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Fetal compromise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521219/antifouling-zwitterionic-hydrogel-coating-improves-hemocompatibility-of-activated-carbon-hemoadsorbent
#1
Nana Cai, Qingsi Li, Jiamin Zhang, Tong Xu, Weiqiang Zhao, Jing Yang, Lei Zhang
Activated carbon has been widely used in hemoperfusion treatments. However, its performance has been significantly compromised by their poor hemocompatibility. In this work, we developed a novel antifouling adsorbent based on zwitterionic poly-carboxybetaine (PCB) hydrogel and powdered activated carbon (PAC) to improve hemocompatibility. We found this new adsorbent (PCB-PAC) was highly stable with negligible leakage of activated carbon debris. It could efficiently resist protein adsorption and avoid any hemolysis effect...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506493/strategies-for-investigating-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-what-can-we-learn-about-pathology
#2
Judith E Cartwright, Guy StJ Whitley
The pathologies of the pregnancy complications pre-eclampsia (PE) and fetal growth restriction (FGR) are established in the first trimester of human pregnancy. In a normal pregnancy, decidual spiral arteries are transformed into wide diameter, non-vasoactive vessels capable of meeting the increased demands of the developing fetus for nutrients and oxygen. Disruption of this transformation is associated with PE and FGR. Very little is known of how these first trimester changes are regulated normally and even less is known about how they are compromised in complicated pregnancies...
May 6, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506452/performing-nuclear-medicine-examinations-in-pregnant-women
#3
REVIEW
Paolo Zanotti-Fregonara, Elif Hindie
The number of nuclear medicine examinations performed worldwide has been steadily increasing over the last few years. By consequence, an ever increasing number of pregnant women are likely to be exposed to radioisotopes. The range of doses encountered in nuclear medicine practice is well below the threshold for deterministic effects, such as embryonic death, birth defects or mental retardation. According to the linear no-threshold hypothesis, however, stochastic effects (e.g. an increased risk of cancer) remain possible even at this dose range...
May 11, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504308/brainstem-as-a-developmental-gateway-to-social-attention
#4
Ronny Geva, Ayelet Dital, Dan Ramon, Jessica Yarmolovsky, Maor Gidron, Jacob Kuint
BACKGROUND: Evolution preserves social attention due to its key role in supporting survival. Humans are attracted to social cues from infancy, but the neurobiological mechanisms for the development of social attention are unknown. An evolutionary-based, vertical-hierarchical theoretical model of self-regulation suggests that neonatal brainstem inputs are key for the development of well-regulated social attention. METHODS: Neonates born preterm (N = 44, GA 34 w...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502262/effects-of-combined-iugr-and-prenatal-stress-on-the-development-of-the-hippocampus-in-a-fetal-guinea-pig-model
#5
A L Cumberland, H K Palliser, P Rani, D W Walker, J J Hirst
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal stress during pregnancy are two compromises that negatively impact neurodevelopment and increase the risk of developing later life neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and behavioural disorders. Neurosteroids, particularly allopregnanolone, are important in protecting the developing brain and promoting many essential neurodevelopmental processes. Individually, IUGR and prenatal stress (PS) reduce myelination and neurogenesis within affected fetal brains, however less information is available on the combined effects of these two disorders on the term fetal brain...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490508/longer-exposure-to-a-new-refugee-food-ration-is-associated-with-reduced-prevalence-of-small-for-gestational-age-results-from-2-cross-sectional-surveys-on-the-thailand-myanmar-border
#6
Verena I Carrara, Wolfgang Stuetz, Sue J Lee, Kanlaya Sriprawat, Basi Po, Borimas Hanboonkunupakarn, François H Nosten, Rose McGready
Background: Despite the high risk of compromised nutrition, evidence of the effect of refugee rations on fetal growth is limited. A new ration containing micronutrient-fortified flour without increased caloric content of the general food basket was introduced to the Maela refugee camp in Thailand, July 2004.Objective: The effect of the length of gestational exposure of the new ration on fetal growth was compared with birth outcomes [small for gestational age (SGA), preterm birth (PTB)].Design: In an observational study in 987 newborns from 1048 prospectively followed antenatal clinic (ANC) attendees enrolled in 2 cross-sectional surveys, exposure was categorized in 2004 according to gestation at the time of commencing the new ration and in 2006 as comprehensive (preconception and pregnancy)...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483254/teratoma-of-the-neonatal-head-and-neck-a-41-year-experience
#7
Jacob R Brodsky, Alexandria L Irace, Amanda Didas, Karen Watters, Judy A Estroff, Carol E Barnewolt, Antonio Perez-Atayde, Reza Rahbar
OBJECTIVE: To review our institution's experience with the presentation, evaluation, and management of teratoma of the head and neck in the neonatal population. DESIGN: Retrospective case series (November 1970 through September 2011). SETTING: Tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: 14 patients (12 boys and 2 girls). INTERVENTION: Detailed review of presentation, diagnostic approaches, surgical management, and outcomes...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470380/the-management-of-lymphoma-in-the-setting-of-pregnancy
#8
REVIEW
Chelsea C Pinnix, Therese Y Andraos, Sarah Milgrom, Michelle A Fanale
The diagnosis of lymphoma in pregnant patients poses a therapeutic challenge necessitating consideration of the developing fetus without compromise of therapy with curative potential for the mother. The decision to initiate therapy during pregnancy is heavily influenced by fetal, maternal, and disease-related factors, of which the most influential are the trimester at diagnosis, the stage, and aggressiveness of the disease and the presence of life-threatening symptoms. Recent data suggest that deferral of therapy until after the first trimester is desirable if it is perceived that postponement of therapy will not compromise maternal outcome...
