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Fimbriae

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743066/toxic-effects-of-juvenile-sablefish-anoplopoma-fimbria-by-ammonia-exposure-at-different-water-temperature
#1
Jun-Hwan Kim, Hee-Ju Park, In-Ki Hwang, Jae-Min Han, Do-Hyung Kim, Chul Woong Oh, Jung-Sick Lee, Ju-Chan Kang
Juvenile sablefish, Anoplopoma fimbria (mean length 17.1±2.4cm, and mean weight 75.6±5.7g) were used to evaluate toxic effects on antioxidant systems, immune responses, and stress indicators by ammonia exposure (0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1.25mg/L) at different water temperature (12 and 17°C) in 1 and 2 months. In antioxidant responses, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly increased by ammonia exposure, whereas glutathione (GSH) was decreased. In immune responses, lysozyme and phagocytosis activity were significantly increased by ammonia exposure...
July 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741270/involvement-of-porphyromonas-gingivalis-in-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#2
Takashi Nakahara, Hideyuki Hyogo, Atsushi Ono, Yuko Nagaoki, Tomokazu Kawaoka, Daiki Miki, Masataka Tsuge, Nobuhiko Hiraga, Clair Nelson Hayes, Akira Hiramatsu, Michio Imamura, Yoshiiku Kawakami, Hiroshi Aikata, Hidenori Ochi, Hiromi Abe-Chayama, Hisako Furusho, Tomoaki Shintani, Hidemi Kurihara, Mutsumi Miyauchi, Takashi Takata, Koji Arihiro, Kazuaki Chayama
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The risk factors in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have not been fully clarified. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g) has been considered to be a confounding risk factor for systemic diseases. We aimed to evaluate the effect of P.g infection on risk of progression to NASH. METHODS: (1) Serum IgG antibody titers against P.g fimbriae (fimA) in 200 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients were measured by ELISA and compared with histological findings...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739804/role-of-the-disulfide-bond-in-stabilizing-and-folding-of-the-fimbrial-protein-drae-from-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#3
Justyna Pilipczuk, Beata Zalewska-Piątek, Piotr Bruździak, Jacek Czub, Milosz Wieczór, Marcin Olszewski, Marta Wanarska, Bogdan Nowicki, Danuta Augustin-Nowacka, Rafal Piątek
Dr fimbriae are homopolymeric adhesive organelles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli composed of DraE subunits, responsible for the attachment to host cells. These structures are characterized by enormously high stability resulting from the structural properties of an Ig-like fold of DraE. One feature of DraE and other fimbrial subunits that makes them peculiar among Ig-like domain-containing proteins is a conserved disulfide bond that joins their A and B strands. Here, we investigated how this disulfide bond affects the stability and folding/unfolding pathway of DraE...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732013/the-kp1_4563-gene-is-regulated-by-the-camp-receptor-protein-and-controls-type-3-fimbrial-function-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-ntuh-k2044
#4
Mei Luo, Shiya Yang, Xuan Li, Pin Liu, Jian Xue, Xipeng Zhou, Kewen Su, Xuan Xu, Ying Qing, Jingfu Qiu, Yingli Li
Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) is an opportunistic pathogen that can adhere to host cells or extracellular matrix via type 1 and type 3 fimbriae. KP1_4563 is a gene encoding a hypothetical protein in K. pneumoniae NTUH-K2044. KP1_4563 is located between the type 1 and type 3 fimbrial gene clusters and is likely associated with fimbrial function given its putative conserved domains of unknown function (DUF1471). Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) regulates virulence-related gene expression and is a crucial transcriptional regulator in many bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731269/biofilm-formation-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-urinary-strains
#5
Claudia Vuotto, Francesca Longo, Chiara Pascolini, Gianfranco Donelli, Maria Pia Balice, Maria Francesca Libori, Valentina Tiracchia, Antonino Salvia, Pietro Emanuele Varaldo
AIMS: Multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a relevant healthcare-associated pathogen. Capsule, type 1 and 3 fimbriae (mrkA gene), type 2 quorum-sensing system (luxS), synthesis of D-galactan I (wbbM), LPS transport (wzm) and poly-beta-1,6-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (pgaA) seem involved in K. pneumoniae biofilm. Non-enzymatic antibiotic resistance is related to non-expression or mutation of porins (OmpK35 and OmpK36), and efflux pump (acrB) over-expression. The aim of this study was to analyse some virulence factors of K...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723213/dual-functional-core-shell-fluorescent-ag2s-carbon-nanostructure-for-selective-assay-of-e-coli-o157-h7-and-bactericidal-treatment
#6
Ning Wang, Xing Wei, An-Qi Zheng, Ting Yang, Ming-Li Chen, Jian-Hua Wang
A dual functional fluorescent core-shell Ag2S@Carbon nanostructure is prepared by a hydrothermally assisted multi-amino synthesis approach with folic acid (FA), polyethylenimine (PEI), and mannoses (Mans) as carbon and nitrogen sources (FA-PEI-Mans-Ag2S nanocomposite shortly as Ag2S@C). The nanostructure exhibits strong fluorescent emission at λex/λem = 340/450 nm with a quantum yield of 12.57 ± 0.52%. Ag2S@C is bound to E. coli O157:H7 via strong interaction with the Mans moiety in Ag2S@C with FimH proteins on the fimbriae tip in E...
March 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719265/differences-in-inflammation-patterns-induced-by-african-and-asian-burkholderia-pseudomallei-isolates-in-mice
#7
Tassili A F Weehuizen, Emma Birnie, Bart Ferwerda, Joris J T H Roelofs, Alex F de Vos, Martin P Grobusch, W Joost Wiersinga
AbstractBurkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, an emerging tropical disease of high mortality. Sub-Saharan Africa represents potential melioidosis "hotspots"; however, to date, only a few cases have been reported. Here in, we compared the inflammatory patterns induced by a B. pseudomallei strain recently isolated from a fatal Gabonese case with the Thai reference strain B. pseudomallei-1026b and Burkholderia thailandensis-E264. Ex vivo, no differences were observed in terms of cellular responsiveness between strains...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715355/repeated-exposure-to-sucrose-for-procedural-pain-in-mouse-pups-leads-to-long-term-widespread-brain-alterations
#8
Sophie Tremblay, Manon Ranger, Cecil M Y Chau, Jacob Ellegood, Jason P Lerch, Liisa Holsti, Daniel Goldowitz, Ruth E Grunau
Oral sucrose is administered routinely to reduce pain of minor procedures in premature infants and is recommended as standard care in international guidelines. No human or animal studies on effects of early repeated sucrose exposure on long-term brain development have been done in the context of pain. We evaluated the effects of repeated neonatal sucrose treatment before an intervention on long-term brain structure in mouse pups. Neonatal C57Bl/6J mice (n = 109) were randomly assigned to one of 2 treatments (vehicle vs sucrose) and one of 3 interventions (handling, touch, or needle-prick)...
