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Fetal compromise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456901/awake-craniotomy-for-the-treatment-of-a-cortical-pseudoaneurysm-in-a-pregnant-patient
#1
Hirad Hedayat, Daniel R Felbaum, John E Reynolds, Rashid M Janjua
Neurosurgical pathologies presenting during pregnancy are uncommon. If present, the situation creates a unique diagnostic, observational, and therapeutic challenge as both lives are placed at potential risk. Surgical procedures during pregnancy are approached carefully as physiological stressors associated with surgery and anesthesia may cause fetal or maternal compromise. We present the only known case of a pseudoaneurysm treated with an awake craniotomy, allowing us to abate the risks associated with general anesthesia in pregnancy...
December 7, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453123/an-experiential-model-of-education-introduced-to-improve-the-confidence-of-student-midwives-in-undertaking-second-stage-management-of-the-perineum-ssmp
#2
Teresa Arias, Kirstie Coxon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: the limited availability of high quality evidence related to second stage management of the perineum (SSMP) combined with a perceived shift in UK practice towards a 'hands off' the perineum/fetal head approach are likely to have impacted significantly on student midwives' understanding of SSMP. This paper presents a classroom based educational session using low fidelity simulation, which was designed in response to student feedback and aimed to improve confidence in this skill...
February 13, 2018: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437032/computerised-interpretation-of-the-fetal-heart-rate-during-labour-a-randomised-controlled-trial-infant
#3
Peter Brocklehurst, David Field, Keith Greene, Edmund Juszczak, Sara Kenyon, Louise Linsell, Chris Mabey, Mary Newburn, Rachel Plachcinski, Maria Quigley, Philip Steer, Liz Schroeder, Oliver Rivero-Arias
BACKGROUND: Continuous electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) in labour is widely used and computerised interpretation has the potential to increase its utility. OBJECTIVES: This trial aimed to find out whether or not the addition of decision support software to assist in the interpretation of the cardiotocograph (CTG) reduced the number of poor neonatal outcomes, and whether or not it was cost-effective. DESIGN: Two-arm individually randomised controlled trial...
February 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406989/excessive-fetal-movements-are-a-sign-of-fetal-compromise-which-merits-further-examination
#4
Alexander E P Heazell, Tomasina Stacey, Louise M O'Brien, Edwin A Mitchell, Jane Warland
Changes in fetal movement are associated with increased risk of stillbirth after 28 weeks of pregnancy. The majority of studies have focussed on maternal perception of reduced fetal movements, which is associated with stillbirth via placental dysfunction. Recent studies have also described an association between a single episode of excessive fetal movements and late stillbirth. We present a hypothesis that a sudden episode of excessive fetal activity indicates fetal compromise relating to underlying disturbance of the in utero environment, which if it persists can lead to fetal death...
February 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405479/persistent-extreme-hyperextension-of-the-fetal-neck-clinical-and-neuroimaging-findings
#5
Shai Shrot, Clark T Johnson, W Christopher Golden, Ahmet A Baschat, Janine E Bullard, Aylin Tekes, Andrea Poretti, Emily Dunn, Thierry A G M Huisman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Persistent hyperextension of the fetal craniocervical junction or neck is one of several fetal positions commonly observed on prenatal imaging. Underlying fetal structural etiologies such as fetal neck masses and iniencephaly can be detected as causes of hyperextension. Caesarean delivery is considered in cases of vaginal delivery or obstructed labor for fear of cervical spinal cord injury. In this case series, we describe the prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and their potential role in obstetric management and discuss postnatal outcomes in fetuses demonstrating prenatal imaging findings of persistent extreme hyperextension of the neck...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384053/viral-infections-in-pregnancy-a-focus-on-ebola-virus
#6
Nicole S Olgun
During gestation, the immune response of the placenta to viruses and other pathogens plays an important role in determining a pregnant woman's vulnerability toward infectious diseases. Located at the maternal- fetal interface, trophoblast cells serve to minimize the spread of viruses between the host and developing fetus through an intricate system of innate antiviral immune signaling. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, ranging from learning disabilities to preterm birth and fetal death, are all documented results of a viral breach in the placental barrier...
January 30, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364882/quantitative-and-histological-assessment-of-maternal-fetal-transmission-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-guinea-pigs-an-experimental-model-of-congenital-chagas-disease
#7
Jatziri Torres-Vargas, Matilde Jiménez-Coello, Eugenia Guzmán-Marín, Karla Y Acosta-Viana, Zaida E Yadon, Eduardo Gutiérrez-Blanco, José Leonardo Guillermo-Cordero, Nisha J Garg, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of Trypanosoma cruzi infection on fertility, gestation outcome, and maternal-fetal transmission in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). METHODS: Animals were infected with T. cruzi H4 strain (TcI lineage) before gestation (IBG) or during gestation (IDG). Tissue and sera samples of dams and fetuses were obtained near parturition. RESULTS: All IBG and IDG dams were seropositive by two tests, and exhibited blood parasite load of 1...
