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A Cassigneul, P Benoit, C Nobile, V Bergheaud, V Dumeny, V Etiévant, A Maylin, E Justes, L Alletto
At the time of spring pre-emergent herbicide application, the soil surface in conservation agriculture is most of the time covered by cover crops (CC) mulches. The state of these mulches depends on their destruction date and on the selected species. Sorption and degradation of 14 C-S-metolachlor on and within 8 decaying CC-covered (2 species × 4 initial decomposition state) soils corresponding to conservation agriculture were compared to its fate in bare soil (BS) corresponding to conventional agriculture...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Sarah Latty, Jiro Sakai, Lee Hopkins, Brett Verstak, Teresa Paramo, Nils A Berglund, Nicholas J Gay, Peter J Bond, David Klenerman, Clare E Bryant
Infection and tissue damage induces assembly of supramolecular organizing centres (SMOCs), such as the Toll-like receptor (TLR) MyDDosome, to co-ordinate inflammatory signaling. SMOC assembly is thought to drive digital all-or-none responses, yet TLR activation by diverse microbes induces anything from mild to severe inflammation. Using single-molecule imaging of TLR4-MyDDosome signaling in living macrophages, we find that MyDDosomes assemble within minutes of TLR4 stimulation. TLR4/MD2 activation leads only to formation of TLR4/MD2 heterotetramers, but not oligomers, suggesting a stoichiometric mismatch between activated receptors and MyDDosomes...
January 24, 2018: ELife
Yunhao Tan, Jonathan C Kagan
Ligand-induced macromolecular protein complex formation has emerged as a common means by which the innate immune system activates signal transduction pathways essential for host defense. Despite their structural divergence, key signaling molecules in diverse innate immune pathways mediate signal transduction by assembling higher-order protein complexes at specific subcellular locations in a stimulus-dependent manner. These protein complexes are collectively known as the supramolecular organizing centers (SMOCs), which link active receptors to a variety of downstream cellular responses...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Annette Collins, Clare L Burns, Elizabeth C Ward, Tracy Comans, Claire Blake, Lizbeth Kenny, Phil Greenup, Daniel Best
Introduction Following (chemo)radiotherapy (C/RT) for head and neck cancer (HNC), patients return to hospital for regular outpatient reviews with speech pathology (SP) and nutrition and dietetics (ND) for acute symptom monitoring, nutritional management, and swallowing and communication rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to determine the feasibility of a home-based telehealth model for delivering SP and ND reviews, to provide patients with more convenient access to these appointments. Methods Service outcomes, costs, and consumer satisfaction were examined across 30 matched participants: 15 supported via the standard model of care (SMOC), and 15 via the home-based telehealth model of care (TMOC)...
December 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
Ann-Kathrin Ghattas, Ferdinand Fischer, Arne Wick, Thomas A Ternes
Although strictly anaerobic conditions prevail in several environmental compartments, up to now, biodegradation studies with emerging organic contaminants (EOCs), such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, have mainly focused on aerobic conditions. One of the reasons probably is the assumption that the aerobic degradation is more energetically favorable than degradation under strictly anaerobic conditions. Certain aerobically recalcitrant contaminants, however, are biodegraded under strictly anaerobic conditions and little is known about the organisms and enzymatic processes involved in their degradation...
June 1, 2017: Water Research
J Terrig Thomas, D Eric Dollins, Kristin R Andrykovich, Tehyen Chu, Brian G Stultz, Deborah A Hursh, Malcolm Moos
The matricellular protein SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) is conserved phylogenetically from vertebrates to arthropods. We showed previously that SMOC inhibits bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling downstream of its receptor via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. In contrast, the most prominent effect of the Drosophila orthologue, pentagone ( pent ), is expanding the range of BMP signaling during wing patterning. Using SMOC deletion constructs we found that SMOC-∆EC, lacking the extracellular calcium binding (EC) domain, inhibited BMP2 signaling, whereas SMOC-EC (EC domain only) enhanced BMP2 signaling...
