Read by QxMD icon Read


Johanna Flygt, Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund
BACKGROUND: Injury to the white matter may lead to impaired neuronal signaling and is commonly observed following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although endogenous repair of TBI-induced white matter pathology is limited, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be stimulated to proliferate and regenerate functionally myelinating oligodendrocytes. Even though OPCs are present throughout the adult brain, little is known about their proliferative activity following axonal injury caused by TBI...
October 17, 2016: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Robert S C Amaral, Min Tae M Park, Gabriel A Devenyi, Vivian Lynn, Jon Pipitone, Julie Winterburn, Sofia Chavez, Mark Schira, Nancy Lobaugh, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jens C Pruessner, M Mallar Chakravarty
Recently, much attention has been focused on the definition and structure of the hippocampus and its subfields, while the projections from the hippocampus have been relatively understudied. Here, we derive a reliable protocol for manual segmentation of hippocampal white matter regions (alveus, fimbria, and fornix) using high-resolution magnetic resonance images that are complementary to our previous definitions of the hippocampal subfields, both of which are freely available at
October 17, 2016: NeuroImage
Christopher S Medina, Octavian Biris, Tomas L Falzone, Xiaowei Zhang, Amber J Zimmerman, Elaine L Bearer
Microtubule-based motors carry cargo back and forth between the synaptic region and the cell body. Defects in axonal transport result in peripheral neuropathies, some of which are caused by mutations in KIF5A, a gene encoding one of the heavy chain isoforms of conventional kinesin-1. Some mutations in KIF5A also cause severe central nervous system defects in humans. While transport dynamics in the peripheral nervous system have been well characterized experimentally, transport in the central nervous system is less experimentally accessible and until now not well described...
October 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Petya Berger, Michael Knödler, Konrad U Förstner, Michael Berger, Christian Bertling, Cynthia M Sharma, Jörg Vogel, Helge Karch, Ulrich Dobrindt, Alexander Mellmann
Escherichia coli O104:H4 (E. coli O104:H4), which caused a massive outbreak of acute gastroenteritis and hemolytic uremic syndrome in 2011, carries an aggregative adherence fimbriae I (AAF/I) encoding virulence plasmid, pAA. The importance of pAA in host-pathogen interaction and disease severity has been demonstrated, however, not much is known about its transcriptional organization and gene regulation. Here, we analyzed the pAA primary transcriptome using differential RNA sequencing, which allows for the high-throughput mapping of transcription start site (TSS) and non-coding RNA candidates...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Santosh Kumar Singh, Seema Kumari, Minakshi Gupta
Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infection has been reported to be most prevalent among patients of different class, gender and ages. Currently, multidrug resistant E. coli harboring several virulence factors are most perilous threats for patients especially for elders. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern, co-resistance and phenotypic virulence factors present in uropathogenic E. coli isolates from aged patients. Thirty-nine E. coli isolates were collected during May-June 2014 from patients aged 50-80 years...
October 12, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Indira T Kudva, Michelle Q Carter, Vijay K Sharma, Judith A Stasko, Jorge A Giron
: Our recent studies have shown that Intimin and the Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-encoded proteins do not play a role in Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) adherence to the bovine recto-anal junction squamous epithelial (RSE) cells. To define factors that play a contributory role, we investigated the role of curli, a fimbrial adhesin commonly implicated in adherence to various fomites, plant, and human epithelial cells, in O157 adherence to RSE cells. Specifically, we examined (i) wild-type strains of O157; (ii) curli variants of O157 strains; (iii) isogenic curli-deletion mutants of O157; and (iv) adherence-inhibition of O157 using anti-curlin sera...
October 14, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
J Daniel Dubreuil, Richard E Isaacson, Dieter M Schifferli
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is the most common cause of E. coli diarrhea in farm animals. ETEC are characterized by the ability to produce two types of virulence factors: adhesins that promote binding to specific enterocyte receptors for intestinal colonization and enterotoxins responsible for fluid secretion. The best-characterized adhesins are expressed in the context of fimbriae, such as the F4 (also designated K88), F5 (K99), F6 (987P), F17, and F18 fimbriae. Once established in the animal small intestine, ETEC produce enterotoxin(s) that lead to diarrhea...
