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Fimbriae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930089/rare-occurrence-of-heart-lesions-in-pacific-oysters-crassostrea-gigas-caused-by-an-unknown-bacterial-infection
#1
Gary R Meyer, Geoffrey J Lowe, Susan M Bower
On rare occasions, small cream-coloured cysts have been observed in the heart and pericardial cavity of Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas from British Columbia, Canada. Histopathology revealed the presence of large colonies of bacteria (up to 800 µm in diameter) causing significant host response and hypertrophy of the heart epithelium. The causative bacteria were characterized as follows: Gram-negative, coccoid to small rod-shaped, typically <1.5 µm in size, cell walls highly endowed with surface fimbriae and division via binary fission...
September 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927207/surgical-approaches-to-the-temporal-horn-an-anatomic-analysis-of-white-matter-tract-interruption
#2
Paulo A S Kadri, Jean G de Oliveira, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Ugur Türe, Evandro P L de Oliveira, Ossama Al-Mefty, Guilherme C Ribas
BACKGROUND: Surgical access to the temporal horn is necessary to treat tumors and vascular lesions, but is used mainly in patients with mediobasal temporal epilepsy. The surgical approaches to this cavity fall into 3 primary categories: lateral, inferior, and transsylvian. The current neurosurgical literature has underestimated the interruption of involved fiber bundles and the correlated clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the interruption of fiber bundles during the different approaches to the temporal horn...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925561/nestin-expressing-cell-types-in-the-temporal-lobe-and-hippocampus-morphology-differentiation-and-proliferative-capacity
#3
Joan Liu, Cheryl Reeves, Thomas Jacques, Andrew McEvoy, Anna Miserocchi, Pamela Thompson, Sanjay Sisodiya, Maria Thom
Nestin is expressed in immature neuroepithelial and progenitor cell types and transiently upregulated in proliferative neuroglial cells responding to acute brain injury, including following seizures. In 36 temporal lobe (TLobe) specimens from patients with TLobe epilepsy (age range 8-60 years) we studied the number, distribution and morphology of nestin-expressing cells (NEC) in the pes, hippocampus body, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, temporal cortex and pole compared with post mortem control tissues from 26 cases (age range 12 gestational weeks to 76 years)...
September 19, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924030/altered-regulation-of-the-diguanylate-cyclase-yaic-reduces-production-of-type-1-fimbriae-in-a-pst-mutant-of-uropathogenic-e-coli-cft073
#4
Sébastien Crépin, Gaëlle Porcheron, Sébastien Houle, Josée Harel, Charles M Dozois
The pst gene cluster encodes the phosphate specific transport system (Pst). Inactivation of the Pst system constitutively activates the two-component regulatory system PhoBR and attenuates virulence of pathogenic bacteria. In uropathogenic E. coli strain CFT073, attenuation by inactivation of pst is predominantly attributed to the decreased expression of type 1 fimbriae. However, the molecular mechanisms connecting the Pst system and type 1 fimbriae are unknown. To address this, a transposon library was constructed in the pst mutant, and clones were tested for a regain in type 1 fimbriae production...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922626/the-typhi-colonization-factor-tcf-is-encoded-by-multiple-non-typhoidal-salmonella-serovars-but-exhibits-a-varying-expression-profile-and-interchanging-contribution-to-intestinal-colonization
#5
Shalhevet Azriel, Alina Goren, Inna Shomer, Gili Aviv, Galia Rahav, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A are human-restricted pathogens and the leading causative agents of enteric fever. The Typhi colonization factor (Tcf) is a chaperone-usher fimbria, thought to play a role in the host-specificity of typhoidal serovars. Here we show that the tcf cluster (tcfABCD tinR tioA) is present in at least 25 non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars and demonstrate its native expression in clinically-important serovars including Schwarzengrund, 9,12:l,v:-, Choleraesuis, Bredeney, Heidelberg, Montevideo, Virchow and Infantis...