May 3, 2017: Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467985/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-treatment-on-the-cerebral-vasculature-in-an-ovine-model-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#9
Margie Castillo-Melendez, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Graham Jenkin, Euan M Wallace, Suzanne L Miller
Chronic moderate hypoxia, such as occurs in fetal growth restriction (FGR) during gestation, compromises the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and results in structural abnormalities of the cerebral vasculature. We have previously determined the neuroprotective and antioxidant effects of maternal administration of melatonin (MLT) on growth-restricted newborn lambs. The potential of maternal MLT therapy for the treatment of cerebrovascular dysfunction-associated developmental hypoxia has also been demonstrated in newborn lambs...
May 4, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451041/indications-and-appropriateness-of-caesarean-sections-performed-in-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-uganda-a-retrospective-descriptive-study
#10
Jonathan Peter Nelson
INTRODUCTION: The WHO has identified an ideal caesarean section rate for a nation of 10-15%, but much higher rates are seen in tertiary referral centres in resource-poor countries. Interventions by the author to improve care and reduced unnecessary caesareans were undertaken including staff education and production of clinical guidelines. This study aimed to identify indications for caesareans and whether the decision to perform caesareans was appropriate in order to improve care, and whether the above interventions had an impact on this process...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448910/exposure-to-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-at-late-gestation-modulates-placental-signaling-molecules-in-the-mouse-model
#11
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants generally employed in manufacturing household items. Surface water may remove and carry these chemicals to the drainage upon disposal of the items, and ultimately the chemicals enter our food chain. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a PBDE congener commonly found in contaminated seafood. The placenta is the site of nutrient exchange and is responsible for reproductive hormone secretion during pregnancy. In the present study, pregnant ICR mice were given p...
April 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443480/adverse-placental-perfusion-and-pregnancy-outcomes-in-a-new-nonhuman-primate-model-of-gestational-protein-restriction
#12
Victoria H J Roberts, Jamie O Lo, Katherine S Lewandowski, Peter Blundell, Kevin L Grove, Christopher D Kroenke, Elinor L Sullivan, Charles T Roberts, Antonio E Frias
Maternal malnutrition during pregnancy impacts fetal growth, with developmental consequences that extend to later life outcomes. In underdeveloped countries, this malnutrition typically takes the form of poor dietary protein content and quality, even if adequate calories are consumed. Here, we report the establishment of a nonhuman primate model of gestational protein restriction (PR) in order to understand how placental function and pregnancy outcomes are affected by protein deficiency. Rhesus macaques were assigned to either a control diet containing 26% protein or switched to a 13% PR diet prior to conception and maintained on this PR diet throughout pregnancy...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443017/premature-brain-aging-in-baboons-resulting-from-moderate-fetal-undernutrition
#13
Katja Franke, Geoffrey D Clarke, Robert Dahnke, Christian Gaser, Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Matthias Schwab, Peter W Nathanielsz
Contrary to the known benefits from a moderate dietary reduction during adulthood on life span and health, maternal nutrient reduction during pregnancy is supposed to affect the developing brain, probably resulting in impaired brain structure and function throughout life. Decreased fetal nutrition delivery is widespread in both developing and developed countries, caused by poverty and natural disasters, but also due to maternal dieting, teenage pregnancy, pregnancy in women over 35 years of age, placental insufficiency, or multiples...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442989/perinatal-brain-injury-as-a-consequence-of-preterm-birth-and-intrauterine-inflammation-designing-targeted-stem-cell-therapies
#14
REVIEW
Madison C B Paton, Courtney A McDonald, Beth J Allison, Michael C Fahey, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
Chorioamnionitis is a major cause of preterm birth and brain injury. Bacterial invasion of the chorion and amnion, and/or the placenta, can lead to a fetal inflammatory response, which in turn has significant adverse consequences for the developing fetal brain. Accordingly, there is a strong causal link between chorioamnionitis, preterm brain injury and the pathogenesis of severe postnatal neurological deficits and cerebral palsy. Currently there are no treatments to protect or repair against brain injury in preterm infants born after pregnancy compromised by intrauterine infection...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413274/evaluation-of-decision-to-delivery-interval-in-emergency-cesarean-section-a-1-year-prospective-audit-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#15
Sunanda Gupta, Udita Naithani, C Madhanmohan, Ajay Singh, Pradeep Reddy, Apoorva Gupta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee on professional standards and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines suggest that decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) and emergency cesarean section (CS) should not be more than 30 min, and a delay of more than75 min in the presence of maternal or fetal compromise can lead to poor outcome. This prospective 1-year study was conducted on emergency CS in a tertiary care hospital to evaluate the DDI, factors affecting it and to analyze their effects on maternal and neonatal outcome...