October 2016: EcoSal Plus
Damianos Chatzievangelou, Carolina Doya, Laurenz Thomsen, Autun Purser, Jacopo Aguzzi
Three benthic megafaunal species (i.e. sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria; pacific hagfish Eptatretus stoutii and a group of juvenile crabs) were tested for diel behavioral patterns at the methane hydrates site of Barkley Canyon (890 m depth), off Vancouver Island (BC, Canada). Fluctuations of animal counts in linear video-transects conducted with the Internet Operated Deep-Sea Crawler "Wally" in June, July and December of 2013, were used as proxy of population activity rhythms. Count time series and environmental parameters were analyzed under the hypothesis that the environmental conditioning of activity rhythms depends on the life habits of particular species (i...
2016: PloS One
Nikolaus Leisch, Nika Pende, Philipp M Weber, Harald R Gruber-Vodicka, Jolanda Verheul, Norbert O E Vischer, Sophie S Abby, Benedikt Geier, Tanneke den Blaauwen, Silvia Bulgheresi
The reproduction mode of uncultivable microorganisms deserves investigation as it can largely diverge from conventional transverse binary fission. Here, we show that the rod-shaped gammaproteobacterium thriving on the surface of the Robbea hypermnestra nematode divides by FtsZ-based, non-synchronous invagination of its poles-that is, the host-attached and fimbriae-rich pole invaginates earlier than the distal one. We conclude that, in a naturally occurring animal symbiont, binary fission is host-oriented and does not require native FtsZ to polymerize into a ring at any septation stage...
October 10, 2016: Nature Microbiology
Joseph L Baker, Heba Jafri
F4 fimbriae are protein filaments found in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli cells and are implicated in the process of bacterial infection due to their function as bacterial adhesins. These filaments are comprised from several proteins, but the bacterial adhesin FaeG, which is a lactose-binding protein, is the major subunit comprising F4 fimbriae. Crystal structures for three variants of the FaeG protein were recently solved, including the ad variant of FaeG that was crystallized in complex with lactose. However, the dynamics of the FaeG protein bound to lactose have not been explored previously using molecular dynamics simulations...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Dominika Drzewiecka, Gabriela Lewandowska
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) pose a threat especially to women, the individuals with weakened immunity or with abnormalities in the urinary tract as well as to hospitalized and catheterized patients. The bacteria from the genus Proteus, especially P. mirabilis, are important UTI pathogenic factors. They frequently cause chronic, recurrent or severely complicated infections, resulting in the urinary stones production due to urease and other virulence factors. The ability to survive inside the stones and the increasing antibiotic resistance make it difficult to eradicate the bacteria from the urinary tract...
September 30, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Fanny Larsonneur, Fernando A Martin, Adeline Mallet, Marta Martinez-Gil, Vincent Semetey, Jean-Marc Ghigo, Christophe Beloin
Initial adhesion of bacterial cells to surfaces or host tissues is a key step in colonisation and biofilm formation processes, and is mediated by cell surface appendages. We previously demonstrated that Escherichia coli K-12 possesses an arsenal of silenced chaperone-usher fimbriae that are functional when constitutively expressed. Among them, production of prevalent Yad fimbriae induces adhesion to abiotic surfaces. We undertook functional characterisation of Yad fimbriae, and identified YadN as the most abundant and potential major pilin, and YadC as the potential tip-protein of Yad fimbriae...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Young Jae Lee, Shin Wha Lee, Kyu Rae Kim, Kyung Hae Jung, Jong Won Lee, Yong Man Kim
OBJECTIVE: Most BRCA1/2 carriers do not undergo risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) by the recommended age. This study aimed to find the incidence of precursor lesions and cancer after RRSO. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed breast cancer patients identified as BRCA mutation carriers who underwent RRSO at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, from 2010 to 2014. From 2013, all cases were examined according to the Sectioning and Extensively Examining the Fimbria (SEE/FIM) protocol and underwent immunohistochemically staining...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Gynecologic Oncology
Ankita Kothari, Marimikel Charrier, Yu-Wei Wu, Stephanie Malfatti, Carol E Zhou, Steven W Singer, Larry Dugan, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
The hydrocarbonoclastic bacterium Acinetobacter venetianus RAG-1 has attracted substantial attention due to its powerful oil degrading capabilities and its potential to play an important ecological role in the cleanup of alkanes. In this study we compare the transcriptome of the strain RAG-1 grown in dodecane, the corresponding alkanol (dodecanol), and sodium acetate for the characterization of genes involved in dodecane uptake and utilization. Comparison of the transcriptional responses of RAG-1 grown on dodecane led to the identification of 1074 genes that were differentially expressed relative to sodium acetate...
