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Fetal compromise

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413274/evaluation-of-decision-to-delivery-interval-in-emergency-cesarean-section-a-1-year-prospective-audit-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#1
Sunanda Gupta, Udita Naithani, C Madhanmohan, Ajay Singh, Pradeep Reddy, Apoorva Gupta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee on professional standards and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines suggest that decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) and emergency cesarean section (CS) should not be more than 30 min, and a delay of more than75 min in the presence of maternal or fetal compromise can lead to poor outcome. This prospective 1-year study was conducted on emergency CS in a tertiary care hospital to evaluate the DDI, factors affecting it and to analyze their effects on maternal and neonatal outcome...
January 2017: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410946/right-atrial-dysfunction-in-the-fetus-with-severely-regurgitant-tricuspid-valve-disease-a-potential-source-of-cardiovascular-compromise
#2
Lisa W Howley, Nee Scze Khoo, Anita J Moon-Grady, Sonali S Patel, Fayeza Alrais, Wayne Tworetzky, Timothy Colen, Paul Brooks, Jean Trines, Tiina Ojala, Lisa K Hornberger
BACKGROUND: In severe right heart obstruction (RHO), redistribution of cardiac output to the left ventricle (LV) is well tolerated by the fetal circulation. Although the same should be true of severely regurgitant tricuspid valve disease (rTVD) with reduced or no output from the right ventricle, affected fetuses more frequently develop hydrops or suffer intrauterine demise. We hypothesized that right atrium (RA) function is altered in rTVD but not in RHO, which could contribute to differences in outcomes...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391612/distress-vocalization-delay-in-the-neonate-lamb-as-a-neurobehavioral-assessment-tool
#3
Christine L Morton, Geoffrey Hinch, Alison Small
Acoustic features of infant distress vocalizations including latency and rate of emission are used as indices of neurological deficit and integrity in human and rodent neonates. This paper investigates the relationship between temporal characteristics of distress calls, elicited by an isolation stimulus, and indicators of neurobehavioral development over 12 hr postpartum in the neonate lamb. Delayed vocalization initiation was found to be associated with poor locomotor and orientation behavior reflecting the capacity of the lamb to reunite with and follow its dam, and a lowered rate of signal emission following commencement of vocalization...
April 9, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388600/influence-of-antenatal-glucocorticoid-on-preterm-lamb-diaphragm
#4
Tanzila Mahzabin, J Jane Pillow, Gavin J Pinniger, Anthony J Bakker, Peter B Noble, Robert B White, Kanakeswary Karisnan, Yong Song
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women at high risk of preterm delivery receive glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung maturation and surfactant synthesis. However, the effect of antenatal steroids on the developing diaphragm remains unclear. We hypothesized that maternal betamethasone impairs the fetal diaphragm, and the magnitude of the detrimental effect increases with longer duration of exposure. We aimed to determine how different durations of fetal exposure to maternal betamethasone treatment influence the fetal diaphragm at the functional and molecular levels...
April 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388597/fetal-growth-restricted-preterm-infants-display-compromised-autonomic-cardiovascular-control-on-the-first-postnatal-day-but-not-during-infancy
#5
Emily Cohen, Flora Y Wong, Euan M Wallace, Joanne C Mockler, Alexsandria Odoi, Samantha Hollis, Rosemary S C Horne, Stephanie R Yiallourou
BACKGROUND: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is associated with increased perinatal mortality and long-term cardiovascular and neurodevelopmental sequelae. We hypothesized that FGR impacts on the development of autonomic heart rate and blood pressure control, contributing to unfavorable short- and long-term outcomes following FGR. METHODS: We studied 25 preterm FGR and 22 preterm and 19 term appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants. Preterm neonates were studied on postnatal Day 1 and all infants were studied at 1 and 6 months post-term age...
April 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387813/whole-exome-sequencing-for-prenatal-diagnosis-of-fetuses-with-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract
#6
Ting-Ying Lei, Fang Fu, Ru Li, Dan Wang, Rong-Yue Wang, Xiang-Yi Jing, Qiong Deng, Zhou-Zhou Li, Ze-Qun Liu, Xin Yang, Dong-Zhi Li, Can Liao
Background.: In the absence of cytogenetic abnormality, fetuses with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) with/without other structural anomalies show a higher likelihood of monogenic causes; however, defining the underlying pathology can be challenging. Here, we investigate the value of whole-exome sequencing (WES) in fetuses with CAKUT but normal findings upon karyotyping and chromosome microarray analysis. Methods.: WES was performed on DNA from the cord blood of 30 fetuses with unexplained CAKUT with/without other structural anomalies...