January 24, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357521/intermittent-hypoxia-in-utero-damages-postnatal-growth-and-cardiovascular-function-in-rats
#8
Ling Chen, Zahra Heidari Zadi, Jin Zhang, Steven M Scharf, Eung-Kwon Pae
PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in pregnancy, and may compromise fetal and even postnatal development. We developed an animal model to determine if maternal OSA could have lasting effects in offspring. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to reduced ambient O2 from 21 to 4-5 %, approximately once/minute (chronic intermittent hypoxia - CIH) for 8 hours/day during gestation days 3-19. Similarly-handled animals exposed to ambient air served as controls (HC)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338033/intermittent-low-dose-carbon-monoxide-exposure-enhances-survival-and-dopaminergic-differentiation-of-human-neural-stem-cells
#9
Nanna Dreyer-Andersen, Ana Sofia Almeida, Pia Jensen, Morad Kamand, Justyna Okarmus, Tine Rosenberg, Stig Düring Friis, Alberto Martínez Serrano, Morten Blaabjerg, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Troels Skrydstrup, Jan Bert Gramsbergen, Helena L A Vieira, Morten Meyer
Exploratory studies using human fetal tissue have suggested that intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons may become a future treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the use of human fetal tissue is compromised by ethical, regulatory and practical concerns. Human stem cells constitute an alternative source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but efficient protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation need to be developed. Short-term, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been shown to affect signaling in several tissues, resulting in both protection and generation of reactive oxygen species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335435/placental-morphology-is-associated-with-maternal-depressive-symptoms-during-pregnancy-and-toddler-psychiatric-problems
#10
Marius Lahti-Pulkkinen, Melissa Jane Cudmore, Eva Haeussner, Christoph Schmitz, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Esa Hämäläinen, Pia M Villa, Susanna Mehtälä, Eero Kajantie, Hannele Laivuori, Rebecca M Reynolds, Hans-Georg Frank, Katri Räikkönen
Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy predict increased psychiatric problems in children. The underlying biological mechanisms remain unclear. Hence, we examined whether alterations in the morphology of 88 term placentas were associated with maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy and psychiatric problems in 1.9-3.1-years old (Mean = 2.1 years) toddlers. Maternal depressive symptoms were rated biweekly during pregnancy with the Center of Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (n = 86)...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325518/experiences-of-gestational-diabetes-and-gestational-diabetes-care-a-focus-group-and-interview-study
#11
Judith Parsons, Katherine Sparrow, Khalida Ismail, Katharine Hunt, Helen Rogers, Angus Forbes
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is an increasingly common condition of pregnancy. It is associated with adverse fetal, infant and maternal outcomes, as well as an increased risk of GDM in future pregnancies and type 2 diabetes for both mother and offspring. Previous studies have shown that GDM can result in an emotionally distressing pregnancy, but there is little research on the patient experience of GDM care, especially of a demographically diverse UK population. The aim of this research was to explore the experiences of GDM and GDM care for a group of women attending a large diabetes pregnancy unit in southeast London, UK, in order to improve care...
January 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321569/xeno-free-pre-vascularized-spheroids-for-therapeutic-applications
#12
E Bauman, T Feijão, D T O Carvalho, P L Granja, C C Barrias
Spheroid culture has gained increasing popularity, arising as a promising tool for regenerative medicine applications. Importantly, spheroids may present advantages over single-cell suspensions in cell-based therapies (CT). Unfortunately, most growth media used for spheroid culture contain animal origin-components, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS). The presence of FBS compromises the safety of CT and presents economic and ethical constraints. SCC (supplement for cell culture) is a novel xeno-free (XF) industrial cell culture supplement, derived from well-controlled pooled human plasma and processed under good manufacturing practice rules...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316994/fetal-dha-inadequacy-and-the-impact-on-child-neurodevelopment-a-follow-up-of-a-randomised-trial-of-maternal-dha-supplementation-in-pregnancy
#13
Kelly A Mulder, Rajavel Elango, Sheila M Innis
DHA is an important component of neural lipids accumulating in neural tissue during development. Inadequate DHA in gestation may compromise infant development, but it is unknown whether there are lasting effects. We sought to determine whether the observed effects of fetal DHA inadequacy on infant development persist into early childhood. This follow-up study assessed children (5-6 years) whose mothers received 400 mg/d DHA or a placebo during pregnancy. Child neurodevelopment was assessed with several age-appropriate tests including the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children...
