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W Almaguer-Melian, D Mercerón-Martinez, S Delgado-Ocaña, E Alberti-Amador, R Gonzalez-Gómez, Jorge A Bergado
An increasing number of reports sustain a possible role of erythropoietin (EPO) as neuroprotective agent. In two previous articles we have evaluated EPO as plasticity promoting agent, and to contribute the restoration of brain function affected by acquired damage. We have shown that EPO is able to induce an increased synaptic efficacy in vivo along with a plasticity promoting effect. In the Morris water maze EPO administration to fimbria-fornix lesioned male rats induces a significant improvement of their spatial memory, affected by the lesion...
March 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Suhyung Cho, Donghui Choe, Eunju Lee, Sun Chang Kim, Bernhard Ø Palsson, Byung-Kwan Cho
Along with functional advances in the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for genome editing, endonuclease-deficient Cas9 (dCas9) has provided a versatile molecular tool for exploring gene functions. In principle, differences in cell phenotypes that result from the RNA-guided modulation of transcription levels by dCas9 are critical for inferring with gene function; however, the effect of intracellular dCas9 expression on bacterial morphology has not been systematically elucidated. Here, we observed unexpected morphological changes in Escherichia coli mediated by dCas9, which were then characterized using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq)...
March 15, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Anthony Atala
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Urology
Glenn T Werneburg, David G Thanassi
Gram-negative bacteria assemble a variety of surface structures, including the hair-like organelles known as pili or fimbriae. Pili typically function in adhesion and mediate interactions with various surfaces, with other bacteria, and with other types of cells such as host cells. The chaperone/usher (CU) pathway assembles a widespread class of adhesive and virulence-associated pili. Pilus biogenesis by the CU pathway requires a dedicated periplasmic chaperone and integral outer membrane protein termed the usher, which forms a multifunctional assembly and secretion platform...
March 2018: EcoSal Plus
Leilei Mao, Tuo Yang, Xin Li, Xia Lei, Yang Sun, Yongfang Zhao, Wenting Zhang, Yanqin Gao, Baoliang Sun, Feng Zhang
The major pathophysiological process of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is chronic cerebral ischemia, which causes disintegration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), neuronal death, and white matter injury. This study aims to test whether sulforaphane (Sfn), a natural activator of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), reduces the chronic ischemic injury and cognitive dysfunction after VCI. Experimental VCI was induced in rats by permanent occlusion of both common carotid arteries for six weeks...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Artem S Rogovskyy, Sara Lawhon, Kathryn Kuczmanski, David C Gillis, Jing Wu, Helen Hurley, Yuliya V Rogovska, Kranti Konganti, Ching-Yuan Yang, Kay Duncan
Trueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen that causes suppurative infections in animals including humans. Data on phenotypic and genotypic properties of T. pyogenes isolated from ruminants, particularly goats and sheep, are lacking. We characterized, by phenotypic and genotypic means, T. pyogenes of caprine and ovine origin, and established their phylogenetic relationship with isolates from other ruminants. T. pyogenes isolates ( n = 50) from diagnostic specimens of bovine ( n = 25), caprine ( n = 19), and ovine ( n = 6) origin were analyzed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Preeti Verma, Vijay Veer Saharan, Surendra Nimesh, Arvind Pratap Singh
AIMS: The present study was designed to assess the phenotypic traits and virulence determinants of vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 520 fresh vegetables/fruits samples were analyzed for the presence of E. coli, including Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and Salmonella. The vegetables/fruits-origin E. coli and Salmonella strains were further assessed for antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, extracellular matrix production, and in-vitro invasion/intracellular survivability assays...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
José M Guzmán, J Adam Luckenbach, Denis A M da Silva, Edward S Hayman, Gina M Ylitalo, Frederick W Goetz, Penny Swanson
Pituitary-hormone signaling plays critical roles in the onset and progression of gametogenesis in vertebrates. This study characterized expression patterns of pituitary gonadotropin beta-subunits (fshb and lhb), brain-type aromatase (cyp19a1b), androgen (ar1, ar2) and estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a, esr2b), and changes in plasma steroid levels by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry in wild sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria, order Scorpaeniformes) during a complete reproductive cycle. Transcripts for fshb increased during early gametogenesis and peaked in late vitellogenic females and late recrudescent males, while expression of lhb reached maximum levels in periovulatory and spermiating fish...
