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Fimbriae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920758/effectiveness-of-f18-fimbrial-antigens-released-by-a-novel-autolyzed-salmonella-expression-system-as-a-vaccine-candidate-against-lethal-f18-stec-infection
#1
Gayeon Won, John H Lee
Porcine edema disease (ED) caused by Shiga toxin 2e producing Escherichia coli expressing F18ab(+) fimbriae (F18ab(+)STEC) frequently occurs in post-weaned piglets, resulting in a significant economic loss in swine industries worldwide. In the present study, we proposed an efficient prevention scheme against ED in which the attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium inactivated by the E-mediated cell lysis to deliver target antigens, FedF and FedA, which function in fimbrial-mediated adhesion and as a major subunit of F18ab+fimbriae, respectively...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916413/immunogenicity-and-protective-efficacy-of-a-single-dose-live-non-pathogenic-escherichia-coli-oral-vaccine-against-f4-positive-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-challenge-in-pigs
#2
John Morris Fairbrother, Éric Nadeau, Louise Bélanger, Cindy-Love Tremblay, Danielle Tremblay, Mélanie Brunelle, Regina Wolf, Klaus Hellmann, Álvaro Hidalgo
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli strains expressing F4 (K88) fimbriae (F4-ETEC) are one of the most important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. F4, a major antigen, plays an important role in the early steps of the infection. Herein, the efficacy of a live oral vaccine consisting of a non-pathogenic E. coli strain expressing F4 for protection of pigs against PWD was evaluated. Three blinded, placebo-controlled, block design, parallel-group confirmatory experiments were conducted, using an F4-ETEC PWD challenge model, each with a different vaccination-challenge interval (3, 7, and 21days)...
December 1, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914962/efflux-mediated-colistin-resistance-in-diverse-clones-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-from-aquatic-environment
#3
Santosh Kumar Singh, Mitali Mishra, Minu Sahoo, Shashank Patole, Harapriya Mohapatra
The peptide drug colistin is commonly used to treat carbapenem resistant gram negative bacterial infections. In the present study, we report efflux mediated colistin resistance in multidrug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates belonging to ST200 and ST1296, isolated from a fresh water environment. The isolates exhibited intermediate resistance to human serum, possessed Type 1 fimbriae and harbored blaSHV-34 and blaTEM-1 genes. Our results highlight the evolving nature of these clones in the country. These observations emphasize the need for judicious usage of antibiotics to prevent the imminent danger of losing out on currently available therapeutic options...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913143/innate-immune-stimulatory-activity-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-fimbriae-is-eliminated-by-phase-separation-using-triton-x-114
#4
Kohji Nozoe, Terukazu Sanui, Masaaki Takeshita, Takao Fukuda, Akira Haraguchi, Yoshitomi Aida, Fusanori Nishimura
Fimbriae are virulence factors of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). In this study, the action of fimbriae on neutrophil respiratory burst and cytokine production by mononuclear cells (MNC) were investigated. Native or denatured form of purified P. gingivalis fimbriae contained endotoxin at an equivalence of 1-3μglipopolysaccharides(LPS)/mg protein. The endotoxin could be reduced to the equivalent of 1ng-LPS/mg protein by phase separation using Triton X-114. Unfractionated fimbriae caused serum-dependent priming of neutrophils for enhanced respiratory burst, but both native and denatured forms of Triton X-114-fractionated fimbriae were not active at 100μg/mL...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902401/involvement-of-camp-receptor-protein-in-biofilm-formation-fimbria-production-capsular-polysaccharide-biosynthesis-and-lethality-in-mouse-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-serotype-k1-causing-pyogenic-liver-abscess
#5
Qin Ou, Jinming Fan, Dejian Duan, Xu Li, Jie Wang, Dongsheng Zhou, Huiying Yang, Bei Li