September 22, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
C Damgaard, J Reinholdt, Y Palarasah, C Enevold, C Nielsen, M K Brimnes, P Holmstrup, C H Nielsen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been proposed as pro-atherogenic, and complement-mediated adherence to red blood cells (RBCs) may facilitate its systemic spread. We investigated the ability of four strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans with differential expression of leukotoxin A (LtxA) and fimbriae to activate complement, adhere to RBCs and elicit cytokine responses by mononuclear cells (MNCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans serotype b strains HK 921, HK 1651, HK 2092 and HK 2108 were fluorescence-labeled, incubated with human whole blood cells in the presence of autologous serum, and assessed for RBC adherence by flow cytometry and for capacity to induce cytokine production by cytometric bead array analysis...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
Abigail Wheal, Robert Jenkins, Yoshiki Mikami, Nagindra Das, Lynn Hirschowitz
Primary mucinous carcinoma of the fallopian tube is extremely rare. We report the detailed characterization of a mucinous carcinoma arising in the fimbrial end of the fallopian tube in a 74-yr-old woman. The patient presented with recurrent urinary tract infection and urinary tract obstruction secondary to a large right ovarian mass. She had an appendicectomy as an 11 yr old. Serum CA-125 was raised at 239 U/mL. Computed tomographic scans showed bilateral, cystic ovarian tumors but no other intra-abdominal abnormality...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
G Hoarau, P K Mukherjee, C Gower-Rousseau, C Hager, J Chandra, M A Retuerto, C Neut, S Vermeire, J Clemente, J F Colombel, H Fujioka, D Poulain, B Sendid, M A Ghannoum
UNLABELLED: Crohn's disease (CD) results from a complex interplay between host genetic factors and endogenous microbial communities. In the current study, we used Ion Torrent sequencing to characterize the gut bacterial microbiota (bacteriome) and fungal community (mycobiome) in patients with CD and their nondiseased first-degree relatives (NCDR) in 9 familial clusters living in northern France-Belgium and in healthy individuals from 4 families living in the same area (non-CD unrelated [NCDU])...
2016: MBio
Ching-Ting Lin, Tien-Huang Lin, Chien-Chen Wu, Lei Wan, Chun-Fa Huang, Hwei-Ling Peng
Klebsiella pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen isolated from liver abscesses of diabetic patients in Asian countries. However, the effects of elevated blood glucose levels on the virulence of this pathogen remain largely unknown. Type 3 fimbriae, encoded by the mrkABCDF genes, are important virulence factors in K. pneumoniae pathogenesis. In this study, the effects of exogenous glucose and the intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway on type 3 fimbriae expression regulation were investigated. The production of MrkA, the major subunit of type 3 fimbriae, was increased in glucose-rich medium, whereas cAMP supplementation reversed the effect...
2016: PloS One
John H Hammond, Wesley P Hebert, Amanda Naimie, Kathryn Ray, Rachel D Van Gelder, Antonio DiGiandomenico, Prajna Lalitha, Muthiah Srinivasan, Nisha R Acharya, Thomas Lietman, Deborah A Hogan, Michael E Zegans
The Steroids for Corneal Ulcers Trial (SCUT) was a multicenter, international study of bacterial keratitis in which 101 Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were treated. Twenty-two of 101 P. aeruginosa isolates collected had a colony morphology characteristic of a loss-of-function mutation in lasR, the gene encoding a quorum-sensing master regulator. Ulcers caused by these 22 strains were associated with larger areas of corneal opacification, worse vision, and a lower rate of vision recovery in response to treatment than ulcers caused by the other isolates...
September 2016: MSphere
Shaohui Wang, Xin Liu, Xuan Xu, Denghui Yang, Dong Wang, Xiangan Han, Yonghong Shi, Mingxing Tian, Chan Ding, Daxin Peng, Shengqing Yu
Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are crucial for bacterial infections because they deliver effector proteins into host cells. The Escherichia coli type III secretion system 2 (ETT2) is present in the majority of E. coli strains, and although it is degenerate, ETT2 regulates bacterial virulence. An ATPase is essential for T3SS secretion, but the function of the ETT2 ATPase has not been demonstrated. Here, we show that EivC is homologous to the β subunit of F0F1 ATPases and it possesses ATPase activity. To investigate the effects of ETT2 ATPase EivC on the phenotype and virulence of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), eivC mutant and complemented strains were constructed and characterized...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"