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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789429/brown-adipose-tissue-development-and-function-and-its-impact-on-reproduction
#1
M E Symonds, Peter Aldiss, Neele Dellschaft, James Law, Hernan Fainberg, Mark Pope, Harold Sacks, Helen Budge
Although brown adipose tissue (BAT) is one of the smallest organs in the body, it has the potential to have a substantial impact on both heat production as well as fat and carbohydrate metabolism. This is most apparent at birth which is characterised with the rapid appearance and activation of the BAT specific mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP)1 in many large mammals. The amount of brown fat then gradually declines with age, an adaptation that can be modulated by the thermal environment. Given the increased incidence of maternal obesity and its potential transmission to the mother's offspring, increasing BAT activity in the mother could be one mechanism to prevent this cycle...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787512/browning-of-human-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-after-its-transplantation-in-nude-mice
#2
Lihong Qiu, Zhaoxiang Zhang, Hui Zheng, Shaoheng Xiong, Yingjun Su, Xianjie Ma, Chenggang Yi
BACKGROUND: The clinical unpredictability of autologous fat grafting originates partially from the unique characteristics of adipose tissue. Evidences of adipose remodeling toward browning (developing of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue) in response to trauma are emerging. With regard to fat grafting surgery procedure by which adipose tissue depots are directly and ubiquitously traumatized, whether it affect adipose phenotype change toward browning has not been previously reported...
May 16, 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773163/epicardial-adipose-tissue-may-mediate-deleterious-effects-of-obesity-and-inflammation-on-the-myocardium
#3
REVIEW
Milton Packer
Epicardial adipose tissue has unique properties that distinguish it from other depots of visceral fat. Rather than having distinct boundaries, the epicardium shares an unobstructed microcirculation with the underlying myocardium, and in healthy conditions, produces cytokines that nourish the heart. However, in chronic inflammatory disorders (especially those leading to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction), the epicardium becomes a site of deranged adipogenesis, leading to the secretion of proinflammatory adipokines that can cause atrial and ventricular fibrosis...
May 22, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769528/a-joint-view-on-genetic-variants-for-adiposity-differentiates-subtypes-with-distinct-metabolic-implications
#4
Thomas W Winkler, Felix Günther, Simon Höllerer, Martina Zimmermann, Ruth Jf Loos, Zoltán Kutalik, Iris M Heid
The problem of the genetics of related phenotypes is often addressed by analyzing adjusted-model traits, but such traits warrant cautious interpretation. Here, we adopt a joint view of adiposity traits in ~322,154 subjects (GIANT consortium). We classify 159 signals associated with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), or WHR adjusted for BMI (WHRadjBMI) at P < 5 × 10-8 , into four classes based on the direction of their effects on BMI and WHR. Our classes help differentiate adiposity genetics with respect to anthropometry, fat depots, and metabolic health...
May 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764718/metabolic-syndrome-associates-with-left-atrial-dysfunction
#5
K Nyman, M Granér, M O Pentikäinen, J Lundbom, A Hakkarainen, R Sirén, M S Nieminen, M-R Taskinen, N Lundbom, K Lauerma
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are risk factors of atrial fibrillation (AF), but limited data exist on their effect on left atrial (LA) function. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of cardiac, hepatic and intra-abdominal ectopic fat depots and cardiometabolic risk factors on LA function in non-diabetic male subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial and hepatic triglyceride contents were measured with 1.5T 1 H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy and LA and left ventricular function, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), epicardial and pericardial fat by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 33 men with MetS and 40 men without MetS...
February 21, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760682/daily-gene-expression-rhythms-in-rat-white-adipose-tissue-do-not-differ-between-subcutaneous-and-intra-abdominal-depots
#6
Rianne van der Spek, Eric Fliers, Susanne E la Fleur, Andries Kalsbeek
White adipose tissue (WAT) is present in different depots throughout the body. Although all depots are exposed to systemic humoral signals, they are not functionally identical. Studies in clock gene knockout animals and in shift workers suggest that daily rhythmicity may play an important role in lipid metabolism. Differences in rhythmicity between fat depots might explain differences in depot function; therefore, we measured mRNA expression of clock genes and metabolic genes on a 3-h interval over a 24-h period in the subcutaneous inguinal depot and in the intra-abdominal perirenal, epididymal, and mesenteric depots of male Wistar rats...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757434/hdac3-selective-inhibition-activates-brown-and-beige-fat-through-prdm16
#7
Jiling Liao, Juan Jiang, Heejin Jun, Xiaona Qiao, Margo P Emont, Dong-Il Kim, Jun Wu
It has been reported that class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition increases thermogenesis in fat, but adipocyte specific Hdac3 deletions have presented inconsistent results. In this study, we observed that HDAC3 protein levels were lower in brown fat compared to that of inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue, and were decreased in both fat depots upon cold exposure. PRDM16 physically interacted with HDAC3, and treatment with HDAC3-selective inhibitor RGFP966 induced thermogenic gene expression in murine and human fat cultures...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757365/multifaceted-roles-of-beige-fat-in-energy-homeostasis-beyond-ucp1
#8
Carlos Henrique Sponton, Shingo Kajimura
Beige adipocytes are an inducible form of thermogenic adipose cells that emerge within the white adipose tissue in response to a variety of environmental stimuli, such as chronic cold acclimation. Similar to brown adipocytes that reside in brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, beige adipocytes are also thermogenic; however beige adipocytes possess unique, distinguishing characteristics in their developmental regulation and biological function. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of beige adipocytes, focusing on the diverse roles of beige fat in the regulation of energy homeostasis that are independent of the canonical thermogenic pathway via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)...