January 10, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306096/embryotoxic-cytokines-potential-roles-in-embryo-loss-and-fetal-programming
#14
REVIEW
Sarah A Robertson, Peck-Yin Chin, Joseph G Femia, Hannah M Brown
Cytokines in the reproductive tract environment at conception mediate a dialogue between the embryo and maternal tissues to profoundly influence embryo development and implantation success. Through effects on gene expression and the cell stress response, cytokines elicit an epigenetic impact with consequences for placental development and fetal growth, which in turn affect metabolic phenotype and long-term health of offspring. There is substantial evidence demonstrating that pro-survival cytokines, such as GM-CSF, CSF1, LIF, HB-EGF and IGFII, support embryos to develop optimally...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289577/longitudinal-serum-and-urine-steroid-metabolite-profiling-in-a-46-xy-infant-with-prenatally-identified-por-deficiency
#15
Hiroyuki Ono, Chikahiko Numakura, Keiko Homma, Tomonobu Hasegawa, Seiji Tsutsumi, Fumiko Kato, Yasuko Fujisawa, Maki Fukami, Tsutomu Ogata
Although POR deficiency (PORD) is assumed to be accompanied by excessive placental androgen accumulation and enhanced adrenal and testicular androgen production via the backdoor pathway as well as compromised testicular androgen production via the frontdoor pathway, there is no direct evidence for the flux of excessive placental androgens into the fetal circulation and for the production of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via the backdoor pathway. We examined longitudinal serum and urine steroid metabolite profiles in a 46,XY infant with PORD who was prenatally identified because of the progressive fetal masculinization and maternal virilization from the mid-gestation and the presence of fetal radio-humeral synostosis and was confirmed to have compound heterozygous mutations of POR (p...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287132/fetal-echocardiography-for-planning-perinatal-and-delivery-room-care-of-neonates-with-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Laura Sanapo, Jay D Pruetz, Maciej Słodki, M Beth Goens, Anita J Moon-Grady, Mary T Donofrio
Fetal echocardiography facilitates the prenatal diagnosis of infants with congenital heart disease (CHD) and through sequential examinations, allows assessment of fetal hemodynamics and cardiovascular status from the time of diagnosis to delivery. Fetal cardiologists have created diagnostic protocols aimed at risk stratifying severity and potential postnatal compromise in fetuses with CHD, and identifying those who may require special intervention at birth or within the first days of life. In this article, we review fetal cardiovascular physiology, the progression of CHD in utero and fetal echocardiographic findings used for risk stratification of newborns with CHD, as well as some of the basic principles of planning for the neonatal resuscitation and initial transitional care of these complex newborns...
December 2017: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277631/a-proteomic-clock-of-human-pregnancy
#17
Nima Aghaeepour, Benoit Lehallier, Quentin Baca, Ed A Ganio, Ronald J Wong, Mohammad S Ghaemi, Anthony Culos, Yasser Y El-Sayed, Yair J Blumenfeld, Maurice L Druzin, Virginia D Winn, Ronald S Gibbs, Rob Tibshirani, Gary M Shaw, David K Stevenson, Brice Gaudilliere, Martin S Angst
BACKGROUND: Early detection of maladaptive processes underlying pregnancy-related pathologies is desirable, as it will enable targeted interventions ahead of clinical manifestations. The quantitative analysis of plasma proteins features prominently among molecular approaches used to detect deviations from normal pregnancy. However, derivation of proteomic signatures sufficiently predictive of pregnancy-related outcomes has been challenging. An important obstacle hindering such efforts were limitations in assay technology, which prevented the broad examination of the plasma proteome...
December 22, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277266/changes-in-maternal-placental-growth-factor-levels-during-term-labour
#18
Liam Dunn, Christopher Flatley, Sailesh Kumar
Placental growth factor (PlGF) has important angiogenic function that is critical to placental development. Lower levels of PlGF are associated with fetal growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and intrapartum fetal compromise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of labour on maternal PlGF levels. METHOD: This was a prospective observational cohort study. Normotensive women with a singleton, normally grown, non-anomalous, fetus between 37 + 0 and 42 + 0 weeks gestation were eligible for inclusion...
January 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241813/prenatal-stress-challenge-impairs-fetal-lung-development-and-asthma-severity-sex-specifically-in-mice
#19
Dimitra E Zazara, Clara V Perani, María E Solano, Petra C Arck
Allergic asthma is an increasing health problem worldwide. Interestingly, prenatal challenges such as stress have been associated with an increased risk for asthma during childhood. The underlying pathogenesis of how prenatal stress increases the risk for asthma still remains unclear. Potential targets could be that the fetal immune ontogeny or fetal lung development are compromised by prenatal challenges. Here, we aimed to identify whether prenatal stress challenge affects fetal lung development in mice. C57BL/6 pregnant mice were challenged with sound stress and fetal lung development was assessed histologically...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235178/the-gp130-cytokine-il-11-regulates-engraftment-of-vav1-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cells-in-lethally-irradiated-recipients
#20
Serena De Vita, Yanhua Li, Chad E Harris, Meaghan K McGuinness, Clement Ma, David A Williams
During bone marrow transplantation (BMT), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) respond to signals from the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM) by coordinately activating molecular pathways through Rho GTPases, including Rac. We have previously shown that deletion of Vav1, a hematopoietic-specific activator of Rac, compromises engraftment of transplanted adult HSPCs without affecting steady-state hematopoiesis in adult animals. Here, we show that Vav1-/- fetal HSPCs can appropriately seed hematopoietic tissues during ontogeny but cannot engraft into lethally irradiated recipients...
December 13, 2017: Stem Cells
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