April 6, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382681/a-western-style-obesogenic-diet-alters-maternal-metabolic-physiology-with-consequences-for-fetal-nutrient-acquisition-in-mice
#7
Barbara Musial, Owen R Vaughan, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Peter Voshol, Susan E Ozanne, Abigail L Fowden, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri
KEY POINTS: In the Western world, obesogenic diets containing high fat and high sugar (HFHS) are commonly consumed during pregnancy, although their effects on the metabolism of the mother, in relation to feto-placental glucose utilization and growth, are unknown. In the present study, the consumption of an obesogenic HFHS diet compromised maternal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in late pregnancy in association with dysregulated lipid and glucose handling by the dam. These maternal metabolic changes induced by HFHS feeding were related to altered feto-placental glucose metabolism and growth...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369926/uteroplacental-insufficiency-reduces-rat-plasma-leptin-concentrations-and-alters-placental-leptin-transporters-ameliorated-with-enhanced-milk-intake-and-nutrition
#8
Jessica F Briffa, Rachael O'Dowd, Karen M Moritz, Tania Romano, Lisa R Jedwab, Andrew J McAinch, Deanne H Hryciw, Mary E Wlodek
KEY POINTS: Uteroplacental insufficiency compromises maternal mammary development, milk production and pup organ development; this is ameliorated by cross-fostering, which improves pup growth and organ development and prevents adult diseases in growth-restricted (Restricted) offspring by enhancing postnatal nutrition. Leptin is transported to the fetus from the mother by the placenta; we report reduced plasma leptin concentrations in Restricted fetuses associated with sex-specific alterations in placental leptin transporter expression...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369712/computerized-data-driven-interpretation-of-the-intrapartum-cardiotocogram-a-cohort-study
#9
Antoniya Georgieva, Christopher W G Redman, Aris T Papageorghiou
Continuous intrapartum fetal monitoring remains a significant clinical challenge. We propose utilising cohorts of routinely collected data. We aim to combine non-classical (data-driven) and classical cardiotocography (CTG) features with clinical features into a system (OxSys), which generates automated alarms for the fetus at risk of intrapartum hypoxia. We hypothesise that OxSys can outperform clinical diagnosis of 'fetal distress', when optimised and tested over large retrospective datasets MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied a cohort of 22,790 labouring women (≥36 weeks gestation)...
March 28, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358362/deletion-of-stk40-impairs-definitive-erythropoiesis-in-the-mouse-fetal-liver
#10
Lina Wang, Hongyao Yu, Hui Cheng, Ke He, Zhuoqing Fang, Laixiang Ge, Tao Cheng, Ying Jin
The serine threonine kinase Stk40 has been shown to involve in mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation, pulmonary maturation and adipocyte differentiation. Here we report that targeted deletion of Stk40 leads to fetal liver hypoplasia and anemia in the mouse embryo. The reduction of erythrocytes in the fetal liver is accompanied by increased apoptosis and compromised erythroid maturation. Stk40(-/-) fetal liver cells have significantly reduced colony-forming units (CFUs) capable of erythroid differentiation, including burst forming unit-erythroid, CFU-erythroid (CFU-E), and CFU-granulocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte and macrophage, but not CFU-granulocyte/macrophages...
March 30, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351595/congenital-chylothorax
#11
REVIEW
Mohammad A Attar, Steven M Donn
Congenital chylothorax (CC) results from multiple lymphatic vessel anomalies or thoracic cavity defects and may accompany other congenital anomalies. Fetal chylothorax may increase the risk of death and complications from pleural space lymphatic fluid accumulation, which compromises lung development, pulmonary, and cardiovascular function and from complications arising from the loss of drained lymphatic contents. Prenatal interventions might improve survival in severe cases of fetal chylothorax. The neonatal treatment strategy is generally supportive with interventions that include thoracostomy drainage and attempts to decrease chyle flow using a stepwise approach that begins with the least invasive means...
March 25, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346350/fast-and-selective-plasmonic-serotonin-detection-with-aptamer-gold-nanoparticle-conjugates
#12
Jorge L Chávez, Joshua A Hagen, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane
Neurotransmitters detection is critical to understanding communication between the brain and peripheral tissue. Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter linked to a number of conditions, but a full understanding of its role in disease is still lacking. The development of fast and selective serotonin detection platforms will provide researchers with tools to monitor serotonin in individuals before and after treatment for the condition of interest. Aptamer-gold nanoparticles conjugates that responded colorimetrically to serotonin with minimal response to its metabolite and other neurotransmitters were designed by simply adsorbing the DNA on the surface of AuNPs...
March 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341515/computerised-interpretation-of-fetal-heart-rate-during-labour-infant-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Continuous electronic fetal heart-rate monitoring is widely used during labour, and computerised interpretation could increase its usefulness. We aimed to establish whether the addition of decision-support software to assist in the interpretation of cardiotocographs affected the number of poor neonatal outcomes. METHODS: In this unmasked randomised controlled trial, we recruited women in labour aged 16 years or older having continuous electronic fetal monitoring, with a singleton or twin pregnancy, and at 35 weeks' gestation or more at 24 maternity units in the UK and Ireland...
