumya Shah, Subodh Verma, Gavin Y Oudit
Obesity and diabetes are strongly associated with metabolic and cardiovascular disorders including dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and heart failure. Adipose tissue is identified as a complex endocrine organ, which by exerting a wide array of regulatory functions at the cellular, tissue and systemic levels can have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. Different terms including "epicardial," "pericardial," and "paracardial" have been used to describe adipose tissue deposits surrounding the heart...
July 31, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752055/maternal-obesity-programs-increased-leptin-gene-expression-in-rat-male-offspring-via-epigenetic-modifications-in-a-depot-specific-manner
#8
Simon Lecoutre, Frederik Oger, Charlène Pourpe, Laura Butruille, Lucie Marousez, Anne Dickes-Coopman, Christine Laborie, Céline Guinez, Jean Lesage, Didier Vieau, Claudine Junien, Delphine Eberlé, Anne Gabory, Jérôme Eeckhoute, Christophe Breton
OBJECTIVE: According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, maternal obesity and accelerated growth in neonates predispose offspring to white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation. In rodents, adipogenesis mainly develops during lactation. The mechanisms underlying the phenomenon known as developmental programming remain elusive. We previously reported that adult rat offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams (called HF) exhibited hypertrophic adipocyte, hyperleptinemia and increased leptin mRNA levels in a depot-specific manner...
August 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729298/rapid-decline-in-lung-function-is-temporally-associated-with-greater-metabolically-active-adiposity-in-a-longitudinal-study-of-healthy-adults
#9
Maan Moualla, Clifford Qualls, Alexander Arynchyn, Bharat Thyagarajan, Ravi Kalhan, Lewis J Smith, John J Carr, David R Jacobs, Akshay Sood
RATIONALE: Adiposity is associated with low lung function, but the longitudinal relationship between lung function and adiposity is inadequately studied. OBJECTIVE: To examine the bidirectional longitudinal associations between rapid decline in lung function and adiposity phenotypes in healthy adults. METHODS: This secondary analysis used a 25-year longitudinal dataset from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study that enrolled 5115 participants...
July 20, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728486/relationship-between-neck-circumference-insulin-resistance-and-arterial-stiffness-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects
#10
Francesco Fantin, Gabriele Comellato, Andrea P Rossi, Elisa Grison, Elena Zoico, Gloria Mazzali, Mauro Zamboni
Background Only a few studies have investigated the relationship between neck circumference and cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between neck circumference, waist circumference, metabolic variables and arterial stiffness in a group of overweight and obese subjects evaluating a possible independent role of neck circumference in determining arterial stiffness. Methods and results We studied 95 subjects (53 women) with an age range of 20-77 years and body mass index range from 25...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727106/increasing-dietary-inclusions-of-camelina-cake-fed-to-pigs-from-weaning-to-slaughter-safety-growth-performance-carcass-traits-and-n-3-enrichment-of-pork
#11
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil content not only provides additional dietary energy but may also enrich pork with -3 fatty acids. Limited information is available on feeding camelina cake to pigs relating to feeding safety (toxicity), growth performance, and efficacy of -3 enrichment of pork. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of feeding increasing camelina cake (12.2% crude fat) inclusions in diets for nursery and grower-finisher pigs. In total, 128 pigs (9.2 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 32 nursery pens for 4 wk and were then moved and combined into 16 mixed-sex grower-finisher pens...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727065/effects-of-feeding-camelina-cake-to-weaned-pigs-on-safety-growth-performance-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-pork
#12
M N Smit, E Beltranena
Feeding cake with remaining oil contributes dietary energy (fat) in addition to protein (AA) and may provide an opportunity to enrich the n-3 fatty acid content of pork. Information regarding safety, growth performance, and efficacy of feeding camelina cake to pigs is limited. We therefore evaluated the effects of camelina cake inclusion in pig nursery diets. In total, 192 pigs (9.4 kg BW) were randomly allocated by sex to 48 pens, 2 heavy and 2 light pigs per pen. Pigs were fed 1 of 4 wheat-based diets including camelina cake (0%, 6%, 12%, or 18%; variety Celine) replacing soybean meal for 4 wk...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727044/muscle-lipid-metabolism-in-two-rabbit-lines-divergently-selected-for-intramuscular-fat
#13
M Martínez-Álvaro, S Agha, A Blasco, P Hernández
A divergent selection experiment for intramuscular fat (IMF) of LM at 9 wk of age was performed in rabbits. The objective of this work was to compare the lipid metabolism in muscles and fat tissues of the high-IMF and low-IMF lines. Lipogenic, catabolic, and lipolytic activities were studied in 2 muscles with different oxidative patterns (LM and semimembranosus proprius) and in the perirenal fat depot at 2 ages, 9 and 13 wk. In addition, adipocytes were characterized in perirenal fat. In the fifth generation, direct response to selection was 0...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727031/mammary-nutrient-uptake-in-multiparous-sows-fed-supplementary-arginine-during-gestation-and-lactation
#14
U Krogh, N Oksbjerg, A C Storm, T Feyera, P K Theil