The global regulator cAMP receptor protein (CRP) has been shown to be required for the full virulence and/ or for the expression of virulence determinants in a wide set of bacterial pathogens. In this work, the crp mutant as well as the complemented mutant was constructed from a wild-type Klebsiella pneumoniae capsular serotype K1 strain causing the primary pyogenic liver abscess. The phenotypes of wild-type strain, crp mutant, and complemented mutant were characterized systematically. It was disclosed that K...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902209/fimbriiglobus-ruber-gen-nov-sp-nov-a-gemmata-like-planctomycete-from-sphagnum-peat-bog-and-the-proposal-of-gemmataceae-fam-nov
#6
Irina S Kulichevskaya, Anastasia A Ivanova, Olga I Baulina, W Irene C Rijpstra, Jaap S Sinninghe Damsté, Svetlana N Dedysh
An aerobic, budding, dark pink to red-pigmented bacterium was isolated from an acidic boreal Sphagnum peat bog and designated strain SP5T. Cells of this strain were non-motile spheres that were uniformly covered with crateriform pits and fimbria, and tended to form aggregates during growth in liquid media. Strain SP5T was capable of growth at pH values between 4.0 and 6.8 (optimum at pH 5.5-6.0) and at temperatures between 10 and 30oC (optimum 20-25oC). The preferred growth substrates were sugars and some heteropolysaccharides...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879555/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-dtap5-ipv-compared-with-dtap5-plus-ipv-as-the-fifth-dose-in-children-4-to-6-years-of-age
#7
Michael J Smith, Emilia Jordanov, Xiaohua Sheng, Peter H Tsang
BACKGROUND: Immunogenicity and safety of stand-alone diphtheria, tetanus toxoid, 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine adsorbed, inactivated poliovirus (IPV) combination vaccine (DTaP5-IPV) was compared with separate DTaP5 plus IPV vaccines as fifth dose in children 4-6 years of age. METHODS: In this phase III, controlled, multicenter, randomized, open-label study participants were randomized to DTaP5-IPV plus measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) and varicella virus (VZV) vaccines (Group 1; N=324), DTaP5+IPV with MMR and VZV (Group 2; N=327), DTaP5-IPV with/without MMR/VZV (Group 3; N=2419), or DTaP5+IPV with/without MMR/VZV (Group 4; N=302)...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869446/-oncopathological-aspects-of-brca1-and-brca2-genes-inactivation-in-tumors-of-ovary-fallopian-tube-and-pelvic-peritoneum
#8
Petr Škapa, Pavel Dundr
Ovarian carcinoma represents a heterogeneous group of malignant epithelial tumors which could be divided into two fundamental groups: Type I (endometrioid carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, low grade serous carcinoma, mucinous carcinoma and more rare seromucinous carcinoma and malignant Brenner tumor) and type II (high grade serous carcinoma - HGSC). HGSC is the most frequent ovarian carcinoma which may be etiologically linked to inactivation of tumor suppressor genes BRCA1/2 and TP53 and differs from type I carcinomas by higher aggressiveness, tendency to peritoneal spread and worse prognosis...
2016: Ceskoslovenská Patologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856389/mini-laparoscopy-of-removal-partial-adnexae-at-the-time-of-hysterectomy
#9
António Gutierrez Setúbal, João Sequeira Alves, Olga Lavado, Joana Faria
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe our technique of mini laparoscopic adnexectomy or salpingectomy at the time of total laparoscopic hysterectomy DESIGN: Step-by-step video explanation of our technique SETTING: The advantages of laparoscopic surgery have been widely recognised in the past two decades: improved vision, exposure, reduction in operative trauma because of smaller incisions and more gentle tissue´s handling, that result in a faster postoperative recovery. The technology development has allowed the use of smaller caliber instruments while maintaining the high standard surgical performance...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847128/effective-g-protein-coupling-of-y2-receptors-along-axonal-fiber-tracts-and-its-relevance-for-epilepsy
#10
Elisabeth Dum, Sabine Fürtinger, Elisabeth Gasser, Anneliese Bukovac, Meinrad Drexel, Ramon Tasan, Günther Sperk
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-Y2 receptors are G-protein coupled receptors and, upon activation, induce opening of potassium channels or closing of calcium channels. They are generally presynaptically located. Depending on the neuron in which they are expressed they mediate inhibition of release of NPY and of the neuron's classical transmitter GABA, glutamate or noradrenaline, respectively. Here we provide evidence that Y2 receptor binding is inhibited dose-dependently by GTPγS along Schaffer collaterals, the stria terminalis and the fimbria indicating that Y2 receptors are functionally coupled to G-proteins along these fiber tracts...
