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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353420/properties-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-isolated-from-onsite-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-relation-to-biofilm-formation
#1
Łukasz Jałowiecki, Joanna Żur, Joanna Chojniak, Helene Ejhed, Grażyna Płaza
The aim of the present study was to determine some properties of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains isolated from onsite wastewater technology in relation to biofilm formation, e.g., autoaggregation and motility. Additionally, biosurfactant production by the isolates was also evaluated. The ability of selected strains to develop a biofilm was assessed by using the crystal violet method, which allows to indirectly quantify the attached bacterial biomass (live, dead cells, and polysaccharides as well). Obtained results showed that 19 of the analyzed strains were able to produce biofilm after 72 h of incubation...
January 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353140/development-of-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-semen-vitrification-protocols
#2
Loredana Zilli, Annalisa Bianchi, Maroua Sabbah, Laura Pecoraro, Roberta Schiavone, Sebastiano Vilella
The long-term goal of this research project is to set up efficient protocol that can be used to develop a standardized approach for vitrification of marine fish spermatozoa. In particular, the aim of the present study was to develop a vitrification protocol for sea bream (Sparus aurata) spermatozoa. To draw up the protocol, we tested two different dilution media (1% NaCl and Mounib medium), three different vitrification devices (loops, drops and cut straws), different cryoprotectants (CPs) and three different equilibration times (30, 60 and 120 s)...
January 11, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352980/effect-of-two-cooling-protocols-on-the-post-thaw-characteristics-of-iberian-ibex-sperms
#3
Milagros C Esteso, Adolfo Toledano-Díaz, Cristina Castaño, Jorgea Pradiee, Antonio Lopez-Sebastián, Julián Santiago-Moreno
The rate at which lethal intracellular ice forms during sperm cryopreservation is highly dependent on the cooling protocol. The present work compares two cooling protocols for use with Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) sperm by assessing the effects on the motility, viability, and size of frozen-thawed sperm cells. Ejaculates, obtained from six adult ibex males via transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands plus electroejaculation if necessary, were cooled via either 1) Protocol 1 (decelerating cooling), involving cooling in liquid nitrogen vapor from 5 °C to -35 °C (40 °C/min), from -35 °C to -65 °C (17 °C/min), and then from -65 °C to -85 °C (3 °C/min); or 2) Protocol 2 (accelerating cooling) involving cooling in a biological freezer from 5 °C to -5 °C (4 °C/min), from -5 °C to -110 °C (25 °C/min), and then from -110 °C to -140 °C (35 °C/min)...
January 15, 2018: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352487/disaccharide-combinations-and-the-expression-of-enolase3-and-plasma-membrane-ca2-atpase-isoform-in-sturgeon-sperm-cryopreservation
#4
M D Xi, P Li, H Du, X M Qiao, Z G Liu, Q W Wei
Acipenser sinensis and Acipenser dabryanus are critically endangered species, so germplasm conservation via cryopreservation of sperm is necessary. Disaccharides can act as membrane-impermeable cryoprotectants, and enolase3 (ENO3) and plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform (PMCA2) are proteins associated with sperm quality. We considered seven characteristics of sperm quality in cultured brood stock from A. sinensis and A. dabryanus. We tested use of sucrose or trehalose alone and in combination at different concentrations for cryopreservation of A...
January 19, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351996/altered-chemomechanical-coupling-causes-impaired-motility-of-the-kinesin-4-motors-kif27-and-kif7
#5
Yang Yue, T Lynne Blasius, Stephanie Zhang, Shashank Jariwala, Benjamin Walker, Barry J Grant, Jared C Cochran, Kristen J Verhey
Kinesin-4 motors play important roles in cell division, microtubule organization, and signaling. Understanding how motors perform their functions requires an understanding of their mechanochemical and motility properties. We demonstrate that KIF27 can influence microtubule dynamics, suggesting a conserved function in microtubule organization across the kinesin-4 family. However, kinesin-4 motors display dramatically different motility characteristics: KIF4 and KIF21 motors are fast and processive, KIF7 and its Drosophila melanogaster homologue Costal2 (Cos2) are immotile, and KIF27 is slow and processive...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351417/zinc-regulates-vascular-endothelial-activities-through-zinc-sensing-receptor-znr-gpr39
#6
Donghui Zhu, Yingchao Su, Yufeng Zheng, Bingmei M Fu, Liping Tang, Yi-Xian Qin
Zn2+ is an essential element for cell survival/growth, and its deficiency is linked to many disorders. Extracellular Zn2+ concentration changes participate in modulating fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation, secretion, ion transport, and cell signal transduction in a mechanism that is not well understood. Here, we hypothesize that the Zn-sensing receptor ZnR/GPR39, found in tissues where dynamic Zn2+ homeostasis takes place, enables extracellular Zn2+ to trigger intracellular signaling pathways regulating key cell functions in vascular cells...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351396/mechanisms-of-repetitive-retrograde-contractions-in-response-to-sustained-esophageal-distension-a-study-evaluating-patients-with-post-fundoplication-dysphagia
#7
Dustin A Carlson, Peter J Kahrilas, Katherine Ritter, Zhiyue Lin, John E Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: Repetitive, retrograde contractions (RRCs) in response to sustained esophageal distension are a distinct contractility pattern observed with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry that are common in type III (spastic) achalasia. RRCs are hypothesized to be indicative of either impaired inhibitory innervation or esophageal outflow obstruction. We aimed to apply FLIP panometry to patients with post-fundoplication dysphagia (a model of esophageal obstruction) to explore mechanisms behind RRCs...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351390/vagally-mediated-gastric-effects-of-brainstem-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-activation-in-stressed-rats