August 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698040/role-of-class-ii-p-fimbriae-and-cytokine-response-in-the-pathogenesis-of-escherichia-coli-kidney-infection-in-diabetic-mice
#9
Chin-Chung Tseng, Ming-Cheng Wang, Wei-Hung Lin, I-Chuang Liao, Wen-Chung Chen, Ching-Hao Teng, Jing-Jou Yan, An-Bang Wu, Jiunn-Jong Wu
BACKGROUND: The role of class II P fimbriae (P fimbriae II) in diabetic kidney infections is uncertain, although some genetic and epidemiological studies suggest a lower prevalence of P fimbriae II genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from diabetic patients with complicated kidney infections. METHODS: We inoculated a P fimbriae II deficient E. coli (DH5αT) or an isogenic P fimbriae II expressing transformant (DH5αTP) into the bladders of diabetic and non-diabetic BALB/C mice, and sacrificed them after 3 days...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693311/piglet-colibacillosis-diagnosis-by-multiplex-pcr-and-immunohistochemistry-of-paraffin-embedded-tissues
#10
Cíntia De Lorenzo, Caroline P de Andrade, Verônica S L Machado, Matheus V Bianchi, Veronica M Rolim, Raquel A S Cruz, David Driemeier
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes diarrhea in pigs, a condition termed colibacillosis, in which these bacteria should adhere and produce enterotoxins. The aim of this study was to optimize multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses of paraffin-embedded material to detect pathogenic strains of E. coli causing colibacillosis in pigs, which requires the expression of at least one fimbria and one toxin of the agent. Multiplex PCR was optimized for fimbriae (F18, F4, F6, F5, and F41) and toxins [types A and B heat-stable toxins (STaP and STb), heat-labile toxin (LT), and type 2 Shiga toxin (STx2e)], and IHC was optimized for an anti-E...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692889/dynamic-real-time-in-vivo-confocal-laser-endomicroscopy-of-the-fallopian-tube-during-laparoscopy-in-the-prevention-of-ovarian-cancer
#11
Gautier Chene, Lauriane Chauvy, Annie Buenerd, Stéphanie Moret, Béatrice Nadaud, Philippe Chabert, Gery Lamblin
OBJECTIVES: Recently it has been postulated that most ovarian cancers have a tubal origin. The identification of preinvasive tubal lesions would be of great interest in the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Optical biopsy has been developed and validated in the detection of precancerous lesions (such as Barrett's oesophagus). The first objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of optical biopsy in the study of fallopian tubes during laparoscopy. The second objective was to describe the images in benign premalignant and malignant tubes with a histopathological and immunohistochemical (p53 and Ki67 expressions) correlation...
July 5, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690981/fnr-regulates-the-expression-of-important-virulence-factors-contributing-to-the-pathogenicity-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#12
Nicolle L Barbieri, Jessica A Vande Vorde, Alison R Baker, Fabiana Horn, Ganwu Li, Catherine M Logue, Lisa K Nolan
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the etiologic agent of colibacillosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in poultry. Though, many virulence factors associated with APEC pathogenicity are known, their regulation remains unclear. FNR (fumarate and nitrate reduction) is a well-known global regulator that works as an oxygen sensor and has previously been described as a virulence regulator in bacterial pathogens. The goal of this study was to examine the role of FNR in the regulation of APEC virulence factors, such as Type I fimbriae, and processes such as adherence and invasion, type VI secretion, survival during oxidative stress, and growth in iron-restricted environments...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683322/stromal-cell-derived-factor-1-mediates-immune-cell-attraction-upon-urinary-tract-infection
#13
Batya Isaacson, Tehila Hadad, Ariella Glasner, Chamutal Gur, Zvi Granot, Gilad Bachrach, Ofer Mandelboim
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common type of bacterial infection in humans. Fifty percent of all women will experience at least one UTI in their lifetime, with uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) accounting for 80% of reported cases. UTI evokes a complex, well-timed immune response that is crucial for bacterial clearance. The majority of immune cells participating in the immune response are absent from the healthy bladder, and the mechanisms used to recruit them upon UTI are not fully understood...
July 5, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680857/cyclic-dinucleotides-in-oral-bacteria-and-in-oral-biofilms
#14
Ulvi K Gürsoy, Mervi Gürsoy, Eija Könönen, Herman O Sintim
Oral cavity acts as a reservoir of bacterial pathogens for systemic infections and several oral microorganisms have been linked to systemic diseases. Quorum sensing and cyclic dinucleotides, two "decision-making" signaling systems, communicate to regulate physiological process in bacteria. Discovery of cyclic dinucleotides has a long history, but the progress in our understanding of how cyclic dinucleotides regulate bacterial lifestyle is relatively new. Oral microorganisms form some of the most intricate biofilms, yet c-di-GMP, and c-di-AMP signaling have been rarely studied in oral biofilms...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667627/bacterial-filamentous-appendages-investigated-by-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#15
Birgit Habenstein, Antoine Loquet
The assembly of filamentous appendages at the surface of bacteria is essential in many infection mechanisms. The extent of mechanical, dynamical, and functional properties of such appendages is very diverse, ranging from a structural scaffold of the pathogen-host cell interaction to cell motility, surface adhesion, or the export of virulence effectors. In particular, the architectures of several bacterial secretion systems have revealed the presence of filamentous architectures, known as pili, fimbriae, andneedles...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662376/proteases-actinidin-papain-and-trypsin-reduce-oral-biofilm-on-the-tongue-in-elderly-subjects-and-in-vitro
#16
Naho Mugita, Takayuki Nambu, Kazuya Takahashi, Pao-Li Wang, Yutaka Komasa
OBJECTIVE: Dental plaque is a causative factor for oral disease and a potential reservoir for respiratory infection in the elderly. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of effective methods to remove oral biofilm. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of proteases on oral biofilm formation andremoval. DESIGN: The in vivo effect of actinidin, a cysteine protease, on the removal of tongue coating was assessed after orally taking a protease tablet...