October 26, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843814/dimeric-and-trimeric-fusion-proteins-generated-with-fimbrial-adhesins-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#11
Víctor M Luna-Pineda, Juan Pablo Reyes-Grajeda, Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova, Zeus Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Sara A Ochoa, Carmen Maldonado-Bernal, Vicenta Cázares-Domínguez, Leticia Moreno-Fierros, José Arellano-Galindo, Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, Juan Xicohtencatl-Cortes
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main etiologic agent. Fimbriae assembled on the bacterial surface are essential for adhesion to the urinary tract epithelium. In this study, the FimH, CsgA, and PapG adhesins were fused to generate biomolecules for use as potential target vaccines against UTIs. The fusion protein design was generated using bioinformatics tools, and template fusion gene sequences were synthesized by GenScript in the following order fimH-csgA-papG-fimH-csgA (fcpfc) linked to the nucleotide sequence encoding the [EAAAK]5 peptide...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829188/volume-of-hippocampal-subfields-in-patients-with-alcohol-dependence
#12
Jeonghwan Lee, Sung-Jin Im, Sang-Gu Lee, Alfreda Stadlin, Jung-Woo Son, Chul-Jin Shin, Gawon Ju, Sang-Ick Lee, Siekyeong Kim
Alcohol-induced hippocampal atrophy has been well documented in many studies and is known to affect various subfields. Given the functional heterogeneity of these subfields, we investigated the precise effects of alcohol-induced damage in these areas. Twenty-six male patients with alcohol dependence (alcohol group) and twenty-six age-matched male healthy social drinkers were recruited from a mental health hospital and the community respectively, with the aim of comparing the hippocampal subfields between groups...
December 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816993/adhesion-of-escherichia-coli-under-flow-conditions-reveals-potential-novel-effects-of-fimh-mutations
#13
T Feenstra, M S Thøgersen, E Wieser, A Peschel, M J Ball, R Brandes, S C Satchell, T Stockner, F M Aarestrup, A J Rees, R Kain
FimH-mediated adhesion of Escherichia coli to bladder epithelium is a prerequisite for urinary tract infections. FimH is also essential for blood-borne bacterial dissemination, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of different FimH mutations on bacterial adhesion using a novel adhesion assay, which models the physiological flow conditions bacteria are exposed to. We introduced 12 different point mutations in the mannose binding pocket of FimH in an E...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810882/alternate-thermoregulation-and-functional-binding-of-escherichia-coli-type-1-fimbriae-in-environmental-and-animal-isolates
#14
Jacqueline Marshall, Yannick Rossez, Geoffrey Mainda, David L Gally, Tim Daniell, Nicola Holden
Type 1 fimbriae (T1F) are well characterised cell surface organelles expressed by Escherichia coli and required for adherence to mannosylated host tissue. They satisfy molecular Koch's postulates as a virulence determinant and a host-adapted role has been reinforced by reports that T1F expression is repressed at sub-mammalian temperatures. Analysis of a group of 136 environmental and animal E. coli isolates that express T1F at 37 °C showed that 28% are also capable of expression at 20 °C, in a phase variable manner...