#8
Yanyan Jiang, Kirsteen N Browning, Luca Toti, R Alberto Travagli
Chronic stress exerts vagally-dependent effects to disrupt gastric motility; previous studies have shown that, among other nuclei, A2 neurons are involved in mediating these effects. Several studies have also shown robust in vitro and in vivo effects of α2 adrenoceptor agonists on vagal motoneurons. We have demonstrated previously that brainstem vagal neurocircuits undergo remodeling following acute stress, however, the effects following brief periods of chronic stress have not been investigated. Our aim, therefore, was to test the hypothesis that different types of chronic stress influence gastric tone and motility by inducing plasticity in the response of vagal neurocircuits to α2 adrenoreceptor agonists...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351336/chemotactic-drift-speed-for-bacterial-motility-pattern-with-two-alternating-turning-events
#9
Evgeniya V Pankratova, Alena I Kalyakulina, Mikhail I Krivonosov, Sergei V Denisov, Katja M Taute, Vasily Yu Zaburdaev
Bacterial chemotaxis is one of the most extensively studied adaptive responses in cells. Many bacteria are able to bias their apparently random motion to produce a drift in the direction of the increasing chemoattractant concentration. It has been recognized that the particular motility pattern employed by moving bacteria has a direct impact on the efficiency of chemotaxis. The linear theory of chemotaxis pioneered by de Gennes allows for calculation of the drift velocity in small gradients for bacteria with basic motility patterns...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350491/reproductive-toxic-impact-of-subchronic-treatment-with-combined-butylparaben-and-triclosan-in-weanling-male-rats
#10
Madeha A Riad, Marwa M Abd-Rabo, Samy A Abd El Aziz, Adel M El Behairy, Mohamed M Badawy
The effect of treatment with combined butylparaben and triclosan on male gonadal toxicity in weanling rats was investigated. All treated groups experienced atrophy in the ventral prostate and seminal vesicle, likewise significant depletion in the number and motility of sperm. Given individually or combined butylparaben and triclosan, significantly decreased testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Individual treatment with tested compounds caused significant elevation in the E2 level, whereas combined treatment did not alter the E2 level...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350445/application-of-computer-aided-sperm-analysis-casa-for-detecting-sperm-immobilizing-antibody
#11
Yu Wakimoto, Atsushi Fukui, Teruhito Kojima, Akiko Hasegawa, Minoru Shigeta, Hiroaki Shibahara
PROBLEM: Since the 1970s, anti-sperm antibodies have been studied as a pathogenic factor contributing to infertility. The complement-dependent sperm-immobilization test (SIT) and quantitative SIT have been used as effective tools for detecting anti-sperm antibodies in clinical settings. These tests have been carried out traditionally by manually counting the number of motile sperm through eye estimation. METHOD OF STUDY: In this study, we developed a novel method using computer-aided sperm analysis...
January 19, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350245/chitinophaga-caseinilytica-sp-nov-a-casein-hydrolysing-bacterium-isolated-from-forest-soil
#12
Ram Hari Dahal, Jaisoo Kim
A novel casein hydrolysing bacterium designated strain S-52T was isolated from Kyonggi University forest soil. Cells were strictly aerobic, Gram stain-negative, oxidase- and catalase- positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, and golden-yellow-pigmented. Strain S-52T hydrolysed casein. It was able to grow at 20-37 °C (optimum 25-32 °C), pH 6.5-11.0 (optimum 7-9.5), and at 3% (w/v) NaCl concentration. Strain exhibits flexirubin-type pigments. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain S-52T formed a lineage within the genus Chitinophaga that was distinct from other species of the genus...
January 19, 2018: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349896/treatment-with-low-doses-of-aspirin-during-chronic-phase-of-experimental-chagas-disease-increases-oesophageal-nitrergic-neuronal-subpopulation-in-mice
#13
Cristina Lorena Massocatto, Neide Martins Moreira, Eliane Muniz, Silvana Marques de Araújo, Phileno Pinge-Filho, Robson Marcelo Rossi, Eduardo José de Almeida Araújo, Débora de Mello Gonçales Sant'ana
Patients with Chagas' disease may develop dysfunctions of oesophageal and colonic motility resulting from the degeneration or loss of the myenteric neurons of the enteric nervous system. Studies have shown that the use of aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), influences the pathogenesis of the disease. However, this remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of treatment with low doses of aspirin during the chronic phase of Chagas' disease on oesophageal function...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349565/description-of-alteromonas-abrolhosensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-sea-water-of-abrolhos-bank-brazil
#14
Maria S Nóbrega, Bruno S Silva, Luciana Leomil, Diogo Antonio Tschoeke, Mariana E Campeão, Gizele D Garcia, Graciela A Dias, Verônica V Vieira, Cristiane C Thompson, Fabiano L Thompson
Two Gram-negative, motile, aerobic bacteria isolated from waters of the Abrolhos Bank were classified through a whole genome-based taxonomy. Strains PEL67ET and PEL68C shared 99% 16S rRNA and dnaK sequence identity with Alteromonas marina SW-47T and Alteromonas macleodii ATCC 27126T. In silico DNA-DNA Hybridization, i.e. genome-to-genome distance (GGD), average amino acid identity (AAI) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) showed that PEL67ET and PEL68C had identity values between 33-36, 86-88 and 83-84%, and 85-86 and 83%, respectively, towards their close neighbors A...
