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G H Callejas, R L Figueira, F L L Gonçalves, F A P Volpe, A W Zuardi, J A Crippa, J E Hallak, L Sbragia
Gastroschisis (GS) is an abdominal wall defect that results in histological and morphological changes leading to intestinal motility perturbation and impaired absorption of nutrients. Due to its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective effects, cannabidiol (CBD) has been used as a therapeutic agent in many diseases. Our aim was to test the effect of maternal CBD in the intestine of an experimental model of GS. Pregnant rats were treated over 3 days with CBD (30 mg/kg) after the surgical induction of GS (day 18...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Hannah Brooks, Grant E Haines, M Carly Lin, S Laurie Sanderson
Vortical cross-step filtration in suspension-feeding fish has been reported recently as a novel mechanism, distinct from other biological and industrial filtration processes. Although crossflow passing over backward-facing steps generates vortices that can suspend, concentrate, and transport particles, the morphological factors affecting this vortical flow have not been identified previously. In our 3D-printed models of the oral cavity for ram suspension-feeding fish, the angle of the backward-facing step with respect to the model's dorsal midline affected vortex parameters significantly, including rotational, tangential, and axial speed...
2018: PloS One
Jacinta C Conrad, Ryan Poling-Skutvik
Bacteria overwhelmingly live in geometrically confined habitats that feature small pores or cavities, narrow channels, or nearby interfaces. Fluid flows through these confined habitats are ubiquitous in both natural and artificial environments colonized by bacteria. Moreover, these flows occur on timeand length scales comparable to those associated with motility of bacteria and with the formation and growth of biofilms, which are surface-associated communities that house the vast majority of bacteria and protect them from host and environmental stresses...
March 21, 2018: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Aiessa Fedrigo, Thelma L Skare, André Luiz Bortoluzzi, Renato Nisihara
OBJECTIVES: The majority of scleroderma (SSc) patients present gastrointestinal involvement. Motility is usually compromised but few studies address permeability changes in the intestinal wall. ASCA (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies) positivity is associated with increased intestinal permeability. In this study we aimed to investigate ASCA positivity in SSc patients and its association with clinical, serological and epidemiological data. METHODS: Seventy-four SSc patients and 57 healthy controls were studied for ASCA (IgG and IgA) positivity by ELISA...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Avinash Sharma, Kunal Jani, Guang-Da Feng, Prachi Karodi, Venkata Ramana Vemuluri, Hong-Hui Zhu, Sisinthy Shivaji, Vishal Thite, Swapnil Kajale, Praveen Rahi, Yogesh Shouche
A Gram-stain-negative, yellowish-orange pigmented, rod-shaped, motile bacterium, designated strain ARC111T , was isolated from sediment of Arctic permafrost at Midtre Lovénbreen glacier, Svalbard. 16S rRNA gene based identification of strain ARC111T demonstrated highest sequence similarities to Subsaxibacter broadyi P7T (97.8 %) and Subsaxibacter arcticus JCM30334T (97.5 %) and ≤95.2 % with all other members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the distinct positioning of strain ARC111T within the genus Subsaxibacter...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Hojun Sung, Hyun Sik Kim, June-Young Lee, Woorim Kang, Pil Soo Kim, Dong-Wook Hyun, Euon Jung Tak, Mi-Ja Jung, Ji-Hyun Yun, Min-Soo Kim, Na-Ri Shin, Tae Woong Whon, Jeong Rae Rho, Sun Duk Park, Hyung Eun Shim, Jin-Woo Bae
A Gram-stain-positive, facultatively aerobic, spore-forming, oxidase-positive, catalase- and DNase-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, AR23208T , was isolated from the gut of a cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus), collected at Seoul Grand Park Zoo (Republic of Korea). Strain AR23208T grew optimally at 25-30 °C, at pH 7 and in the absence of NaCl. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strain AR23208T shared 98.2 and 97.1 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Tumebacillus algifaecis THMBR28T and Tumebacilluslipolyticus NIO-S10T , respectively...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Qian Wang, Yali Song, Lina Choi, Hongyu Liu, Gejiao Wang, Mingshun Li
A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, rod-shaped, red-pigmented strain, designated W37T , was isolated from soil near an iron factory in Busan (Republic of Korea). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain W37T was most closely related to Deinococcus yunweiensis YIM 007T (98.3 %) and Deinococcus radioresistens 8AT (96.3 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness between strain W37T and D. yunweiensis YIM 007T was 50.5 %. The predominant respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major polar lipids were an unidentified phosphoglycolipid, an unidentified aminophospholipid, four unidentified glycolipids, two unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Can Chen, Nusratgul Anwar, Chen Wu, Geyi Fu, Ruijun Wang, Choangya Zhang, Yuehong Wu, Cong Sun, Min Wu
