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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324997/assessing-the-development-of-fetal-myocardial-function-by-a-novel-doppler-myocardial-performance-index
#1
Ahsan H Khandoker, F Marzbanrad, Y Kimura, Saeed Al Nuaimi, M Palaniswami
Doppler-derived myocardial performance index are used to assess aspects of systolic and diastolic function in adult as well as fetal heart. The Tei Index (TI) is a useful and non-invasive tool. The aim of this study was to determine normal values of fetal left ventricular (LV) TI in early (16-32 weeks) and late trimester (35-41 weeks) fetuses and to develop a new myocardial performance index (K-index; KI) which focuses on fetal diastolic interval when oxygenated blood from the placenta filled in the LV. Simultaneous recordings of Doppler Ultrasound Signal (DUS) of the LV outflow tracts and fetal electrocardiogram signals were obtained in 55 early- and late-trimester fetuses...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#2
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306539/three-dimensional-power-doppler-of-the-placenta-and-its-clinical-applications
#3
Kelly Yamasato, Ivica Zalud
The aim of this review is to discuss three dimensional (3D) power Doppler of the placenta and its clinical applications. There is a strong clinical need to develop noninvasive, simple and widely available methods of evaluating in vivo placental function to assess fetal wellbeing. While conventional ultrasound is a proven tool in the evaluation of fetal structural anomalies and health, its ability to assess placental function, especially prior to the onset of fetal compromise, is the subject of ongoing investigation...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304347/plausible-roles-for-rage-in-conditions-exacerbated-by-direct-and-indirect-secondhand-smoke-exposure
#4
REVIEW
Joshua B Lewis, Kelsey M Hirschi, Juan A Arroyo, Benjamin T Bikman, David L Kooyman, Paul R Reynolds
Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292546/novel-insights-into-host-responses-and-reproductive-pathophysiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-caused-by-prrsv-2
#5
REVIEW
John C S Harding, Andrea Ladinig, Predrag Novakovic, Susan E Detmer, Jamie M Wilkinson, Tianfu Yang, Joan K Lunney, Graham S Plastow
A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288537/exit-procedure-for-fetal-mediastinal-teratoma-with-large-pericardial-effusion-a-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#6
Arpit Agarwal, Eliot Rosenkranz, Salih Yasin, Sethuraman Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: Large mediastinal teratomas in the fetus are rare and can present with direct compression of intrathoracic structures as well as pericardial and pleural effusions. Mediastinal fetal teratoma may be detected as a mass in the chest during a routine prenatal ultrasound. Because of the pressure on mediastinal structures it may result in non-immune fetal hydrops and polyhydramnios. The development of hydrops may lead to fetal demise. Timely obstetric and surgical removal is important to improve survival in this patient population...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273661/early-versus-late-onset-fetal-growth-restriction-differentially-affects-the-development-of-the-fetal-sheep-brain
#7
Anna Karynna Alves de Alencar Rocha, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Graeme R Polglase, Amy E Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Graham Jenkin, Margie Castillo-Melendez, Suzanne L Miller
Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is a common complication of pregnancy, principally caused by suboptimal placental function, and is associated with high rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies suggest that the time of onset of placental insufficiency is an important contributor towards the neurodevelopmental impairments that are evident in children who had FGR. It is however currently unknown how early-onset and late-onset FGR differentially affect brain development. The aim of this study was to examine neuropathology in early-onset and late-onset FGR fetal sheep and to determine whether they differentially alter brain development...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270884/critical-imperative-for-the-reform-of-british-interpretation-of-fetal-heart-rate-decelerations-analysis-of-figo-and-nice-guidelines-post-truth-foundations-cognitive-fallacies-myths-and-occam-s-razor
#8
REVIEW
Shashikant L Sholapurkar
Cardiotocography (CTG) has disappointingly failed to show good predictability for fetal acidemia or neonatal outcomes in several large studies. A complete rethink of CTG interpretation will not be out of place. Fetal heart rate (FHR) decelerations are the most common deviations, benign as well as manifestation of impending fetal hypoxemia/acidemia, much more commonly than FHR baseline or variability. Their specific nomenclature is important (center-stage) because it provides the basic concepts and framework on which the complex "pattern recognition" of CTG interpretation by clinicians depends...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267635/associations-between-fetal-hla-g-genotype-and-birth-weight-and-placental-weight-in-a-large-cohort-of-pregnant-women-possible-implications-for-hla-diversity
