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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932228/pertussis-maternal-immunization-narrowing-the-knowledge-gaps-on-the-duration-of-transferred-protective-immunity-and-on-vaccination-frequency
#1
María Emilia Gaillard, Daniela Bottero, María Eugenia Zurita, Francisco Carriquiriborde, Pablo Martin Aispuro, Erika Bartel, David Sabater-Martínez, María Sol Bravo, Celina Castuma, Daniela Flavia Hozbor
Maternal safety through pertussis vaccination and subsequent maternal-fetal-antibody transfer are well documented, but information on infant protection from pertussis by such antibodies and by subsequent vaccinations is scarce. Since mice are used extensively for maternal-vaccination studies, we adopted that model to narrow those gaps in our understanding of maternal pertussis immunization. Accordingly, we vaccinated female mice with commercial acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine and measured offspring protection against Bordetella pertussis challenge and specific-antibody levels with or without revaccination...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926843/the-genetic-basis-of-delayed-puberty
#2
S R Howard, Leo Dunkel
<br>The genetic control of puberty remains an important but mostly unanswered question. Late pubertal timing affects over 2% of adolescents and is associated with adverse health outcomes including short stature, reduced bone mineral density and compromised psychosocial health. Self-limited delayed puberty (DP) is a highly heritable trait, which often segregates in an autosomal dominant pattern; however, its neuroendocrine pathophysiology and genetic regulation remain unclear. Some insights into the genetic mutations that lead to familial DP have come from sequencing genes known to cause GnRH deficiency, most recently via next generation sequencing, and others from large-scale genome wide association studies in the general population...
September 18, 2017: Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915123/placental-examination-in-nonmacerated-stillbirth-versus-neonatal-mortality
#3
Jerzy Stanek
AIM: To retrospectively statistically compare clinical and placental phenotypes of nonmacerated fetuses and live-born perinatal deaths in 3rd trimester pregnancies. METHODS: Twenty-five clinical and 47 placental phenotypes were statistically compared among 93 cases of nonmacerated (intrapartum, or recent antepartum death) 3rd trimester fetal deaths (Group 1), 118 3rd trimester neonatal deaths (Group 2) and 4285 cases without perinatal mortality (Group 3). RESULTS: Sixteen clinical and placental phenotypes were statistically significantly different between Group 3 and the two groups of perinatal deaths, which included eight placental phenotypes of fetal vascular malperfusion and eight other placental phenotypes of various etiology (amnion nodosum, 2-vessel umbilical cord, villous edema, increased extracellular matrix of chorionic villi, erythroblasts in fetal blood and trophoblastic lesions of shallow placentation)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904711/factors-determining-late-antenatal-care-booking-and-the-content-of-care-among-pregnant-mother-attending-antenatal-care-services-in-east-wollega-administrative-zone-west-ethiopia
#4
Eyasu Ejeta, Regea Dabsu, Olifan Zewdie, Elias Merdassa
INTRODUCTION: Antenatal care (ANC) is important for both maternal and fetal health. However, the existing evidence from developing countries indicates that most pregnant women attending ANC in their late pregnancy. Little is known about the factors determining ANC booking and the content of care among pregnant women in West part of Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify factors determining late ANC booking and the content of care among pregnant mother attending antenatal care services in East Wollega administrative zone, West Ethiopia...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902389/women-s-experiences-of-continuous-fetal-monitoring-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#5
Alexandra Crawford, Dexter Hayes, Edward D Johnstone, Alexander E P Heazell
INTRODUCTION: Antepartum stillbirth is often preceded by detectable signs of fetal compromise, including changes in fetal heart rate and movement. It is hypothesised that continuous fetal monitoring could detect these signs more accurately and objectively than current forms of fetal monitoring and allow for timely intervention. This systematic review aimed to explore available evidence on women's experiences of continuous fetal monitoring to investigate its acceptability prior to clinical implementation and to inform clinical studies...
September 13, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899735/a-randomised-comparison-of-bolus-phenylephrine-and-ephedrine-for-the-management-of-spinal-hypotension-in-patients-with-severe-preeclampsia-and-fetal-compromise
#6
R A Dyer, A Emmanuel, S C Adams, C J Lombard, M J Arcache, A Vorster, C A Wong, N Higgins, A R Reed, M F James, Y Joolay, S Schulein, D van Dyk
BACKGROUND: Studies in healthy patients undergoing elective caesarean delivery show that, compared with phenylephrine, ephedrine used to treat spinal hypotension is associated with increased fetal acidosis. This has not been investigated prospectively in women with severe preeclampsia. METHODS: Patients with preeclampsia requiring caesarean delivery for a non-reassuring fetal heart tracing were randomised to receive either bolus ephedrine (7.5-15mg) or phenylephrine (50-100µg), to treat spinal hypotension...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899619/first-do-the-experiment-do-computerised-interpretation-of-cardiotocography-and-other-widely-used-interventions-improve-newborn-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Philip Steer
The introduction of continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) in labour has coincided with a steady and remarkable fall in perinatal mortality. Whether this is cause or coincidence remains unclear because randomised trials have been underpowered. Attempts to improve the sensitivity and specificity of fetal compromise detection using fetal blood sampling and pH measurement, pulse oximetry, and fetal electrocardiogram analysis have failed to provide evidence of additional value in randomised trials...