Arginine is the precursor for the synthesis of nitric oxide and may increase mammary plasma flow (MPF), which may in turn increase mammary nutrient uptake. Quantifying mammary nutrient uptake improves our understanding of mammary nutrient metabolism and may potentially allow identification of limiting nutrients for colostrum and milk production. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to study the impact of 25 g/d of crystalline Arg (ARG) on MPF and uptake of nutrients by the mammary glands compared with an isonitrogenous supply of Ala (51 g/d; control [CON]) fed to a total of 8 sows from d 30 of gestation until weaning on d 28 of lactation and 2) to quantify mammary nutrient uptake in late gestation and in early and at peak lactation...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727019/triennial-growth-and-development-symposium-dedifferentiated-fat-cells-potential-and-perspectives-for-their-use-in-clinical-and-animal-science-purpose
#15
M S Duarte, R Bueno, W Silva, C F Campos, M P Gionbelli, S E F Guimarães, F F Silva, P S Lopes, G J Hausman, M V Dodson
An increasing body of evidences has demonstrated the ability of the mature adipocyte to dedifferentiate into a population of proliferative-competent cells known as dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. As early as the 1970s, in vitro studies showed that DFAT cells may be obtained by ceiling culture, which takes advantage of the buoyancy property of lipid-filled cells. It was documented that DFAT cells may acquire a phenotype similar to mesenchymal stem cells and yet may differentiate into multiple cell lineages, such as skeletal and smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727018/evaluation-of-electrical-broad-bandwidth-impedance-spectroscopy-as-a-tool-for-body-composition-measurement-in-cows-in-comparison-with-body-measurements-and-the-deuterium-oxide-dilution-method
#16
C T Schäff, U Pliquett, A Tuchscherer, R Pfuhl, S Görs, C C Metges, H M Hammon, C Kröger-Koch
Body fatness and degree of body fat mobilization in cows vary enormously during their reproduction cycle and influence energy partitioning and metabolic adaptation. The objective of the study was to test bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS) as a method for predicting fat depot mass (FDM), in living cows. The FDM is defined as the sum of subcutaneous, omental, mesenteric, retroperitoneal, and carcass fat mass. Bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy is compared with the prediction of FDM from the deuterium oxide (DO) dilution method and from body conformation measurements...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724799/galantamine-alleviates-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-in-a-randomized-trial
#17
Fernanda M Consolim-Colombo, Carine T Sangaleti, Fernando O Costa, Tercio L Morais, Heno F Lopes, Josiane M Motta, Maria C Irigoyen, Luiz A Bortoloto, Carlos Eduardo Rochitte, Yael Tobi Harris, Sanjaya K Satapathy, Peder S Olofsson, Meredith Akerman, Sangeeta S Chavan, Meggan MacKay, Douglas P Barnaby, Martin L Lesser, Jesse Roth, Kevin J Tracey, Valentin A Pavlov
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an obesity-driven condition of pandemic proportions that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Pathophysiological mechanisms are poorly understood, though inflammation has been implicated in MetS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of galantamine, a centrally acting acetylcholinesterase inhibitor with antiinflammatory properties, on markers of inflammation implicated in insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk, and other metabolic and cardiovascular indices in subjects with MetS...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723888/association-between-supraclavicular-brown-adipose-tissue-composition-at-birth-and-adiposity-gain-from-birth-to-6-months-age
#18
Sonja Entringer, Jerod Rasmussen, Dan M Cooper, Satoru Ikenoue, Feizal Waffarn, Steven G Potkin, Pathik D Wadhwa, Claudia Buss
BACKGROUND: Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) is associated with higher energy expenditure and lower adiposity in adults. However, the relationship between BAT composition and adiposity in early life is unknown. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that brown fat composition at birth is prospectively associated with adiposity gain during the first six months of postnatal life. METHODS: N=35 healthy infants were followed prospectively from intrauterine life and birth through 6 months age...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721155/clinical-importance-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue
#19
Eszter Nagy, Adam L Jermendy, Bela Merkely, Pal Maurovich-Horvat
Different visceral fat compartments have several systemic effects and may play a role in the development of both insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases. In the last couple of years special attention has been paid to the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), which can be quantified by non-invasive cardiac imaging techniques. The epicardial fat is a unique fat compartment between the myocardium and the visceral pericardium sharing a common embryologic origin with the visceral fat depot. Epicardial adipose tissue has several specific roles, and its local effects on cardiac function are incorporated in the complex pathomechanism of coronary artery disease...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719363/vitamin-d-metabolism-in-human-adipose-tissue-could-it-explain-low-vitamin-d-status-in-obesity
#20
Adryana Cordeiro, Alejandro Santos, Miguel Bernardes, Andrea Ramalho, Maria João Martins
Obesity and a low vitamin D (VD) status, as well as a positive association between them, are prevalent worldwide. Additionally, a low VD status has been positively correlated with metabolic dysfunction (although not so convincingly as for obesity). The VD receptor (VDR) mediates VD biological actions in adipose tissue (AT), where VD can be activated or inactivated/degraded through specific hydroxylation steps. Additionally, AT can also store and release VD when needed. A lower VD activation/VD inactivation ratio and an impaired VDR signaling in AT could contribute to metabolic dysfunction besides the aforementioned association between obesity and VD status...
July 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
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