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risk factors for urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis in pregnancy

A-K Labi, A E Yawson, G Y Ganyaglo, M J Newman
INTRODUCTION: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of acute urinary tract infection, predisposes pregnant women to the development of urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, with an attendant pregnancy related complications. OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ante-natal clients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana and its' associated risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 274 antenatal clients was conducted over a period of 4 weeks...
September 2015: Ghana Medical Journal
Thomas C Michels, Jarrett E Sands
The most common cause of acute dysuria is infection, especially cystitis. Other infectious causes include urethritis, sexually transmitted infections, and vaginitis. Noninfectious inflammatory causes include a foreign body in the urinary tract and dermatologic conditions. Noninflammatory causes of dysuria include medication use, urethral anatomic abnormalities, local trauma, and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. An initial targeted history includes features of a local cause (e.g., vaginal or urethral irritation), risk factors for a complicated urinary tract infection (e...
November 1, 2015: American Family Physician
M Zarepour, H Moradpoor, F Emamghorashi, S M Owji, M Roodaki, M Khamoushi
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group...
September 2015: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Joanna Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Jolanta Małyszko, Monika Wieliczko
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnant women and pose a great therapeutic challenge, since the risk of serious complications in both the mother and her child is high. Pregnancy is a state associated with physiological, structural and functional urinary tract changes which promote ascending infections from the urethra. Unlike the general population, all pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria with urine culture, and asymptomatic bacteriuria must be treated in every case that is diagnosed, as it is an important risk factor for pyelonephritis in this population...
March 16, 2015: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
N Bocquet, N Biebuyck, S Lortat Jacob, Y Aigrain, R Salomon, G Chéron
Pyelonephritis is a common bacterial disease in young children and is a serious infection because of its potential to produce renal scarring. One of the concerns of physicians is therefore the diagnosis of uropathy at risk for recurrence of pyelonephritis, especially high-grade reflux. There are no French recommendations on imaging evaluation after a first episode of pyelonephritis. Voiding cystography was systematically proposed years ago and recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics until 1999. This systematic strategy exposed all children to a painful, irradiating exam, and exposed them to urinary tract infection...
May 2015: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Ver Luanni Bilano, Erika Ota, Togoobaatar Ganchimeg, Rintaro Mori, João Paulo Souza
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia has an immense adverse impact on maternal and perinatal health especially in low- and middle-income settings. We aimed to estimate the associations between pre-eclampsia/eclampsia and its risk factors, and adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health. The survey was a multi-country, facility-based cross-sectional study. A global sample consisting of 24 countries from three regions and 373 health facilities was obtained via a stratified multi-stage cluster sampling design...
2014: PloS One
Suvi Leppälahti, Mika Gissler, Maarit Mentula, Oskari Heikinheimo
OBJECTIVE: To assess obstetric outcomes in teenage pregnancies in a country with a low teenage delivery rate and comprehensive high-quality prenatal care. DESIGN: Retrospective population-based register study. SETTING: Finland. PARTICIPANTS: All nulliparous teenagers (13-15 years (n=84), 16-17 years (n=1234), 18-19 years (n=5987)) and controls (25-year-old to 29-year-old women (n=51 142)) with singleton deliveries in 2006-2011...
August 19, 2013: BMJ Open
Young Seo Park
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial illness in children. Acute pyelonephritis in children may lead to renal scarring with the risk of later hypertension, preeclampsia during pregnancy, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. Until now, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been considered the most important risk factor for post-UTI renal scar formation in children. VUR predisposes children with UTI to pyelonephritis, and both are associated with renal scarring. However, reflux nephropathy is not always acquired; rather, it reflects reflux-associated congenital dysplastic kidneys...
October 2012: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Evelina Farkash, Adi Y Weintraub, Ruslan Sergienko, Arnon Wiznitzer, Alex Zlotnik, Eyal Sheiner
OBJECTIVE: To test the incidence and sonographic parameters of pyelonephritis during pregnancy, and to examine risk factors and pregnancy outcomes of women with acute antepartum pyelonephritis. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of patients with and without acute antepartum pyelonephritis was performed. Patients lacking prenatal care as well as multiple gestations were excluded from the study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to control for confounders...
May 2012: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Cristiana Rollino, Leonardo D'Urso, Giulietta Beltrame, Michela Ferro, Giacomo Quattrocchio, Francesco Quarello
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) may be congenital or acquired. The most frequent form of congenital VUR is primary VUR. Its prevalence in adults is not exactly known, but it is higher in women, whose greater propensity for urinary tract infections increases the likelihood of an instrumental examination leading to the diagnosis of less severe cases. In men, even severe VUR may go undiagnosed for a long time. Primary VUR is due to a defect in the valve mechanism of the ureterovesical junction. In physiological conditions, the terminal ureter enters the bladder wall obliquely and bladder contraction leads to compression of this intravesical portion...