June 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658258/genome-scale-analysis-of-the-genes-that-contribute-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei-biofilm-formation-identifies-a-crucial-exopolysaccharide-biosynthesis-gene-cluster
#17
Grace I Borlee, Brooke A Plumley, Kevin H Martin, Nawarat Somprasong, Mihnea R Mangalea, M Nurul Islam, Mary N Burtnick, Paul J Brett, Ivo Steinmetz, David P AuCoin, John T Belisle, Dean C Crick, Herbert P Schweizer, Bradley R Borlee
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is an important public health threat due to limited therapeutic options for treatment. Efforts to improve therapeutics for B. pseudomallei infections are dependent on the need to understand the role of B. pseudomallei biofilm formation and its contribution to antibiotic tolerance and persistence as these are bacterial traits that prevent effective therapy. In order to reveal the genes that regulate and/or contribute to B. pseudomallei 1026b biofilm formation, we screened a sequence defined two-allele transposon library and identified 118 transposon insertion mutants that were deficient in biofilm formation...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639753/screening-for-ovarian-cancer-imaging-challenges-and-opportunities-for-improvement
#18
EDITORIAL
Kelsey B Mathieu, Deepak G Bedi, Sara L Thrower, Aliya Qayyum, Robert C Bast
The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) recently reported a reduction in the average overall mortality among ovarian cancer patients screened with an annual sequential, multimodal strategy that tracked biomarker CA125 over time, where increasing serum CA125 levels prompted ultrasound. However, multiple cases were documented wherein serum CA125 levels were rising, but ultrasound screens were normal, thus delaying surgical intervention. A significant factor which could contribute to false negatives is that many aggressive ovarian cancers are believed to arise from epithelial cells on the fimbriae of the fallopian tubes, which are not readily imaged...
June 22, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637954/increases-in-il-33-production-by-fimbriae-and-lipopeptide-from-porphyromonas-gingivalis-in-mouse-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-via-toll-like-receptor-2
#19
Hiroyuki Tada, Risako Suzuki, Eiji Nemoto, Hidetoshi Shimauchi, Kenji Matsushita, Haruhiko Takada
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an IL-1 cytokine family member that is involved in the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and the initiation of allergic inflammation in response to pathogens. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a primary pathogen that is involved in chronic periodontitis and its bacterial components induce inflammatory responses. Dendritic cells (DCs) recognize pathogen- associated molecular patterns by expression of pattern-recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). DCs play an essential role in resistance to infection and maintenance of mucosal immune system...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636823/how-bacteria-respond-to-material-stiffness-during-attachment-a-role-of-escherichia-coli-flagellar-motility
#20
Fangchao Song, Megan E Brasch, Hao Wang, James H Henderson, Karin Sauer, Dacheng Ren
Material stiffness has been shown to have potent effects on bacterial attachment and biofilm formation, but the mechanism is still unknown. In this study, response to material stiffness by Escherichia coli during attachment was investigated with biofilm assays and cell tracking using the Automated Contour-base Tracking for in Vitro Environments (ACTIVE) computational algorithm. By comparing the movement of E. coli cells attached on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surfaces of different Young's moduli (0.1 and 2...
July 12, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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