September 9, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887224/the-zebrafish-as-a-promising-tool-for-modeling-human-brain-disorders-a-review-based-upon-an-ibns-symposium
#8
REVIEW
Soaleha Shams, Jason Rihel, Jose G Ortiz, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity, features that make it useful for modeling and mechanistic analysis of complex brain disorders. Also promising are screens for psychoactive drugs with effects on larval and adult zebrafish behavior. This review, based upon a recent symposium held at the 2016 IBNS Congress, provides different perspectives on how the zebrafish may be utilized to advance research into human central nervous system disorders. It starts with a discussion on an important bottleneck in zebrafish research, measuring the behavior of this species (specifically shoaling), and continues with examples on research on autism spectrum disorder in larval zebrafish, on screening natural products for compounds with psychoactive properties in adult zebrafish, and on the development of a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders...
September 5, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855306/il-23-drives-differentiation-of-peripheral-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-17-t-cells-from-adult-bone-marrow-derived-precursors
#9
Pedro H Papotto, Natacha Gonçalves-Sousa, Nina Schmolka, Andrea Iseppon, Sofia Mensurado, Brigitta Stockinger, Julie C Ribot, Bruno Silva-Santos
Pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-17-producing γδ (γδ17) T cells are thought to develop exclusively in the thymus during fetal/perinatal life, as adult bone marrow precursors fail to generate γδ17 T cells under homeostatic conditions. Here, we employ a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in which hematopoiesis is reset by bone marrow transplantation and demonstrate unequivocally that Vγ4(+) γδ17 T cells can develop de novo in draining lymph nodes in response to innate stimuli...
August 30, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854319/slow-advancement-of-enteral-feed-volumes-to-prevent-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#10
REVIEW
Sam J Oddie, Lauren Young, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: Early enteral feeding practices are potentially modifiable risk factors for necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in very preterm or very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. Observational studies suggest that conservative feeding regimens, including slowly advancing enteral feed volumes, reduce the risk of NEC. However, slow feed advancement may delay establishment of full enteral feeding and may be associated with metabolic and infectious morbidities secondary to prolonged exposure to parenteral nutrition...
August 30, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844203/neonatal-renal-and-inferior-vena-cava-thrombosis-associated-with-fetal-thrombotic-vasculopathy-a-case-report
#11
Lorenzo Giacchetti, Martina De Gaudenzi, Andrea Leoncini, Elisabetta Ferrucci, Valdo Pezzoli, Manuela Albisetti
BACKGROUND: Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy is a described placental diagnosis associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. It may also predispose children to somatic thromboembolic events. As far as we know, this is the first case of inferior vena cava thrombosis associated with fetal thrombotic vasculopathy in a completely asymptomatic newborn. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an asymptomatic, full-term Turkish male neonate delivered at 39 weeks of gestation diagnosed as having thrombosis of the renal vein and inferior vena cava...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843181/early-prenatal-androgen-exposure-reduces-testes-size-and-sperm-concentration-in-sheep-without-altering-neuroendocrine-differentiation-and-masculine-sexual-behavior
#12
C M Scully, C T Estill, R Amodei, A McKune, K P Gribbin, M Meaker, F Stormshak, C E Roselli
Prenatal androgens are largely responsible for growth and differentiation of the genital tract and testis and for organization of the control mechanisms regulating male reproductive physiology and behavior. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of inappropriate exposure to excess testosterone (T) during the first trimester of fetal development on the reproductive function, sexual behavior, and fertility potential of rams. We found that biweekly maternal T propionate (100 mg) treatment administered from Day 30-58 of gestation significantly decreased (P < 0...