#9
Johanne Emmery, Ole B Christiansen, Line Lynge Nilsson, Mette Dahl, Peter Skovbo, Anna Margrethe Møller, Rudi Steffensen, Thomas Vauvert F Hviid
Birth weight and placental weight are crucial parameters for the survival of fetuses and newborns in mammals. High variation in the MHC is important for an effective adaptive immune response. The maternal immune system must be controlled in relation to the semi-allogenic fetus. The immunoregulatory HLA/MHC class Ib gene, HLA-G, is strongly expressed on extravillous trophoblast cells. We investigated birth weight and placental weight of the newborns in mothers heterozygous for an HLA-G 14bp insertion (Ins)/deletion (Del) gene polymorphism...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251626/intrapartum-intervention-rates-and-perinatal-outcomes-following-induction-of-labour-compared-to-expectant-management-at-term-from-an-australian-perinatal-centre
#10
Yi Zhao, Christopher Flatley, Sailesh Kumar
BACKGROUND: Induction of labor (IOL) is a common obstetric intervention, yet its impact on intervention rates and perinatal outcomes is conflicting. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of IOL on intrapartum intervention rates and perinatal outcomes in women with singleton pregnancies at term. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of term singleton deliveries at the Mater Mother's Hospital in Brisbane, Australia in 2007-2013...
February 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227331/assessing-the-development-of-fetal-myocardial-function-by-a-novel-doppler-myocardial-performance-index
#11
Ahsan H Khandoker, F Marzbanrad, Y Kimura, Saeed Al Nuaimi, M Palaniswami, Ahsan H Khandoker, F Marzbanrad, Y Kimura, Saeed Al Nuaimi, M Palaniswami, Ahsan H Khandoker, Y Kimura, Saeed Al Nuaimi, F Marzbanrad, M Palaniswami
Doppler-derived myocardial performance index are used to assess aspects of systolic and diastolic function in adult as well as fetal heart. The Tei Index (TI) is a useful and non-invasive tool. The aim of this study was to determine normal values of fetal left ventricular (LV) TI in early (16-32 weeks) and late trimester (35-41 weeks) fetuses and to develop a new myocardial performance index (K-index; KI) which focuses on fetal diastolic interval when oxygenated blood from the placenta filled in the LV. Simultaneous recordings of Doppler Ultrasound Signal (DUS) of the LV outflow tracts and fetal electrocardiogram signals were obtained in 55 early- and late-trimester fetuses...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216258/review-systematic-review-of-the-utility-of-the-fetal-cerebroplacental-ratio-measured-at-term-for-the-prediction-of-adverse-perinatal-outcome
#12
REVIEW
Liam Dunn, Helen Sherrell, Sailesh Kumar
AIM: This systematic review evaluates the utility of the fetal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) when assessed at term (from 37 + 0 weeks gestation) as a predictor of adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes. DATA SOURCES AND SEARCH STRATEGY: An electronic search of Pubmed and Embase using variations of 'cerebroplacental ratio' and 'cerebroumbilical ratio' was conducted by two independent reviewers. Full text studies written in English that reported on low CPR and its correlation with relevant obstetric and perinatal outcomes were included...
February 12, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208944/the-effect-of-fetal-gender-on-the-delivery-outcome-in-primigravidae-women-with-induced-labours-for-all-indications
#13
Angeliki Antonakou, Dimitrios Papoutsis
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence of a gender-related phenomenon where the presence of a male fetus may have an adverse effect on the outcome of pregnancy. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fetal gender on the delivery outcome in primigravidae women with induced labours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational cohort study of primigravidae women who had Induction Of Labour (IOL) for all indications during a two-year period...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192175/increased-anxiety-like-phenotype-in-female-guinea-pigs-following-reduced-neurosteroid-exposure-in-utero
#14
Angela L Cumberland, Hannah K Palliser, Gabrielle K Crombie, David W Walker, Jonathan J Hirst
Neurosteroids are essential for aiding proper fetal neurodevelopment. Pregnancy compromises such as preterm birth, prenatal stress and intrauterine growth restriction are associated with an increased risk of developing behavioural and mood disorders, particularly during adolescence. These pathologies involve the premature loss or alteration of trophic steroid hormones reaching the fetus leading to impaired neurodevelopment. While the specific programming mechanisms are yet to be fully elucidated, in adult life, dysfunctions of allopregnanolone action are prevalent in individuals with depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and anxiety disorders...