September 18, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915364/nosocomial-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-mexico-city-produce-robust-biofilms-on-abiotic-surfaces-but-not-on-human-lung-cells
#6
Martha Lorena Ostria-Hernandez, Karla Cecilia Juárez-de la Rosa, Patricia Arzate-Barbosa, Antonino Lara-Hernández, Fuminori Sakai, J Antonio Ibarra, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli, Jorge E Vidal
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kpn) strains are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. Resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation, and the production of certain fimbriae play an important role in the pathogenesis. AIM: We investigated the genetic relatedness, antibiotic resistance, virulence potential, and ability to form biofilms of Kpn strains isolated from hospital-acquired infections (n = 76). Strains were isolated at three major hospitals serving the largest metropolitan urban area in Mexico City, Mexico...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912837/carbuncle-due-to-salmonella-enteritidis-a-novel-presentation
#7
Wadha Alfouzan, Dieter Bulach, Hidemasa Izumiya, Khaled AlBassam, Simin Sheikh, Nasser Alrubai'aan, M John Albert
BACKGROUND: Salmonella Enteritidis causes intestinal and extra-intestinal infections, but rarely cutaneous infections. It has never been reported to cause carbuncle (a collection of interconnected furuncles with multiple pustular openings). We report a case of carbuncle due to S. Enteritidis. CASE PRESENTATION: An adult Bangladeshi patient with type 2 diabetes presented with a carbuncle on the left-side of his neck. A pure culture of S. Enteritidis was grown from the pus of the carbuncle...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911838/efficacy-of-a-single-oral-dose-of-a-live-bivalent-e-coli-vaccine-against-post-weaning-diarrhea-due-to-f4-and-f18-positive-enterotoxigenic-e-coli
#8
É Nadeau, J M Fairbrother, J Zentek, L Bélanger, D Tremblay, C-L Tremblay, I Röhe, W Vahjen, M Brunelle, K Hellmann, D Cvejić, B Brunner, C Schneider, K Bauer, R Wolf, Á Hidalgo
F4- and F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli strains (F4-ETEC and F18-ETEC) are important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. F4 (antigenic variant ac) and F18 (ab and ac) fimbriae are major antigens that play an important role in the early stages of infection. Herein, the efficacy of a live oral vaccine consisting of two non-pathogenic E. coli strains, one F4ac- and one F18ac-positive, was evaluated using F4ac-ETEC and F18ab-ETEC challenge models. A randomized, masked, placebo-controlled, block design, parallel-group confirmatory study with two different vaccination-challenge intervals (7 and 21 days) was conducted for each challenge model...
August 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895515/escherichia-coli-type-iii-secretion-system-2-regulator-etra-promotes-virulence-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Shaohui Wang, Xuan Xu, Xin Liu, Dong Wang, Hua Liang, Xiaojun Wu, Mingxing Tian, Chan Ding, Guijun Wang, Shengqing Yu
The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is found in most E. coli strains, including pathogenic and commensal strains. Although many ETT2 gene clusters carry multiple genetic mutations or deletions, ETT2 is known to be involved in bacterial virulence. In enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), ETT2 affects adhesion through the regulator EtrA, which regulates transcription and secretion of the type III secretion system (T3SS) encoded by the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). To date, no studies have been conducted on the role of EtrA in the virulence of avian pathogenic E...