November 2011: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Eran Rosenberg, Ruslan Sergienko, Sara Abu-Ghanem, Arnon Wiznitzer, Igor Romanowsky, Endre Z Neulander, Eyal Sheiner
PURPOSE: To evaluate obstetric complications and birth outcome in pregnant women with nephrolithiasis. METHODS: A retrospective population-based study comparing all pregnancies of women with and without nephrolithiasis between 1989 and 2010 was conducted. Clinical characteristics were compared, and the obstetric risk factors and labor complication were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed in order to identify independent risk factors for nephrolithiasis...
December 2011: World Journal of Urology
S M P J Jans, A de Jonge, A L M Lagro-Janssen
With the introduction of screening programmes for haemoglobinopathies (HbP), more women will be aware of their HbP status. The genetic risk for women who are carriers of HbP is well known. However, midwives and obstetricians need to know whether there are other risks involved in the pregnancies of women who are carriers of HbP. The objective of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that being a carrier of HbP has no consequences for the health of pregnant women and the outcome of their pregnancies. A systematic search was carried out until August 2008 in the Cochrane Library, Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases...
November 2010: International Journal of Clinical Practice
Yi-Kuang Chen, Shu-Fen Chen, Hsien-Chang Li, Herng-Ching Lin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes (low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth, and small-for-gestational age (SGA)) in pregnant women with urinary tract infections (UTIs) using a 3-year nationwide population-based database, simultaneously taking characteristics of infant and mother into consideration. Design. Retrospective cross-sectional study. SETTING: Taiwan. SAMPLE: In total, 42,742 mothers with UTIs and 42,742 randomly selected mothers were included...
July 2010: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Joanne Shields, Alexander P Maxwell
Urinary tract infection (UTI) may predominantly involve the lower urinary tract, i.e. acute cystitis, or upper urinary tract consisting of the renal pelvis and kidney,, i.e. acute pyelonephritis The incidence of acute pyelonephritis is higher in young women than in men but the incidence in men over 65 is similar to that in older women. Women have up to a 10% risk of recurrent acute pyelonephritis in the year following a first acute episode. The equivalent risk in men is 6%. Acute pyelonephritis may be uncomplicated and resolve without serious sequelae...
April 2010: Practitioner
François Caron
This article comments on the new recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs), issued in 2008 by the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS). The terms uncomplicated and complicated UTIs have been retained ; complicated UTIs are those with risk factor for complication (rather than with established complications). In women, age (>or= 65 years) is no longer considered itself a risk factor for complications. In men, cystitis must be treated as prostatitis...
January 2010: La Presse Médicale
José Antonio Pérez Arbej, María Isabel Cameo Rico
BACKGROUND: The renal parenchyma acute infection, known as acute pyelonephritis (APN), is diagnosed and treated in some Hospital Departments of the H.C.U. Lozano Blesa. We want to know if the process was made in a homogeneous way, fixed to the described quality standards and if we could detect improvement areas. METHODS: Retrospective study in admitted patients with the diagnosis of APN over and 2 year period (11-05/10-07), evaluating some variables referred to epidemiological data, diagnosis, treatment and evolution...
April 2009: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Mary C Clarke, Antti Tanskanen, Matti Huttunen, John C Whittaker, Mary Cannon
OBJECTIVE: The authors sought to determine whether prenatal exposure to infection and a positive family history of psychotic disorders interact synergistically to increase the risk of later developing schizophrenia. METHOD: The authors linked two national registers, the Medical Birth Register and the Finnish Population Register, to identify all women in Helsinki who received hospital treatment during pregnancy for an upper urinary tract infection (N=9,596) between 1947 and 1990...
September 2009: American Journal of Psychiatry
Geraldo Duarte, Alessandra Cristina Marcolin, Silvana Maria Quintana, Ricardo Carvalho Cavalli
Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI...
February 2008: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
J Schnarr, F Smaill
Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnant women. A history of previous urinary tract infections and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for bacteriuria in pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common aetiologic agent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection and quantitative culture is the gold standard for diagnosis. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been shown to reduce the rate of pyelonephritis in pregnancy and therefore screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has become a standard of obstetrical care...
October 2008: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Dimitri M Drekonja, James R Johnson
Urinary tract infection (UTI), with its diverse clinical syndromes and affected host groups, remains one of the most common but widely misunderstood and challenging infectious diseases encountered in clinical practice. Antimicrobial resistance is a leading concern, with few oral options available to treat infections caused by Gram-negative organisms resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and fluoroquinolones, especially for patients with upper tract disease. Efforts should be made not to detect or treat asymptomatic bacteriuria and funguria; to ensure an appropriate duration of therapy for symptomatic infections; and to limit the use of broad-spectrum agents, especially fluoroquinolones, if narrower spectrum agents are available...
June 2008: Primary Care
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