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Rectal cancer

Shinya Munakata, Yuta Murai, Akihiro Koizumi, Hisaki Kato, Riku Yamamoto, Syuhei Ueda, Satoshi Tokuda, Syunsuke Sakuraba, Tomoyuki Kushida, Hajime Orita, Mutsumi Sakurada, Hiroshi Maekawa, Koichi Sato, Ryo Wada
Introduction: In rectal cancer, distal intramural spread may sometimes occur, but a maximum extent of distal spread of > 6 cm is very rare. Case Presentation: A 65-year-old Japanese male with an advanced rectal cancer tumor with para-aortic lymph node metastasis was admitted. We performed a low anterior resection with lymphadenectomy, but the intraoperative frozen-section analysis of margins revealed malignant cell positivity; we, therefore, performed an abdominoperineal resection...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Yan Wang, Xiaohui Sun, Kaihua Ji, Liqing Du, Chang Xu, Ningning He, Jinhan Wang, Yang Liu, Qiang Liu
Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3), a sub-family member of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent histone deacetylases, has been reported to be involved in mitochondrial oxidative stress regulation, mitochondrial calcium management, mitophagy activation, and mitochondrial energy metabolism. The aim of our study was to explore the functional role of Sirt3 in colorectal cancer stress, focusing particularly on its effects on mitochondrial fission. Our study demonstrated that Sirt3 was highly upregulated in colorectal cancer cells compared to normal rectal mucosa cells...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kamolyut Lapumnuaypol, Ejaz Mahmood, Wikrom Chaiwatcharayut, Maria V Bandres, Abhinav Goyal, Djeneba A Djibo, Andrew Tiu
PURPOSE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the USA, and the incidence in young adults has been increasing over the past decade. We studied the clinical characteristics and presentations of CRC in young African American (AA) adults because available data on how age and ethnicity influence its pattern of presentation is limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 109 young adults (75 African Americans) below 50 years, who were diagnosed with CRC between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2016...
July 16, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Rebecca K Rowen, Justin Kelly, Jill Molt, John R Monson
Over many decades, advances in surgical technology, such as the use of the electrocautery Bovie, development of minimally invasive and advanced endoscopic platforms and the ability to create and maintain pneumorectum have propelled surgical techniques forward to today, with development of the transanal TME (taTME) for en bloc resection of rectal cancers. The transanal platform offers, for now, a viable alternative to perform safe and oncologically sound TME, especially favorable in cases of low rectal lesions in a narrow pelvis post neoadjuvant treatment...
July 18, 2018: Minerva Chirurgica
Heejeong Lee, Nami Joo
The study investigated antioxidative properties and rectal cancer cell inhibition effect of amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L.) cauline leaves (ACL) to produce the sausage with ACL powder (ACLP). Antioxidative effects of ACLP prepared with different stem lengths (10-45 cm) were evaluated through DPPH, ABTS, reducing power, total phenol, and total flavonoid. Inhibition effect on rectal cancer cells growth was also examined with CT-26 cell. To determine appropriate ACL amounts in sausage formula, response surface methodology was used...
July 2018: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Seiichi Shinji, Yoshibumi Ueda, Takeshi Yamada, Michihiro Koizumi, Yasuyuki Yokoyama, Goro Takahashi, Masahiro Hotta, Takuma Iwai, Keisuke Hara, Kohki Takeda, Mikihiro Okusa, Hayato Kan, Eiji Uchida, Hiroshi Yoshida
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) is the most serious and common complication of surgery for rectal cancer, and associated risk factors remain unknown despite developments in laparoscopic surgery. The present study aimed to determine risk factors for AL after laparoscopic anterior resection (AR) of rectal cancer. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study extracted information from a prospective database of all consecutive colorectal resections that proceeded at Nippon Medical School Hospital between January 2011 and December 2015 (n = 865)...
July 17, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Yalun Li, Shijie Xin, Huizhe Wu, Chengzhong Xing, Liren Duan, Weifeng Sun, Xiaoyun Hu, Ruoran Lin, Fangxiao Zhang
The expression levels of microRNA‑31 (miR‑31) and LOC554202 have been previously investigated in colorectal cancer (CRC) and their oncogenic and/or tumor suppressive roles have been described. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of miR‑31 and its host gene LOC554202 in the prognosis of patients with CRC. Patients with CRC treated with oxaliplatin‑based chemotherapy between June 2005 and March 2010 were recruited to the First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University. Tumor and adjacent mucosal tissues were collected...