A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, motile and rod-shaped bacterium, designated MC28T , was isolated from storage liquid collected from the stems of Populus euphratica in the Xinjiang province of China. The growth range of NaCl concentration was 0.5-6.0 % (w/v), with an optimum at 3.0 % (w/v), the temperature range for growth was 10-45 °C, with an optimum at 40 °C, and the pH range for growth was 6.0-9.0, with an optimum around pH 8.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain MC28T formed a distinct lineage in the clade of genus Halomonas and is closely related to Halomonas desiderata DSM 9502T (96...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
David Alexander Gregory, Stephen J Ebbens
While much attention has focused on self-motile asymmetrical catalytically active "Janus" colloids as a route to enable new fluidic transport applications, the motion of symmetrical catalytically active colloids is less well investigated. This is despite isotopically active colloids being more accessible, and commonly used as supports for heterogeneous catalysis. Here, we addressed this by systematically investigating the motion of platinum- coated colloids capable of isotropically decomposing hydrogen peroxide...
March 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Xue-Fen Wu, Xiao-Li Chen, Xue-Na Zheng, Xin Guo, Zhi-Qiang Xie, Li Liu, Xin-Ran Wei, Zeng-Hui Yue
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of different strength of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation on gastrointestinal motility and Ras homolog gene family member (RhoA)/Rho associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase (ROCK) signaling in diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) rats, so as to reveal the underlying mechanisms of EA for improving DGP. METHODS: Sixty SD rats were randomly and equally divided into blank control, DGP model, weak EA, medium EA, and strong EA groups ( n =12 rats in each)...
March 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Beata Irena Cejko, Ákos Horváth, Timea Kollár, Eszter Kása, Jelena Lujić, Zoran Marinović, Béla Urbányi, Radosław Kajetan Kowalski
The effect of sodium and potassium concentrations as well as optimal pH on the motility of common carp Cyprinus carpio L. sperm during short-term storage in artificial seminal plasma (ASP) was investigated. Sperm was collected from individual males (n = 5) and each sample diluted tenfold (1:9) in ASP (sperm:extender) containing 2 mM CaCl2 , 1 mM Mg2 SO4 and 20 mM Tris at pH 8.0 and supplemented by the following concentrations of sodium and potassium (mM/mM): 0/150, 20/130, 40/110, 75/75, 110/40, 130/20 and 150/0...
March 21, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Joseph M Varberg, Isabelle Coppens, Gustavo Arrizabalaga, Rajshekhar Y Gaji
In the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii , protein kinases have been shown to play key roles in regulating parasite motility, invasion, replication, egress, and survival within the host. The tyrosine kinase-like (TKL) family of proteins are an unexplored set of kinases in Toxoplasma Of the eight annotated TKLs in the Toxoplasma genome, a recent genome-wide loss-of-function screen showed that six are important for tachyzoite fitness. By utilizing an endogenous tagging approach, we showed that these six T...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Calvin K Lee, Jaime de Anda, Amy E Baker, Rachel R Bennett, Yun Luo, Ernest Y Lee, Joshua A Keefe, Joshua S Helali, Jie Ma, Kun Zhao, Ramin Golestanian, George A O'Toole, Gerard C L Wong
Using multigenerational, single-cell tracking we explore the earliest events of biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa During initial stages of surface engagement (≤20 h), the surface cell population of this microbe comprises overwhelmingly cells that attach poorly (∼95% stay <30 s, well below the ∼1-h division time) with little increase in surface population. If we harvest cells previously exposed to a surface and direct them to a virgin surface, we find that these surface-exposed cells and their descendants attach strongly and then rapidly increase the surface cell population...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Benjamin Kalbe, Markus Osterloh, Viola M Schulz, Janine Altmüller, Christian Becker, Sabrina Osterloh, Hanns Hatt
Olfactory receptors (ORs) regulate various cellular processes in the human body. The receptors' participation in physiological and pathophysiological processes could be demonstrated in several studies. In addition to the regulation of sperm motility, respiratory physiology, and heart contraction, ORs play a crucial role in cancer cells. In murine myoblasts, mOR23 regulates the myogenesis and branching of skeletal muscle cells. To date, the expression and physiological role of ORs in human skeletal muscle cells have not been thoroughly elucidated...