May 10, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757253/association-of-cardiovascular-health-with-epicardial-adipose-tissue-and-intima-media-thickness-the-kardiovize-study
#9
Jana Hruskova, Andrea Maugeri, Helena Podroužková, Tatiana Štípalová, Juraj Jakubík, Martina Barchitta, Jose R Medina-Inojosa, Martin Homolka, Antonella Agodi, Sarka Kunzova, Ondrej Sochor, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Manlio Vinciguerra
Background: Intima-media thickness (IMT) has been proposed as a measurement of subclinical atherosclerosis and has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) is a fat depot between the pericardium and myocardium and has been associated with coronary atherosclerosis. The relationship between IMT and EAT thickness has not been reported before. We investigated the relationship between EAT thickness, IMT, CVD risk factors, and ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics using subjects from the Kardiovize Brno 2030 cohort study, a random urban sample population in Central Europe...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753771/mir-199a-3p-regulates-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-through-mtor-signaling-pathway
#10
Yao Gao, Yan Cao, Xianwei Cui, Xingyun Wang, Yahui Zhou, Fangyan Huang, Xing Wang, Juan Wen, Kaipeng Xie, Pengfei Xu, Xirong Guo, Lianghui You, Chenbo Ji
Recent discoveries of functional brown adipocytes in mammals illuminates their therapeutic potential for combating obesity and its associated diseases. However, on account of the limited amount and activity in adult humans of brown adipocyte depots, identification of miRNAs and characterization their regulatory roles in human brown adipogenesis are urgently needed. This study focused on the role of microRNA (miR)-199a-3p in human brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic capacity. A decreased expression pattern of miR-199a-3p was consistently observed during the differentiation course of brown adipocytes in mice and humans...
May 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748651/advances-in-assessing-body-composition-during-pregnancy
#11
REVIEW
Jasper Most, Kara Lynn Marlatt, Abby Duhé Altazan, Leanne Maree Redman
The prevalence of excess gestational weight gain is increasing worldwide and is associated with pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes mellitus, pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, macrosomia, and development of obesity in offspring. Whereas gestational weight gain positively correlates with the gain in fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) gain is relatively consistent across pregnancies. Commonly used methods to assess body composition include anthropometry, densitometry (air displacement plethysmography, underwater weighing), and hydrometry (isotope dilution, bioimpedance analysis)...
May 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747087/hdl-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-and-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-are-associated-with-body-mass-but-are-not-changed-by-diet-induced-weight-loss-a-randomized-trial-in-abdominally-obese-men
#12
Charlotte P J Talbot, Jogchum Plat, Peter J Joris, Maurice Konings, Yvo H A M Kusters, Casper G Schalkwijk, Andreas Ritsch, Ronald P Mensink
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is associated with a lower HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages and a higher CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) activity, but effects of weight loss are not clear. In addition, associations with visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue are not known. We therefore investigated effects of diet-induced weight loss on HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux and cholesterol ester (CE) transfer in abdominally obese men. Differences between normal-weight and abdominally obese men were also examined...