July 13, 2018: Oncology Reports
Haifeng Zhang, Zhiqin Deng, Dongxia Zhang, Huarong Li, Lei Zhang, Jin Niu, Wanhong Zuo, Rao Fu, Lihong Fan, Jiang-Hong Ye, Junjun She
To survive, cells need to avoid excessive volume change that jeopardizes structural integrity and stability of the intracellular milieu. Searching for the molecular identity of volume‑regulated anion channel (VRAC) has yielded multiple potential candidates, but none has been confirmed. Recently, it is reported that leucine‑rich repeat‑containing 8A (LRRC8A) is a main molecular determinant of VRAC current. The biological functions of LRRC8 family proteins are poorly understood, particularly in cancer...
July 10, 2018: Oncology Reports
Wai Lun Law, Dominic C C Foo
BACKGROUND: Robotic surgery and transanal minimally invasive surgery are the two recently developed techniques, which can overcome the difficult pelvic dissection in conventional laparoscopy. This study aimed to compare the early cases of robotic and transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) using propensity score matching. METHODS: The first 40 cases of taTME and the first 80 sphincter-saving robotic total mesorectal resection for rectal cancer were selected from the prospectively collected database...
July 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Kazuki Kotabe, Hidetsugu Nakayama, Aruga Takashi, Atsuko Takahashi, Tsuyoshi Tajima, Haruki Kume
The association between rectal bleeding and the received dose relative to the volume of the rectum is well established in prostate cancer patients who have undergone radiotherapy. The relative volume of the rectum is affected by the rectal anatomical volume, which depends on the definition of rectal length. Compared with the relative rectal volume, the absolute volume of the rectum may be more associated with rectal bleeding. The present study investigated the absolute volume of the rectum that may be used to predict late rectal bleeding following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT)...
August 2018: Oncology Letters
Wan Song, Ji Woong Yu, Byong Chang Jeong, Seong Il Seo, Seong Soo Jeon, Hyun Moo Lee, Han Yong Choi, Eun-Suk Kang, Hwang Gyun Jeon
Purpose: To investigate the clinical usefulness of natural killer cell activity (NKA) for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) and prediction of Gleason grade. Patients and methods: We prospectively enrolled 221 patients who underwent transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy for suspected PCa due to elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) >2.5 ng/mL or abnormal findings on digital rectal examination (n=146), or who were diagnosed with PCa (n=75) between 2016 and 2017...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Julien Langrand-Escure, Peng Diao, Max-Adrien Garcia, Guoping Wang, Jean-Baptiste Guy, Sophie Espenel, Elodie Guillaume, Amel Rehailia-Blanchard, Grégoire Pigné, Guy de Laroche, David Kaczmarek, Thierry Muron, Jack Porcheron, Jean-Marc Phelip, Alexis Vallard, Nicolas Magné
This retrospective study was undertaken to provide more modern data of real-life management of non-metastatic rectal cancer, to compare therapeutic strategies, and to identify prognostic factors of overall survival (OS) in a large cohort of patients. Data on efficacy and on acute/late toxicity were retrospectively collected. Patients were diagnosed a non-metastatic rectal cancer between 2004 and 2015, and were treated at least with radiotherapy. OS was correlated with patient, tumor and treatment characteristics with univariate and multivariate analyses...
July 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alison Claire Tree, Kelly Jones, Shaista Hafeez, Mansour Taghavi Azar Sharabiani, Kevin Joseph Harrington, Susan Lalondrelle, Merina Ahmed, Robert Anthony Huddart
There is currently significant interest in the potential benefits of combining radiation and immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) to stimulate both regional and distant abscopal immune responses. In melanoma and lung cancer, patients who have received radiation therapy during ICB appear to have prolonged survival. The PLUMMB trial (Pembrolizumab in Muscle-invasive/Metastatic Bladder cancer) (NCT02560636) is a phase I study to test the tolerability of a combination of weekly radiation therapy with pembrolizumab in patients with metastatic or locally advanced urothelial cancer of the bladder...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Kara D Romano, Colin Hill, Daniel M Trifiletti, M Sean Peach, Bethany J Horton, Neil Shah, Dylan Campbell, Bruce Libby, Timothy N Showalter
BACKGROUND: Brachytherapy (BT) is a vital component of the curative treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. The American Brachytherapy Society has published guidelines for high dose rate (HDR) BT with recommended dose limits. However, recent reports suggest lower doses may be needed to avoid toxicity. The purpose of this study is to investigate incidence and predictive factors influencing gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity following HDR intracavitary brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer...