February 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Pengpeng Xia, Guomei Quan, Yi Yang, Jing Zhao, Yiting Wang, Mingxu Zhou, Philip R Hardwidge, Jianzhong Zhu, Siguo Liu, Guoqiang Zhu
The binding of F4+ enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and the specific receptor on porcine intestinal epithelial cells is the initial step in F4+ ETEC infection. Porcine aminopeptidase N (APN) is a newly discovered receptor for F4 fimbriae that binds directly to FaeG adhesin, which is the major subunit of the F4 fimbriae variants F4ab, F4ac, and F4ad. We used overlapping peptide assays to map the APN-FaeG binding sites, which has facilitated in the identifying the APN-binding amino acids that are located in the same region of FaeG variants, thereby limiting the major binding regions of APN to 13 peptides...
February 26, 2018: Veterinary Research
Hojjatolah Zamani, Ali Salehzadeh
Background/aim: Biofilm formation is a major determinant factor in the development of urinary tract infections (UTIs) by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). Several adhesion factors are involved in attachment of bacterial cells to the urinary tract and biofilm development. Materials and methods: The possible relationship between different adhesion factor genes (AFGs) and biofilm formation among UPEC isolates was investigated. Prevalence of different AFGs including fimA, fimH, papAH, papC, papEF, sfa-S, foc/G, and bmaE and their association to biofilm formation were investigated...
February 23, 2018: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Karine Dufresne, Julie Saulnier-Bellemare, France Daigle
The human-specific pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid, a major public health issue in developing countries. Several aspects of its pathogenesis are still poorly understood. S . Typhi possesses 14 fimbrial gene clusters including 12 chaperone-usher fimbriae ( stg, sth, bcf , fim, saf , sef , sta, stb, stc, std, ste , and tcf ). These fimbriae are weakly expressed in laboratory conditions and only a few are actually characterized. In this study, expression of all S . Typhi chaperone-usher fimbriae and their potential roles in pathogenesis such as interaction with host cells, motility, or biofilm formation were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Anna M Duraj-Thatte, Pichet Praveschotinunt, Trevor R Nash, Frederick R Ward, Neel S Joshi
Extracellular appendages play a significant role in mediating communication between bacteria and their host. Curli fibers are a class of bacterial fimbria that is highly amenable to engineering. We demonstrate the use of engineered curli fibers to rationally program interactions between bacteria and components of the mucosal epithelium. Commensal E. coli strains were engineered to produce recombinant curli fibers fused to the trefoil family of human cytokines. Biofilms formed from these strains bound more mucins than those producing wild-type curli fibers, and modulated mucin rheology as well...
February 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Orsolya Szabó, Dániel Gulyás, Nikolett Szabó, Katalin Kristóf, Béla Kocsis, Dóra Szabó
Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants including, qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, aac(6')-Ib-cr, oqxAB, and qepA, were investigated in 214 Enterobacteriaceae strains from urine clinical samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and imipenem was performed by broth microdilution method. All strains were screened for PMQR genes by PCR. Virulence determinants, namely afa, pap, pil, sfa/foc, and kpsMT of eight Escherichia coli strains proven positive for at least one qnr gene, were investigated by PCR...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Sohinee Sarkar, Melanie L Hutton, Dimitrios Vagenas, Rinaldo Ruter, Stephanie Schüller, Dena Lyras, Mark A Schembri, Makrina Totsika
Background: Epidemiological studies point to the gut as a key reservoir of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli multilocus sequence type 131 (ST131), a globally dominant pathogenic clone causing urinary tract and bloodstream infections. Here we report a detailed investigation of its intestinal lifestyle. Methods: Clinical ST131 isolates and type 1 fimbriae null mutants were assessed for colonization of human intestinal epithelia and in mouse intestinal colonization models...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Chelsea R Epler Barbercheck, Esther Bullitt, Magnus Andersson
Escherichia coli bacterial cells produce multiple types of adhesion pili that mediate cell-cell and cell-host attachments. These pili (also called 'fimbriae') are large biopolymers that are comprised of subunits assembled via a sophisticated micro-machinery into helix-like structures that are anchored in the bacterial outer membrane. They are commonly essential for initiation of disease and thus provide a potential target for antibacterial prevention and treatment. To develop new therapeutics for disease prevention and treatment we need to understand the molecular mechanisms and the direct role of adhesion pili during pathogenesis...