September 12, 2017: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887183/electrical-stimulation-of-the-hippocampal-fimbria-facilitates-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-activity-in-the-medial-shell-of-the-rat-nucleus-accumbens-modulation-by-dopamine-d1-and-d2-receptor-activation
#10
Kristina E Hoque, Shannon R Blume, Stephen Sammut, Anthony R West
The medial shell region of the nucleus accumbens (msNAc) is a key center for the regulation of goal-directed behavior and is likely to be dysfunctional in neuropsychiatric disorders such as addiction, depression and schizophrenia. Nitric oxide (NO)-producing interneurons in the msNAc are potently modulated by dopamine (DA) and may play an important role in synaptic integration in msNAc networks. In this study, neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) activity was measured in anesthetized rats using amperometric microsensors implanted into the msNAc or via histochemical techniques...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886138/reproductive-life-history-of-sablefish-anoplopoma-fimbria-from-the-u-s-washington-coast
#11
José M Guzmán, J Adam Luckenbach, Mollie A Middleton, Kenneth C Massee, Cortney Jensen, Frederick W Goetz, Andrew J Jasonowicz, Penny Swanson
Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) is a marine groundfish that supports valuable fisheries in the North Pacific Ocean and holds promise for marine aquaculture. Limited information is available, however, about its reproductive biology. This study aimed to characterize the complete reproductive cycle, including seasonal changes in gonadal development (macroscopic and histological), plasma sex steroid levels (17β-estradiol -E2-, and 11-ketotestosterone -11KT-), gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices (GSI, and HSI), and condition factor (K) of female and male sablefish captured off the Washington coast...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863070/evaluation-of-microscopic-changes-in-fallopian-tubes-of-brca-mutation-carriers-by-morphometric-analysis-of-histologic-slides-a-preliminary-pilot-study
#12
Amnon Amit, Edmond Sabo, Yaniv Zohar, Einat Trugman, Irena Pranovich, Ari Reiss, Emad Matanes, Geula Klorin
Mutations in BRCA genes increase the risk of ovarian cancer, yet no method for early diagnosis is available. Some serous ovarian tumors are hypothesized to stem from cells of the fallopian tube fimbria. Using a novel method of computerized morphometry of the fimbrial epithelium, this study aimed to detect morphologic differences in noncancerous fimbriae between BRCA mutation carriers and noncarriers, and between healthy and serous ovarian cancer patients. Twenty-four fimbriae from healthy women (13 BRCA+, 11 BRCA-) and 21 fimbriae from women with serous ovarian cancer (10 BRCA+, 11 BRCA-), all reported as "normal" by hematoxylin and eosin examination, were subjected to computerized histomorphometric analysis...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861072/uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-upec-infections-virulence-factors-bladder-responses-antibiotic-and-non-antibiotic-antimicrobial-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Maria E Terlizzi, Giorgio Gribaudo, Massimo E Maffei
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common pathological conditions in both community and hospital settings. It has been estimated that about 150 million people worldwide develop UTI each year, with high social costs in terms of hospitalizations and medical expenses. Among the common uropathogens associated to UTIs development, UroPathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the primary cause. UPEC strains possess a plethora of both structural (as fimbriae, pili, curli, flagella) and secreted (toxins, iron-acquisition systems) virulence factors that contribute to their capacity to cause disease, although the ability to adhere to host epithelial cells in the urinary tract represents the most important determinant of pathogenicity...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859308/integration-host-factor-is-important-for-biofilm-formation-by-salmonella-enterica-enteritidis
#14
Bruna Leite, Catierine Hirsch Werle, Camila Pinheiro do Carmo, Diego Borin Nóbrega, Guilherme Paier Milanez, Hebert Fabricio Culler, Marcelo Palma Sircili, Cristina E Alvarez-Martinez, Marcelo Brocchi
Salmonella enterica Enteritidis forms biofilms and survives in agricultural environments, infecting poultry and eggs. Bacteria in biofilms are difficult to eradicate compared to planktonic cells, causing serious problems in industry and public health. In this study, we evaluated the role of ihfA and ihfB in biofilm formation by S. enterica Enteritidis by employing different microbiology techniques. Our data indicate that ihf mutant strains are impaired in biofilm formation, showing a reduction in matrix formation and a decrease in viability and metabolic activity...