July 16, 2018: Radiation Oncology
P Kocián, J de Haan, E H Cardonick, C Uzan, C A R Lok, R Fruscio, M J Halaska, F Amant
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer in pregnancy is rare, with an incidence of 0.8 per 100,000 pregnancies. Advanced disease (stage III or IV) is diagnosed more frequently in pregnant patients. We aimed to review all cases of colorectal cancer in pregnancy from the International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy database in order to learn more about this rare disease and improve its management. METHODS: Data on the demographic features, symptoms, histopathology, diagnostic and therapeutic interventions and outcomes (obstetric, neonatal and maternal) were analysed...
July 16, 2018: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
Jue-Feng Wan, Xue-Qin Li, Jing Zhang, Li-Feng Yang, Ji Zhu, Gui-Chao Li, Li-Ping Liang, Li-Jun Shen, Hui Zhang, Jing Li, Yi-Tong Zhang, Chang-Yue Chen, Zhen Zhang
Identifying patients who may or may not achieve pathologic complete response (pathCR) allows for treatment with alternative approaches in the preoperative setting. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether aneuploidy of chromosome 8 and mutations of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) could predict the response of patients with rectal cancer to preoperative chemoradiotherapy. A total of 33 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-T4 and/or cN+) treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy between September 2014 and March 2015 were recruited...
August 2018: Oncology Letters
Benjamin A Goldenberg, Emma B Holliday, Ramzi M Helewa, Harminder Singh
The rectum has distinctive anatomic and physiologic features, which increase the risk of local spread and recurrence among rectal cancers as compared to colon cancers. Essential to the management of rectal cancers is accurate endoscopic localization as well as preoperative imaging assessment of local and distant disease. Successful oncologic care is multidisciplinary including input from Gastroenterologists, Surgeons, Medical and Radiation Oncologists, Radiologists, and Pathologists. Extensive planning of curative intent is mandatory as failures of upfront treatment present great long-term difficulty for patients and caregivers...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Michael A Liss, James Robert White, Martin Goros, Jonathan Gelfond, Robin Leach, Teresa Johnson-Pais, Lai Zhao, Elizabeth Rourke, Joseph Basler, Donna Ankerst, Dimpy P Shah
BACKGROUND: The fecal microbiome is associated with prostate cancer risk factors (obesity, inflammation) and can metabolize and produce various products that may influence cancer but have yet to be defined in prostate cancer. OBJECTIVE: To investigate gut bacterial diversity, identify specific metabolic pathways associated with disease, and develop a microbiome risk profile for prostate cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: After prospective collection of 133 rectal swab samples 2 wk before the transrectal prostate biopsy, we perform 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing on 105 samples (64 with cancer, 41 without cancer)...
July 11, 2018: European Urology
Shuqiu Chen, Guiya Jiang, Ning Liu, Hua Jiang, Lijie Zhang, Chao Sun, Bin Xu, Xiaowen Zhang, Yu Yang, Jing Liu, Weidong Zhu, Ming Chen
PURPOSE: We discuss the safety and perioperative outcomes of a 2-week interval between prostate biopsy and laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 182 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) who underwent transperitoneal LRP 2 weeks after prostate biopsy between 2012 and 2015. We evaluated the following perioperative outcomes: operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), infection, conversion to open surgery, positive surgery margins (PSM), and complications...
July 14, 2018: Urology Journal
Gabriel Ogaya-Pinies, Estefania Linares-Espinos, Eduardo Hernandez-Cardona, Cathy Jenson, Xavier Cathelineau, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Vipul Patel
INTRODUCTION: While no consensus on the optimal salvage treatment exists, only 3% of these patients will get salvage radical prostatectomies due to the assumed technical challenges of this procedure. OBJECTIVES: Our goal is to analyze the perioperative, oncologic and functional outcomes of patients undergoing salvage robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (sRARP) after primary treatment failure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed from a combined database of more than 14,800 patients who had undergone RARP...
July 13, 2018: World Journal of Urology
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