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Melissa Tomkins, Adi Kliot, Athanasius Fm Marée, Saskia A Hogenhout
Members of the Candidatus genus Phytoplasma are small bacterial pathogens that hijack their plant hosts via the secretion of virulence proteins (effectors) leading to a fascinating array of plant phenotypes, such as witch's brooms (stem proliferations) and phyllody (retrograde development of flowers into vegetative tissues). Phytoplasma depend on insect vectors for transmission, and interestingly, these insect vectors were found to be (in)directly attracted to plants with these phenotypes. Therefore, phytoplasma effectors appear to reprogram plant development and defence to lure insect vectors, similarly to social engineering malware, which employs tricks to lure people to infected computers and webpages...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Jejoong Yoo, Aleksei Aksimentiev
In contrast to ordinary polymers, the vast majority of biological macromolecules adopt highly ordered three-dimensional structures that define their functions. The key to folding of a biopolymer into a unique 3D structure or to an assembly of several biopolymers into a functional unit is a delicate balance between the attractive and repulsive forces that also makes such self-assembly reversible under physiological conditions. The all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) method has emerged as a powerful tool for studies of individual biomolecules and their functional assemblies, encompassing systems of ever increasing complexity...
March 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Irena F Creed, Ann-Kristin Bergström, Charles G Trick, Nancy B Grimm, Dag O Hessen, Jan Karlsson, Karen A Kidd, Emma Kritzberg, Diane M McKnight, Erika C Freeman, Oscar E Senar, Agneta Andersson, Jenny Ask, Martin Berggren, Mehdi Cherif, Reiner Giesler, Erin R Hotchkiss, Pirkko Kortelainen, Monica M Palta, Tobias Vrede, Gesa A Weyhenmeyer
Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM) - the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems - with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes...
March 15, 2018: Global Change Biology
Oliver Dukes, Stijn Vansteelandt
G-estimation is a flexible, semiparametric approach for estimating exposure effects in epidemiologic studies. It has several under-appreciated advantages over other propensity score-based methods popular in epidemiology, which we review in this note. However, it is rarely used in practice, due to a lack of off-the-shelf software. To rectify this, we show a simple trick for obtaining G-estimators of causal risk ratios using existing generalized estimating equations software. We extend the procedure to more complex settings with time-varying confounders...
March 12, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Jeong-Ik Park, Ki-Hun Kim, Hong-Jin Kim, Daniel Cherqui, Olivier Soubrane, David Kooby, Chinnusamy Palanivelu, Albert Chan, Young Kyoung You, Yao-Ming Wu, Kuo-Hsin Chen, Goro Honda, Xiao-Ping Chen, Chung-Ngai Tang, Ji Hoon Kim, Yang Seok Koh, Young-In Yoon, Kai Chi Cheng, Tran Cong Duy Long, Gi Hong Choi, Yuichiro Otsuka, Tan To Cheung, Taizo Hibi, Dong-Sik Kim, Hee Jung Wang, Hironori Kaneko, Dong-Sup Yoon, Etsuro Hatano, In Seok Choi, Dong Wook Choi, Ming-Te Huang, Sang Geol Kim, Sung-Gyu Lee
The application of laparoscopy for liver surgery is rapidly increasing and the past few years have demonstrated a shift in paradigm with a trend towards more extended and complex resections. The development of instruments and technical refinements with the effective use of magnified caudal laparoscopic views have contributed to the ability to overcome the limitation of laparoscopic liver resection. The Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgeons of Asia (ELSA) Visionary Summit 2017 and the 3rd Expert Forum of Asia-Pacific Laparoscopic Hepatectomy organized hepatobiliary pancreatic sessions in order to exchange surgical tips and tricks and discuss the current status and future perspectives of laparoscopic hepatectomy...