April 28, 2018: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746487/loss-of-malat1-does-not-modify-age-or-diet-induced-adipose-tissue-accretion-and-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#13
Sophie Carter, Stéphanie Miard, Louise Boivin, Sandrine Sallé-Lefort, Frédéric Picard
Several studies have suggested that signals emerging from white adipose tissue can contribute to the control of longevity. In turn, aging is associated with perturbed regulation and partitioning of fat depots and insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanisms involved in these relationships remain undetermined. Using RAP-PCR on adipose tissue of young and old male mice coupled with qPCR validation, we have uncovered the long non-coding RNA Malat1 as a gene robustly downregulated in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT) during normal aging in male mice and men...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745794/visceral-adipose-tissue-tracks-more-closely-with-metabolic-dysfunction-than-intrahepatic-triglyceride-in-non-diabetic-lean-asians
#14
Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, Yu Chung Chooi, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, S Sendhil Velan, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Faidon Magkos
BACKGROUND: Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in obese subjects. The relative contribution of these ectopic fat depots to cardiometabolic risk differs between populations, depends on the degree of obesity and the level of cardiorespiratory fitness, and is difficult to dissect because VAT and IHTG typically co-vary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an isolated increase in VAT or IHTG on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in apparently healthy normal-weight Asian subjects...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739312/transcriptome-analysis-of-adipose-tissues-from-two-fat-tailed-sheep-breeds-reveals-key-genes-involved-in-fat-deposition
#15
Baojun Li, Liying Qiao, Lixia An, Weiwei Wang, Jianhua Liu, Youshe Ren, Yangyang Pan, Jiongjie Jing, Wenzhong Liu
BACKGROUND: The level of fat deposition in carcass is a crucial factor influencing meat quality. Guangling Large-Tailed (GLT) and Small-Tailed Han (STH) sheep are important local Chinese fat-tailed breeds that show distinct patterns of fat depots. To gain a better understanding of fat deposition, transcriptome profiles were determined by RNA-sequencing of perirenal, subcutaneous, and tail fat tissues from both the sheep breeds. The common highly expressed genes (co-genes) in all the six tissues, and the genes that were differentially expressed (DE genes) between these two breeds in the corresponding tissues were analyzed...
May 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730658/differential-patterns-of-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-4-sfrp4-in-adipocyte-differentiation-adipose-depot-specificity
#16
Hua Guan, Yali Zhang, Shoucui Gao, Liang Bai, Sihai Zhao, Xian Wu Cheng, Jianglin Fan, Enqi Liu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) is a member of the SFRP family that acts as soluble modulators of Wnt signaling. Given the substantial rise in obesity, depot-specific fat accumulation and its associated diseases like diabetes, it is important to understand the molecular basis of depot-specific adipocyte differentiation. In the current study, we investigated the expression of SFRP4 in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in terms of their differentiation...
April 28, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719132/abdominal-subcutaneous-fat-a-favorable-or-nonfunctional-fat-depot-for-glucose-metabolism-in-chinese-adults
#17
Xuhong Hou, Peizhu Chen, Gang Hu, Li Wei, Lei Jiao, Hongmei Wang, Yebei Liang, Yuqian Bao, Weiping Jia
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the associations of abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue with blood glucose and beta-cell function. METHODS: In this study, 11,223 participants without known diabetes were selected for this cross-sectional analysis. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area (VFA and SFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. An oral glucose tolerance test was conducted, and beta-cell function was evaluated. RESULTS: Men had significantly larger VFA but smaller SFA than women...
May 2, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706368/accumulation-of-pbdes-in-stranded-harp-pagophilus-groenlandicus-and-hooded-seals-cystophora-cristata-from-the-northeastern-united-states
#18
Brianne K Soulen, Barney J Venables, David W Johnston, Aaron P Roberts
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are highly lipophilic components of brominated flame retardants that are environmentally persistent and bioaccumulate. PBDEs are taken up from the gastrointestinal tract and accumulate mainly in fat depots and liver tissues. Seal species inhabiting Arctic and sub-Arctic regions can have upwards of 30% of their body mass composed of blubber. When those blubber stores are mobilized for energy, stored toxicants are also released into circulation. Most studies reporting accumulation of PBDEs in seals have focused on harbor and grey seals with few examining harp and hooded seals...
April 22, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704560/identification-of-an-optimal-threshold-for-detecting-human-brown-adipose-tissue-using-receiver-operating-characteristic-analysis-of-ideal-mri-fat-fraction-maps
#19
Terence A Jones, Sarah C Wayte, Narendra L Reddy, Oludolapo Adesanya, George K Dimitriadis, Thomas M Barber, Charles E Hutchinson
PURPOSE: Lower fat fraction (FF) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) than white adipose tissue (WAT) has been exploited using Dixon-based Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to differentiate these tissues in rodents, human infants and adults. We aimed to determine whether an optimal FF threshold could be determined to differentiate between BAT and WAT in adult humans in vivo. METHODS: Sixteen volunteers were recruited (9 females, 7 males; 44.2 ± 19.2 years) based on BAT uptake on 18 F-FDG PET/CT...
April 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703782/adipose-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-studies-from-large-animals
#20
REVIEW
John-Paul Fuller-Jackson, Belinda A Henry
The balance between energy intake and energy expenditure establishes and preserves a 'set-point' body weight. The latter is comprised of three major components including metabolic rate, physical activity and thermogenesis. Thermogenesis is defined as the cellular dissipation of energy via heat production. This process has been extensively characterised in brown adipose tissue (BAT), wherein uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) creates a proton leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, diverting protons away from ATP synthesis and resulting in heat dissipation...
June 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
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