January 18, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349482/-esophageal-diverticula-excluding-cricopharyngeal-diverticula
#15
C A Gutschow, H Schmidt
Diverticula of the middle and lower third of the esophagus are commonly associated with esophageal motility disorders. The increase of intraluminal pressure leads to an outpouching of the mucosal and submucosal layers through the esophageal muscle coat. These pouches are also called false diverticula, because they only consist of the mucosal and submucosal esophageal layers. In contrast, the more rarely encountered true diverticula that retain the complete esophageal wall are generally associated with periesophageal granulomatous lymph node disease...
January 18, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348580/the-epibiotic-life-of-the-cosmopolitan-diatom-fragilariopsis-doliolus-on-heterotrophic-ciliates-in-the-open-ocean
#16
Flora J Vincent, Sébastien Colin, Sarah Romac, Eleonora Scalco, Lucie Bittner, Yonara Garcia, Rubens M Lopes, John R Dolan, Adriana Zingone, Colomban de Vargas, Chris Bowler
Diatoms are a diverse and ecologically important group of phytoplankton. Although most species are considered free living, several are known to interact with other organisms within the plankton. Detailed imaging and molecular characterization of any such partnership is, however, limited, and an appraisal of the large-scale distribution and ecology of such consortia was never attempted. Here, observation of Tara Oceans samples from the Benguela Current led to the detection of an epibiotic association between a pennate diatom and a tintinnid ciliate...
January 18, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348417/identification-of-a-membrane-less-compartment-regulating-invadosome-function-and-motility
#17
Kristyna Sala, Andrea Raimondi, Diletta Tonoli, Carlo Tacchetti, Ivan de Curtis
Depletion of liprin-α1, ERC1 or LL5 scaffolds inhibits extracellular matrix degradation by invasive cells. These proteins co-accumulate near invadosomes in NIH-Src cells, identifying a novel invadosome-associated compartment distinct from the core and adhesion ring of invadosomes. Depletion of either protein perturbs the organization of invadosomes without influencing the recruitment of MT1-MMP metalloprotease. Liprin-α1 is not required for de novo formation of invadosomes after their disassembly by microtubules and Src inhibitors, while its depletion inhibits invadosome motility, thus affecting matrix degradation...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348145/fbxl13-directs-the-proteolysis-of-cep192-to-regulate-centrosome-homeostasis-and-cell-migration
#18
Ella Fung, Carmen Richter, Hong-Bin Yang, Isabell Schäffer, Roman Fischer, Benedikt M Kessler, Florian Bassermann, Vincenzo D'Angiolella
Aberrant centrosome organisation with ensuing alterations of microtubule nucleation capacity enables tumour cells to proliferate and invade despite increased genomic instability. CEP192 is a key factor in the initiation process of centrosome duplication and in the control of centrosome microtubule nucleation. However, regulatory means of CEP192 have remained unknown. Here, we report that FBXL13, a binding determinant of SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box)-family E3 ubiquitin ligases, is enriched at centrosomes and interacts with the centrosomal proteins Centrin-2, Centrin-3, CEP152 and CEP192...
January 18, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347785/discontinuous-fluidization-transition-in-time-correlated-assemblies-of-actively-deforming-particles
#19
Elsen Tjhung, Ludovic Berthier
Tracking experiments in dense biological tissues reveal a diversity of sources for local energy injection at the cell scale. The effect of cell motility has been largely studied, but much less is known about the effect of the observed volume fluctuations of individual cells. We consider a microscopic model of "actively deforming" particles where local fluctuations of the particle size constitute a unique source of motion. We demonstrate that collective motion can emerge under the sole influence of such active volume fluctuations...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347735/spreading-of-nonmotile-bacteria-on-a-hard-agar-plate-comparison-between-agent-based-and-stochastic-simulations
#20
Navdeep Rana, Pushpita Ghosh, Prasad Perlekar
We study spreading of a nonmotile bacteria colony on a hard agar plate by using agent-based and continuum models. We show that the spreading dynamics depends on the initial nutrient concentration, the motility, and the inherent demographic noise. Population fluctuations are inherent in an agent-based model, whereas for the continuum model we model them by using a stochastic Langevin equation. We show that the intrinsic population fluctuations coupled with nonlinear diffusivity lead to a transition from a diffusion limited aggregation type of morphology to an Eden-like morphology on decreasing the initial nutrient concentration...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
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