August 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836044/dentate-granule-progenitor-cell-properties-are-rapidly-altered-soon-after-birth
#15
Kenta Matsue, Shiori Minakawa, Taichi Kashiwagi, Keiko Toda, Toru Sato, Seiji Shioda, Tatsunori Seki
Neurogenesis occurs during the embryonic period and ceases soon after birth in the neocortex, but continues to occur in the hippocampus even in the adult. The embryonic neocortex has radial glia or progenitor cells expressing brain lipid-binding protein (BLBP), whereas the adult hippocampus has radial granule progenitor cells expressing BLBP and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the subgranular zone. We previously found that embryonic hippocampal granule progenitor cells express GFAP, but not BLBP, indicating that these cells are different from both embryonic neocortical and adult granule progenitor cells...
August 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830946/analysis-of-spleen-induced-fimbria-production-in-recombinant-attenuated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vaccine-strains
#16
Paweł Łaniewski, Chang-Ho Baek, Kenneth L Roland, Roy Curtiss
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium genome encodes 13 fimbrial operons. Most of the fimbriae encoded by these operons are not produced under laboratory conditions but are likely to be synthesized in vivo We used an in vivo expression technology (IVET) strategy to identify four fimbrial operons, agf, saf, sti, and stc that are expressed in the spleen. When any three of these operons were deleted, the strain retained wild-type virulence. However, when all four operons were deleted, the resulting strain was completely attenuated, indicating that these four fimbriae play functionally redundant roles critical for virulence...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826954/tubo-omental-ectopic-pregnancy
#17
Yi-Ting Huang, I-Ting Liang, Chin-Jung Wang
A 26-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain for days. Human chorionic gonadotropin measured 2096 mIU/mL. Transvaginal ultrasound revealed no intrauterine pregnancy, but a heterogeneous 2.5cm x 2.1cm mass was adjacent to the right ovary, suggesting ectopic pregnancy. After medical therapy methotrexate 50mg/m(2) intramuscularly failed, laparoscopy found an omental mass with right tubal fimbriae attached. The left Fallopian tube and both ovaries appeared normal. Histopathology diagnosed omental pregnancy...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821458/dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-and-quorum-sensing-signaling-in-biofilm-related-virulence-of-prevotella-aurantiaca
#18
Dareen Fteita, Ahmed Ali Musrati, Eija Könönen, Xiaochu Ma, Mervi Gürsoy, Markus Peurla, Eva Söderling, Herman O Sintim, Ulvi Kahraman Gürsoy
Biofilm formation and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) enzyme activity contribute to the virulence of oral bacteria, and these virulence factors are partly regulated by quorum sensing signaling system. We recently demonstrated that estradiol regulates growth properties and DPPIV activity of Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella nigrescens, and Prevotella pallens. Here, we examined the DPPIV dependency of biofilm formation of Prevotella aurantiaca. Three strains (two clinical strains AHN 37505 and 37552 and the type strain CCUG 57723) were incubated in three estradiol concentrations (30, 90, and 120 nmol/L)...
August 15, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820687/identification-of-subsets-of-enteroaggregative-escherichia-coli-associated-with-diarrheal-disease-among-under-5-year-old-children-from-rural-gambia
#19
Usman N Ikumapayi, Nadia Boisen, Mohammad J Hossain, Modupeh Betts, Modou Lamin, Debasish Saha, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Michel Dione, Richard A Adegbola, Anna Roca, James P Nataro, Martin Antonio
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) cause acute and persistent diarrhea, mostly in children worldwide. Outbreaks of diarrhea caused by EAEC have been described, including a large outbreak caused by a Shiga toxin expressing strain. This study investigated the association of EAEC virulence factors with diarrhea in children less than 5 years. We characterized 428 EAEC strains isolated from stool samples obtained from moderate-to-severe diarrhea cases (157) and healthy controls (217) children aged 0-59 months recruited over 3 years as part of the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in The Gambia...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817673/the-plasmid-encoded-ipf-and-klf-fimbriae-display-different-expression-and-varying-roles-in-the-virulence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-infantis-in-mouse-vs-avian-hosts
#20
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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