May 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191323/autonomic-imbalance-captures-maternal-and-fetal-circulatory-response-to-pre-eclampsia
#15
Igor Lakhno
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a gestational disease featured by hypertension, arterial systemic vasculopathy, multiple organ failure and fetal compromise. The aim of the investigation was to determine the role of maternal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in regulation of the fetal circulatory system in case of healthy pregnancy and in PE. METHODS: The investigation of maternal and fetal HRV and fetal CTG variables in 106 patients at 34-40 weeks of gestation was performed...
2017: Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189027/the-flame-retardant-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-enhances-the-expression-of-corticotropin-releasing-hormone-in-the-placental-cell-model-jeg-3
#16
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Chi Chiu Wang, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are chemicals used as flame retardants in household products. After disposing of these items, PBDEs leach from the products by surface water. BDE-47 is a PBDE congener commonly isolated from contaminated food and is the most studied isomer. The placenta is the major source of hormones during pregnancy, and an elevated level of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) is associated with premature delivery. In the present study, we examined changes in the placental CRH expression under BDE-47 exposure in the JEG-3 cell model system...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169274/armc5-deletion-causes-developmental-defects-and-compromises-t-cell-immune-responses
#17
Yan Hu, Linjiang Lao, Jianning Mao, Wei Jin, Hongyu Luo, Tania Charpentier, Shijie Qi, Junzheng Peng, Bing Hu, Mieczyslaw Martin Marcinkiewicz, Alain Lamarre, Jiangping Wu
Armadillo repeat containing 5 (ARMC5) is a cytosolic protein with no enzymatic activities. Little is known about its function and mechanisms of action, except that gene mutations are associated with risks of primary macronodular adrenal gland hyperplasia. Here we map Armc5 expression by in situ hybridization, and generate Armc5 knockout mice, which are small in body size. Armc5 knockout mice have compromised T-cell proliferation and differentiation into Th1 and Th17 cells, increased T-cell apoptosis, reduced severity of experimental autoimmune encephalitis, and defective immune responses to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection...
February 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165176/cardiotocographic-parameters-in-small-for-gestational-age-fetuses-how-do-they-vary-from-normal-at-different-gestational-ages-a-study-of-11687-fetuses-from-25-to-40-weeks-of-pregnancy
#18
Célia Amorim-Costa, Diogo Ayres de Campos, João Bernardes
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess how cardiotocographic (CTG) parameters differ between small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and normal fetuses at different gestational ages. METHODS: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study using the first antepartum tracing of singleton pregnancies with no malformations. Fetuses with birthweight ≥10th percentile for gestational age and other normal pregnancy outcome criteria (term birth, normal umbilical artery pH and Apgar scores, no intensive care unit admission) were compared with fetuses with birthweight <10th and <3rd percentiles for gestational age (SGA < p10 and SGA < p3, a subgroup of the latter)...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162972/novel-strategies-to-prevent-stillbirth
#19
REVIEW
Jane Warland, Edwin A Mitchell, Louise M O'Brien
This article reviews three new and emerging risk factors for stillbirth that may be modifiable or might identify a compromised fetus. We focus on fetal movements, maternal sleep, and maternal diet. Recent studies have suggested than a sudden increase in vigorous fetal activity may be associated with increased risk of stillbirth. We review the papers that have reported this finding and discuss the implications as well as potential future directions for research. There is emerging literature to suggest that maternal sleep position may be a risk for stillbirth, especially if the woman settles to sleep supine...
February 2, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157488/placental-stem-villus-arterial-remodeling-associated-with-reduced-hydrogen-sulfide-synthesis-contributes-to-human-fetal-growth-restriction
#20
Liangjian Lu, John Kingdom, Graham J Burton, Tereza Cindrova-Davies
Intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) is often associated with compromised umbilical arterial flow, indicating increased placental vascular resistance. Oxidative stress is causatively implicated. Hydrogen sulfide maintains differentiated smooth muscle in vascular beds, and its synthetic enzyme cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) is down-regulated in growth-restricted placentas. We hypothesized that remodeling of resistance arteries in stem villi contributes to IUGR by compromising umbilical blood flow via oxidative stress, reducing hydrogen sulfide signaling...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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