November 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808174/essential-oils-and-eugenols-inhibit-biofilm-formation-and-the-virulence-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#15
Yong-Guy Kim, Jin-Hyung Lee, Giyeon Gwon, Soon-Il Kim, Jae Gyu Park, Jintae Lee
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. We investigated the abilities of various plant essential oils and their components to inhibit biofilm formation by EHEC. Bay, clove, pimento berry oils and their major common constituent eugenol at 0.005% (v/v) were found to markedly inhibit EHEC biofilm formation without affecting planktonic cell growth. In addition, three other eugenol derivatives isoeugenol, 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol, and 4-ethylguaiacol had antibiofilm activity, indicating that the C-1 hydroxyl unit, the C-2 methoxy unit, and C-4 alkyl or alkane chain on the benzene ring of eugenol play important roles in antibiofilm activity...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807517/delayed-voluntary-exercise-does-not-enhance-cognitive-performance-after-hippocampal-injury-an-investigation-of-differentially-distributed-exercise-protocols
#16
Elise Wogensen, Marie Gajhede Gram, Jens Bak Sommer, Christina Rytter Vilsen, Jesper Mogensen, Hana Malá
Voluntary exercise has previously been shown to enhance cognitive recovery after acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study evaluated effects of two differentially distributed protocols of delayed, voluntary exercise on cognitive recovery using an allocentric place learning task in an 8-arm radial maze. Fifty-four Wistar rats were subjected to either bilateral transection of the fimbria-fornix (FF) or to sham surgery. Twenty-one days postinjury, the animals started exercising in running wheels either for 14 consecutive days (FF/exercise daily [ExD], sham/ExD) or every other day for 14 days (FF/exercise every second day [ExS], sham/ExS)...
October 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796929/potential-for-colonization-of-o111-h25-atypical-enteropathogenic-e-coli
#17
Marta O Domingos, Keyde C M Melo, Irys Viana Neves, Cristiane M Mota, Rita C Ruiz, Bruna S Melo, Raphael C Lima, Denise S P Q Horton, Monamaris M Borges, Marcia R Franzolin
Using clonal phylogenetic methods, it has been demonstrated that O111:H25 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains belong to distinct clones, suggesting the possibility that their ability to interact with different hosts and abiotic surfaces can vary from one clone to another. Accordingly, the ability of O111:H25 aEPEC strains derived from human, cat and dogs to adhere to epithelial cells has been investigated, along with their ability to interact with macrophages and to form biofilms on polystyrene, a polymer used to make biomedical devices...
November 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795330/antibodies-damage-fimbrial-resilience-causing-them-to-be-stiff-and-tangled
#18
Bhupender Singh, Narges Mortezaei, Stephen J Savarino, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Esther Bullitt, Magnus Andersson
: Since adhesion fimbriae are a major virulence factor for many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, they are potential targets for antibodies. Fimbriae are commonly required to initiate colonization leading to disease, and their success as adhesion organelles lies in their ability to both initiate and sustain bacterial attachment to epithelial cells. The ability of fimbriae to unwind and rewind their helical filament presumably reduces their detachment from tissue surfaces during shear forces that accompany significant fluid flow...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777572/role-of-yqic-in-the-pathogenicity-of-salmonella-and-innate-immune-responses-of-human-intestinal-epithelium
#19
Ke-Chuan Wang, Chih-Hung Huang, Shih-Min Ding, Ching-Kuo Chen, Hsu-Wei Fang, Ming-Te Huang, Shiuh-Bin Fang
The yqiC gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) regulates bacterial growth at different temperatures and mice survival after infection. However, the role of yqiC in bacterial colonization and host immunity remains unknown. We infected human LS174T, Caco-2, HeLa, and THP-1 cells with S. Typhimurium wild-type SL1344, its yqiC mutant, and its complemented strain. Bacterial colonization and internalization in the four cell lines significantly reduced on yqiC depletion. Post-infection production of interleukin-8 and human β-defensin-3 in LS174T cells significantly reduced because of yqiC deleted in S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776011/uterine-serous-carcinomas-frequently-metastasize-to-the-fallopian-tube-and-can-mimic-serous-tubal-intraepithelial-carcinoma
#20
Friedrich Kommoss, Asma Faruqi, C Blake Gilks, Sarah Lamshang Leen, Naveena Singh, Nafisa Wilkinson, W Glenn McCluggage
We investigated the frequency, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics of tubal involvement in uterine serous carcinoma (USC) and aimed to clarify the relationship between "serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC)" and USC in these cases. Cases of USC with complete tubal examination were prospectively collected and reviewed for the presence of tubal involvement. Immunohistochemical analysis for p53 and WT1 was performed on the endometrial and tubal tumor in cases with tubal involvement...
October 21, 2016: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
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