March 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Chetna Gangwar, Atul Saxena, Akhil Patel, S P Singh, Sarvajeet Yadav, Ravindra Kumar, Vijay Singh
The experiment was conducted to study cryopreservation induced sperm cryoinjuries and the protective effect of reduced Glutathione supplementation in Murrah bull semen. A total of 20 semen ejaculates were split into two parts after initial examination and were extended in glycerolated egg yolk TRIS diluter (Control group) and glycerolated egg yolk TRIS diluter + 0.5 mM reduced Glutathione (Treatment Group). The diluted semen samples were loaded into 0.25 ml French mini straw and sealing of straws were done...
March 9, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Shabir Ahmad Lone
Artificial insemination (AI) with cryopreserved semen has a pivotal role in wider dissemination of germplasm of elite livestock and also for conservation of various endangered species. Cryopreservation allows storage of semen for a prolonged period of time and facilitates greater exchange of genetic material among distant populations. Cryopreservation, however, leads to certain deleterious effects on sperm including premature induction of the acrosome reaction, reduced sperm motility and viability, and impaired sperm DNA integrity and fertility...
March 13, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Mathew J Tomlinson, Asad Naeem
CASA has been used in reproductive medicine and pathology laboratories for over 25 years, yet the 'fertility industry' generally remains sceptical and has avoided automation, despite clear weaknesses in manual semen analysis. Early implementers had difficulty in validating CASA-Mot instruments against recommended manual methods (haemocytometer) due to the interference of seminal debris and non-sperm cells, which also affects the accuracy of grading motility. Both the inability to provide accurate sperm counts and a lack of consensus as to the value of sperm kinematic parameters appear to have continued to have a negative effect on CASA-Mot's reputation...
March 21, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Daniel Navin Olschewski, Verena Hofschröer, Nikolaj Nielsen, Daniela G Seidler, Albrecht Schwab, Christian Stock
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The peptide hormone angiotensin II (ATII) plays a prominent role in regulating vasoconstriction and blood pressure. Its primary target is the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), the stimulation of which induces an increase in cytosolic [Ca2+] and calmodulin activation. Ca2+-bound (activated) calmodulin stimulates the activity of the Na+/ H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1); and increased NHE1 activity is known to promote melanoma cell motility. The competitive AT1 receptor inhibitor losartan is often used to lower blood pressure in hypertensive patients...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Natalia Crespo Tapia, Heidy M W den Besten, Tjakko Abee
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that can grow as a biofilm on surfaces. Biofilm formation in food-processing environments is a big concern for food safety, as it can cause product contamination through the food-processing line. Although motile aerobic bacteria have been described to form biofilms at the air-liquid interface of cell cultures, to our knowledge, this type of biofilm has not been described in L. monocytogenes before. In this study we report L. monocytogenes biofilm formation at the air-liquid interface of aerobically grown cultures, and that this phenotype is specifically induced when the media is supplemented with glycerol as a carbon and energy source...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Shahid Khan, Jonathan M Scholey
Cells from all three domains of life on Earth utilize motile macromolecular devices that protrude from the cell surface to generate forces that allow them to swim through fluid media. Research carried out on archaea during the past decade or so has led to the recognition that, despite their common function, the motility devices of the three domains display fundamental differences in their properties and ancestry, reflecting a striking example of convergent evolution. Thus, the flagella of bacteria and the archaella of archaea employ rotary filaments that assemble from distinct subunits that do not share a common ancestor and generate torque using energy derived from distinct fuel sources, namely chemiosmotic ion gradients and FlaI motor-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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