July 29, 2017: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837134/clinician-performed-ultrasound-in-fetal-growth-restriction-fetal-neonatal-and-pediatric-aspects
#13
A Sehgal, F Crispi, M R Skilton, W-P de Boode
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) affects 7-10% pregnancies. Conventional and tissue Doppler imaging has noted cardiac compromise during fetal and early neonatal periods in this cohort. In this article, we discuss the use of salient ultrasound parameters across age groups. During fetal life, certain feto-placental sonographic parameters have been linked to adverse perinatal outcomes and are predictive of later life hypertension. During the early postnatal period altered morphometry (hypertrophied and globular hearts) with sub-clinical impairment of cardiac function has been noted in both term and preterm infants with FGR...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819007/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-therapy-on-lung-structure-in-growth-restricted-newborn-lambs
#14
Graeme R Polglase, Jade Barbuto, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Keith E Schulze, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Sharon D Ricardo, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress arising from suboptimal placental function contributes to a multitude of pathologies in infants compromised by fetal growth restriction (FGR). FGR infants are at high risk for respiratory dysfunction after birth and poor long-term lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress to adverse lung development and the effects of melatonin administration, a powerful anti-oxidant, on lung structure in FGR lambs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811816/unicornuate-uterus-with-a-rudimentary-horn-diagnosed-at-scheduled-third-cesarean-section
#15
Serkan Bodur, Ulas Fidan, Mehmet Ferdi Kinci, Kazim Emre Karasahin
A unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is an anomaly caused by defective fusion of the Müllerian duct, estimated to occur in one in 76,000 pregnancies. Life threateningly heavy bleeding is a highly expected clinical consequence of such pregnancies. According to the known literature, only two living twins and few living singleton pregnancies have been reported up to now. Here we report on an incidentally diagnosed unicornuate uterus with a communicating rudimentary horn, found during a cesarean section of a gravida 3, parity 2 (G3 P2) patient...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801392/can-promoting-awareness-of-fetal-movements-and-focusing-interventions-reduce-fetal-mortality-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial-affirm
#16
Alexander E P Heazell, Christopher J Weir, Sarah J E Stock, Catherine J Calderwood, Sarah Cunningham Burley, J Frederik Froen, Michael Geary, Alyson Hunter, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Edile Murdoch, Aryelly Rodriguez, Mary Ross-Davie, Janet Scott, Sonia Whyte, Jane E Norman
BACKGROUND: In 2013, the stillbirth rate in the UK was 4.2 per 1000 live births, ranking 24th out of 49 high-income countries, with an annual rate of reduction of only 1.4% per year. The majority of stillbirths occur in normally formed infants, with (retrospective) evidence of placental insufficiency the most common clinical finding. Maternal perception of reduced fetal movements (RFM) is associated with placental insufficiency and increased risk of subsequent stillbirth.This study will test the hypothesis that the introduction of a package of care to increase women's awareness of the need for prompt reporting of RFM and standardised management to identify fetal compromise with timely delivery in confirmed cases, will reduce the rate of stillbirth...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781772/enriched-endoplasmic-reticulum-mitochondria-interactions-result-in-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-apoptosis-in-oocytes-from-obese-mice
#17
Lihong Zhao, Tengfei Lu, Lei Gao, Xiangwei Fu, Shien Zhu, Yunpeng Hou
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity alters oocytes and subsequent fetal metabolism. An increasing number of studies have shown that the endoplasmic reticulums (ER) or mitochondria have important effects on oocyte quality, but there has been no study of the effect of mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs) on oocyte quality. The present study was designed to assess whether the level of MAM and MAM-related proteins were different in oocytes from obese and control mice. RESULTS: First, oocytes from mice with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity had higher levels (either greater numbers or a higher proportion for the same numbers) of MAM than oocytes from control mice...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746928/diagnostic-performance-of-cerebroplacental-ratio-thresholds-at-term-for-prediction-of-low-birthweight-and-adverse-intrapartum-and-neonatal-outcomes-in-a-term-low-risk-population
#18
Larissa N Bligh, Amal Al Solai, Ristan M Greer, Sailesh Kumar
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the screening performance and best threshold centile (5th vs. 10th) of the cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) in low-risk, term pregnancies to predict low birthweight and adverse intrapartum and neonatal outcomes in a term, low-risk population. METHODS: This was a blinded, prospective, cross-sectional study of low-risk singleton pregnancies at term. Women attended fortnightly from 36 weeks for CPR and estimated fetal weight assessment. Intrapartum and neonatal outcomes were recorded...
July 27, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744200/effect-of-neuroinflammation-on-synaptic-organization-and-function-in-the-developing-brain-implications-for-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#19
Amin Mottahedin, Maryam Ardalan, Tetyana Chumak, Ilse Riebe, Joakim Ek, Carina Mallard
The brain is a plastic organ where both the intrinsic CNS milieu and extrinsic cues play important roles in shaping and wiring neural connections. The perinatal period constitutes a critical time in central nervous system development with extensive refinement of neural connections, which are highly sensitive to fetal and neonatal compromise, such as inflammatory challenges. Emerging evidence suggests that inflammatory cells in the brain such as microglia and astrocytes are pivotal in regulating synaptic structure and function...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730907/the-rs10229583-polymorphism-near-paired-box-gene-4-is-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-in-chinese-women
#20
Tianyi Xu, Yiru Shi, Jiangbo Liu, Yun Liu, Ailin Zhu, Cui Xie, Yan Zhang, Yan Chen, Lirong Ren
Objective The rs10229583 polymorphism near paired box gene 4 ( PAX4) is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Mutations in the PAX4 gene may be associated with impaired differentiation/development of pancreatic islet beta cells during fetal development and, consequently, a compromised insulin response to high blood glucose. To ascertain whether this polymorphism plays a role in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we investigated the genotypic and allele frequency differences between GDM and normal pregnancies...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
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