February 2018: Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery
Monika Schönauer, Svenja Brodt, Dorothee Pöhlchen, Anja Breßmer, Amory H Danek, Steffen Gais
During creative problem solving, initial solution attempts often fail because of self-imposed constraints that prevent us from thinking out of the box . In order to solve a problem successfully, the problem representation has to be restructured by combining elements of available knowledge in novel and creative ways. It has been suggested that sleep supports the reorganization of memory representations, ultimately aiding problem solving. In this study, we systematically tested the effect of sleep and time on problem solving, using classical insight tasks and magic tricks...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Darren K Patten, Giacomo Corleone, Luca Magnani
Chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) has become an essential tool for epigenetic scientists. ChIP-seq is used to map protein-DNA interactions and epigenetic marks such as histone modifications at the genome-wide level. Here we describe a complete ChIP-seq laboratory protocol (tailored toward processing tissue samples as well as cell lines) and the bioinformatic pipelines utilized for handling raw sequencing files through to peak calling.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
David R Walega, Zachary L McCormick
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 5, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Pascal Moreau
For many years the Hueter anterior approach has been performed exclusively in Paris. Robert and Jean Judet described it for the first time in 1950 in relation to total hip arthroplasty. They started using an orthopaedic surgery table in 1985. The approach was only taught within the capital's orthopaedic units and was relatively unknown before. In the last 10 years there has been widespread renewed interest in this approach which preserves the muscles. The technique is described in detail with its tricks and risks...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Natalia M Vior, Rodney Lacret, Govind Chandra, Siobhán Dorai-Raj, Martin Trick, Andrew W Truman
Bicyclomycin (BCM) is a clinically promising antibiotic that is biosynthesised by Streptomyces cinnamoneus DSM 41675. BCM is structurally characterized by a core cyclo(L-Ile-L-Leu) 2,5-diketopiperazine (DKP) that is extensively oxidized. Here, we identify the BCM biosynthetic gene cluster, which shows that the core of BCM is biosynthesised by a cyclodipeptide synthase and the oxidative modifications are introduced by five 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases and one cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. The discovery of the gene cluster enabled the identification of BCM pathways encoded in the genomes of hundreds of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates distributed globally, and heterologous expression of the pathway from P...
March 2, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Edward S Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Gerlig Widmann
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an important imaging technique for otorhinolaryngology. The aim of the present CME contribution for ENT physicians is to provide an overview of the advantages and disadvantages as well as the possibilities of head and neck MRI and to summarize the main clinical applications of the various MRI sequences. Basic sequences (T1w, T2w, T1wC+) and fat suppression sequences (TIRM/STIR, Dixon, Spectral Fat sat) are the basis for evaluating inflammation, congenital lesions and tumors...
March 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Bishwarup Paul, Sumana Annagiri
Thievery is ubiquitous in the animal kingdom, social insects not being an exception. Brood is invaluable for the survival of social insect colonies and brood theft is well documented in ants. In many species the stolen brood act as slaves in the thief colony as they take up tasks related to foraging, defence and colony maintenance. Slave-making (dulotic) ants are at an advantage as they gain workforce without investing in rearing immature young, and several slave-making species have been recorded in temperate regions...
2018: PloS One
Curt Tribble
While reoperative cardiac surgery has become safer in recent years, it is still more difficult and dangerous than a primary operation. In a recent review of the Cleveland Clinic's experience, 7% of the patients undergoing cardiac reoperations had major intraoperative adverse events (IAEs). In that report, if an IAE occurred, there was a 5% mortality and a 19% incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or death [Roselli 2011]. Those are sobering statistics, particularly when reported by one of the busiest cardiac surgical services in the world...
February 26, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
Antoinette Molinie, Geoffrey Bodenhausen
As a punishment for his trickery, King Sisyphus was made to endlessly roll a huge boulder up a steep hill. The maddening nature of the punishment was reserved for King Sisyphus due to his hubristic belief that his cleverness surpassed that of Zeus himself. Today's scientists also pay a heavy price for their hubris and narcissism. They try to trick the editors of a few 'top' journals by peppering their papers with glitter and 'bling-bling', making overblown promises, and giving minimal credit to their predecessors...
March 2018: Journal of Biosciences
C Sabbagh, L Rebibo, H Hariz, J M Regimbeau
The creation of a digestive stoma, whether it is a lateral stoma or a terminal stoma, is an essential gesture in colorectal surgery, but that may result in post-operative complications in 35% of patients. Surgeons are aware of the situations at the origin of complications, although there is little factual data in the literature to discriminate them. They are related to patient-specific factors (obesity, cirrhosis, portal hypertension) or to the underlying pathology (colon obstruction) or the conditions under which the intervention is performed (emergency)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Visceral Surgery
Michael J Ray, William E Trick, Michael Y Lin
OBJECTIVE Because antibacterial history is difficult to obtain, especially when the exposure occurred at an outside hospital, we assessed whether infection-related diagnostic billing codes, which are more readily available through hospital discharge databases, could infer prior antibacterial receipt. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS This study included 121,916 hospitalizations representing 78,094 patients across the 3 hospitals. METHODS We obtained hospital inpatient data from 3 Chicago-area hospitals...
February 20, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
H-J Trappe
The 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) is of great importance for the diagnostics of cardiac arrhythmias. For the correct and systematic analysis it has a sensitivity and specificity for the correct diagnosis of supraventricular tachycardia or ventricular tachycardia of more than 95%. Nevertheless, the assessment of cardiac rhythm disorders is difficult for many physicians. In this way errors can occur, frequently due to a non-systematic analysis of the ECG; therefore, the aim of this article is to present the techniques and the necessary knowledge for assessment of the most frequent bradycardiac and tachycardiac heart rhythm disorders...
February 15, 2018: Herz
Jon Cohen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2018: Science
Judith K Paulus, Renier A L van der Hoorn
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
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