2018: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Anubama Rajan, Lucy Vela, Xi-Lei Zeng, Xiaomin Yu, Noah Shroyer, Sarah E Blutt, Nina M Poole, Lily G Carlin, James P Nataro, Mary K Estes, Pablo C Okhuysen, Anthony W Maresso
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is an important diarrheal pathogen and a cause of both acute and chronic diarrhea. It is a common cause of pediatric bacterial diarrhea in developing countries. Despite its discovery in 1987, the intestinal tropism of the pathogen remains unknown. Cell lines used to study EAEC adherence include the HEp-2, T-84, and Caco-2 lines, but they exhibit abnormal metabolism and large variations in gene expression. Animal models either do not faithfully manifest human clinical symptoms or are cumbersome and expensive...
February 20, 2018: MBio
Rosana Ribić, Tomislav Meštrović, Marijana Neuberg, Goran Kozina
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are among the most common infectious diseases in humans. Due to their frequent occurrence in the community and nosocomial settings, as well as the development of resistance to the commonly prescribed antimicrobial agents, an enormous financial burden is placed on healthcare systems around the world. Therefore, novel approaches to the prevention and treatment of UTIs are needed. Although UPEC may harbour a plethora of virulence factors, type I fimbriae and P pili are two of the most studied adhesive organelles, since the attachment to host cells in the urinary tract is a crucial step towards infection...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
Mehri Habibi, Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Saeid Bouzari
Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by Proteus mirabilis are prevalent among the catheterized patients. There is no effective vaccine to reduce the frequency of UTIs caused by P. mirabilis. In the present study, the immune responses and effectiveness of different combinations of MrpA and flagellin (FliC) of P. mirabilis were assessed intranasally in the mice model. The addition of FliC as adjuvant to MrpA in fusion form significantly raised the mucosal IgA and cellular (IFN-γ and IL-17) responses and maintained the serum IgG responses for 180 days after the first vaccination...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Scott A Halperin, Catherine Donovan, Gary S Marshall, Vitali Pool, Michael D Decker, David R Johnson, David P Greenberg
Background: Reduced-antigen-content tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is recommended in many countries for boosting immunity in adolescents and adults. Although immunity to these antigens wanes with time, currently available Tdap products are not labeled for repeat administration in the United States. Methods: We performed an observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial in 1330 adults aged 18 to <65 years who received either the Tdap (n = 1002) or tetanus-diphtheria (Td) (n = 328) vaccine 8 to 12 years after a dose of Tdap vaccine administered previously...
February 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Anne-Sophie Debrie, Loïc Coutte, Dominique Raze, Frits Mooi, Frances Alexander, Andrew Gorringe, Nathalie Mielcarek, Camille Locht
Pertussis or whooping cough is currently the most prevalent vaccine-preventable childhood disease despite >85% global vaccination coverage. In recent years incidence has greatly increased in several high-income countries that have switched from the first-generation, whole-cell vaccine to the newer acellular vaccines, calling for improved vaccination strategies with better vaccines. We have developed a live attenuated pertussis vaccine candidate, called BPZE1, which is currently in clinical development. Unlike other pertussis vaccines, BPZE1 has been shown to provide strong protection against infection by the causative agent of pertussis, Bordetella pertussis, in non-human primates...
February 9, 2018: Vaccine
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