January 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410946/right-atrial-dysfunction-in-the-fetus-with-severely-regurgitant-tricuspid-valve-disease-a-potential-source-of-cardiovascular-compromise
#16
Lisa W Howley, Nee Scze Khoo, Anita J Moon-Grady, Sonali S Patel, Fayeza Alrais, Wayne Tworetzky, Timothy Colen, Paul Brooks, Jean Trines, Tiina Ojala, Lisa K Hornberger
BACKGROUND: In severe right heart obstruction (RHO), redistribution of cardiac output to the left ventricle (LV) is well tolerated by the fetal circulation. Although the same should be true of severely regurgitant tricuspid valve disease (rTVD) with reduced or no output from the right ventricle, affected fetuses more frequently develop hydrops or suffer intrauterine demise. We hypothesized that right atrium (RA) function is altered in rTVD but not in RHO, which could contribute to differences in outcomes...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391612/distress-vocalization-delay-in-the-neonate-lamb-as-a-neurobehavioral-assessment-tool
#17
Christine L Morton, Geoffrey Hinch, Alison Small
Acoustic features of infant distress vocalizations including latency and rate of emission are used as indices of neurological deficit and integrity in human and rodent neonates. This paper investigates the relationship between temporal characteristics of distress calls, elicited by an isolation stimulus, and indicators of neurobehavioral development over 12 hr postpartum in the neonate lamb. Delayed vocalization initiation was found to be associated with poor locomotor and orientation behavior reflecting the capacity of the lamb to reunite with and follow its dam, and a lowered rate of signal emission following commencement of vocalization...
April 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388600/influence-of-antenatal-glucocorticoid-on-preterm-lamb-diaphragm
#18
Tanzila Mahzabin, J Jane Pillow, Gavin J Pinniger, Anthony J Bakker, Peter B Noble, Robert B White, Kanakeswary Karisnan, Yong Song
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women at high risk of preterm delivery receive glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung maturation and surfactant synthesis. However, the effect of antenatal steroids on the developing diaphragm remains unclear. We hypothesized that maternal betamethasone impairs the fetal diaphragm, and the magnitude of the detrimental effect increases with longer duration of exposure. We aimed to determine how different durations of fetal exposure to maternal betamethasone treatment influence the fetal diaphragm at the functional and molecular levels...
April 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388597/fetal-growth-restricted-preterm-infants-display-compromised-autonomic-cardiovascular-control-on-the-first-postnatal-day-but-not-during-infancy
#19
Emily Cohen, Flora Y Wong, Euan M Wallace, Joanne C Mockler, Alexsandria Odoi, Samantha Hollis, Rosemary S C Horne, Stephanie R Yiallourou
BackgroundFetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased perinatal mortality and long-term cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental sequelae. We hypothesized that FGR impacts on the development of autonomic heart rate and blood pressure control, contributing to unfavorable short- and long-term outcomes following FGR.MethodsWe studied 25 preterm FGR and 22 preterm and 19 term appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Preterm neonates were studied on postnatal day 1, and all infants were studied at 1 and 6 months post-term age...
May 3, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387813/whole-exome-sequencing-for-prenatal-diagnosis-of-fetuses-with-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#20
Ting-Ying Lei, Fang Fu, Ru Li, Dan Wang, Rong-Yue Wang, Xiang-Yi Jing, Qiong Deng, Zhou-Zhou Li, Ze-Qun Liu, Xin Yang, Dong-Zhi Li, Can Liao
Background.: In the absence of cytogenetic abnormality, fetuses with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) with/without other structural anomalies show a higher likelihood of monogenic causes; however, defining the underlying pathology can be challenging. Here, we investigate the value of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in fetuses with CAKUT but normal findings upon karyotyping and chromosome microarray analysis. Methods.: WES was performed on DNA from the cord blood of 30 fetuses with unexplained CAKUT with/without other structural anomalies...
April 6, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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