March 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341222/the-science-and-ethics-of-cell-based-therapies-for-parkinson-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
C R Towns
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is an age-related, disabling neurodegenerative disorder. Although sufferers usually respond to dopamine agonists for extended periods, the disease remains progressive and adverse drug effects can compromise effective long term treatment. Cell-based therapies have been the subject of much hype and optimism with regard to PD. Proof of principle was provided in the 1980s with fetal tissue transplantation trials demonstrating successful graft survival. Embryonic stem cells and reprogrammed or transdifferentiated somatic cells may provide alternative sources of tissue with the potential to overcome the material shortages and technical difficulties that have hindered fetal neural transplants...
January 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324997/assessing-the-development-of-fetal-myocardial-function-by-a-novel-doppler-myocardial-performance-index
#15
Ahsan H Khandoker, F Marzbanrad, Y Kimura, Saeed Al Nuaimi, M Palaniswami
Doppler-derived myocardial performance index are used to assess aspects of systolic and diastolic function in adult as well as fetal heart. The Tei Index (TI) is a useful and non-invasive tool. The aim of this study was to determine normal values of fetal left ventricular (LV) TI in early (16-32 weeks) and late trimester (35-41 weeks) fetuses and to develop a new myocardial performance index (K-index; KI) which focuses on fetal diastolic interval when oxygenated blood from the placenta filled in the LV. Simultaneous recordings of Doppler Ultrasound Signal (DUS) of the LV outflow tracts and fetal electrocardiogram signals were obtained in 55 early- and late-trimester fetuses...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315889/patterns-of-growth-in-early-childhood-and-infectious-disease-and-nutritional-determinants
#16
Robert E Black
The physical growth of young children in low- and middle-income countries is reduced compared to international standards. The deviations in growth in both weight and height are greatest in the first 2 years of life and this has serious consequences for child mortality, development, adult stature, and health. The determinants of these patterns of growth faltering include intergenerational factors, such as maternal height, short birth interval, and conditions in pregnancy, including maternal underweight and anemia...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306539/three-dimensional-power-doppler-of-the-placenta-and-its-clinical-applications
#17
Kelly Yamasato, Ivica Zalud
The aim of this review is to discuss three dimensional (3D) power Doppler of the placenta and its clinical applications. There is a strong clinical need to develop noninvasive, simple and widely available methods of evaluating in vivo placental function to assess fetal wellbeing. While conventional ultrasound is a proven tool in the evaluation of fetal structural anomalies and health, its ability to assess placental function, especially prior to the onset of fetal compromise, is the subject of ongoing investigation...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304347/plausible-roles-for-rage-in-conditions-exacerbated-by-direct-and-indirect-secondhand-smoke-exposure
#18
REVIEW
Joshua B Lewis, Kelsey M Hirschi, Juan A Arroyo, Benjamin T Bikman, David L Kooyman, Paul R Reynolds
Approximately 1 billion people smoke worldwide, and the burden placed on society by primary and secondhand smokers is expected to increase. Smoking is the leading risk factor for myriad health complications stemming from diverse pathogenic programs. First- and second-hand cigarette smoke contains thousands of constituents, including several carcinogens and cytotoxic chemicals that orchestrate chronic inflammatory responses and destructive remodeling events. In the current review, we outline details related to compromised pulmonary and systemic conditions related to smoke exposure...
March 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292546/novel-insights-into-host-responses-and-reproductive-pathophysiology-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-caused-by-prrsv-2
#19
REVIEW
John C S Harding, Andrea Ladinig, Predrag Novakovic, Susan E Detmer, Jamie M Wilkinson, Tianfu Yang, Joan K Lunney, Graham S Plastow
A large challenge experiment using North American porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV-2) provided new insights into the pathophysiology of reproductive PRRS. Deep phenotyping of dams and fetuses identified maternal and fetal predictors of PRRS severity and resilience. PRRSV infection resulted in dramatic decreases in all leukocyte subsets by 2days post inoculation. Apoptosis in the interface region was positively related to endometrial vasculitis, viral load in endometrium and fetal thymus, and odds of meconium staining...
March 2, 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288537/exit-procedure-for-fetal-mediastinal-teratoma-with-large-pericardial-effusion-a-case-report-with-review-of-literature
#20
Arpit Agarwal, Eliot Rosenkranz, Salih Yasin, Sethuraman Swaminathan
BACKGROUND: Large mediastinal teratomas in the fetus are rare and can present with direct compression of intrathoracic structures as well as pericardial and pleural effusions. Mediastinal fetal teratoma may be detected as a mass in the chest during a routine prenatal ultrasound. Because of the pressure on mediastinal structures it may result in non-immune fetal hydrops (NIFH) and polyhydramnios. The development of hydrops may lead to fetal demise. Timely obstetric and/or surgical intervention is important to improve survival in this patient population...
April 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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