March 21, 2017: ELife
Kate A McBride, Mandy L Ballinger, Timothy E Schlub, Mary-Anne Young, Martin H N Tattersall, Judy Kirk, Ros Eeles, Emma Killick, Leslie G Walker, Sue Shanley, David M Thomas, Gillian Mitchell
Germline TP53 mutation carriers are at high risk of developing a range of cancers. Effective cancer risk management is an important issue for these individuals. We assessed the psychosocial impact in TP53 mutation carriers of WB-MRI screening as part of the Surveillance in Multi-Organ Cancer (SMOC+) protocol, measuring their unmet needs, anxiety and depression levels as well as cancer worry using psychological questionnaires and in-depth interviews about their experiences of screening. We present preliminary psychosocial findings from 17 participants during their first 12 months on the trial...
July 2017: Familial Cancer
Charlotte Odendall, Jonathan C Kagan
The innate immune system detects the presence of microbes through different families of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs detect pathogens of all origins and trigger signaling events that activate innate and adaptive immunity. These events need to be tightly regulated in order to ensure optimal activation when required, and minimal signaling in the absence of microbial encounters. This regulation is achieved, at least in part, through the precise subcellular positioning of receptors and downstream signaling proteins...
April 2017: Microbes and Infection
Katrina Viloria, Amanda Munasinghe, Sharan Asher, Roberto Bogyere, Lucy Jones, Natasha J Hill
SPARC is a matricellular protein that is involved in both pancreatic cancer and diabetes. It belongs to a wider family of proteins that share structural and functional similarities. Relatively little is known about this extended family, but evidence of regulatory interactions suggests the importance of a holistic approach to their study. We show that Hevin, SPOCKs, and SMOCs are strongly expressed within islets, ducts, and blood vessels, suggesting important roles for these proteins in the normal pancreas, while FSTL-1 expression is localised to the stromal compartment reminiscent of SPARC...
November 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
C Maazouzi, C Coureau, C Piscart, M Saplairoles, N Baran, P Marmonier
We studied the individual and joint acute toxicity of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and deethylatrazine (DEA - a metabolite of atrazine) on different non-target freshwater crustaceans. We used animals from different ecological groups: two amphipods from surface running water (Gammarus pulex and Gammarus cf. orinos), an isopod from surface stagnant water (Asellus aquaticus) and an amphipod living in groundwater (Niphargus rhenorhodanensis). Organisms were exposed to different levels of SMOC and DEA, alone or in binary mixture...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Justin A Clark, Randy L Stotler, Shaun K Frape, Walter A Illman
The potential for trichloroethene (TCE) biodegradation in a fractured dolomite aquifer at a former chemical disposal site in Smithville, Ontario, Canada, is assessed using chemical analysis and TCE and cis-DCE compound-specific isotope analysis of carbon and chlorine collected over a 16-month period. Groundwater redox conditions change from suboxic to much more reducing environments within and around the plume, indicating that oxidation of organic contaminants and degradation products is occurring at the study site...
January 2017: Ground Water
Pauline Sidoli, Laurent Lassabatere, Rafael Angulo-Jaramillo, Nicole Baran
The transport of pesticides to groundwater is assumed to be impacted by flow processes and geochemical interactions occurring in the vadose zone. In this study, the transport of S-metolachlor (SMOC) and its two metabolites ESA-metolachlor (MESA) and OXA-metolachlor (MOXA) in vadose zone materials of a glaciofluvial aquifer is studied at laboratory scale. Column experiments are used to study the leaching of a conservative tracer (bromide) and SMOC, MESA and MOXA under unsaturated conditions in two lithofacies, a bimodal gravel (Gcm,b) and a sand (S-x)...
July 2016: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
J Terrig Thomas, Lina Chhuy-Hy, Kristin R Andrykovich, Malcolm Moos
In an attempt to identify the cell-associated protein(s) through which SMOC (Secreted Modular Calcium binding protein) induces mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) became a candidate. However, although in 32D/EGFR cells, the EGFR was phosphorylated in the presence of a commercially available human SMOC-1 (hSMOC-1), only minimal phosphorylation was observed in the presence of Xenopus SMOC-1 (XSMOC-1) or human SMOC-2. Analysis of the commercial hSMOC-1 product demonstrated the presence of pro-EGF as an impurity...
2016: PloS One
Jun Liu, Zongyu Chen, Lijuan Wang, Yilong Zhang, Zhenghong Li, Jiaming Xu, Yurong Peng
The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine...
August 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Agnel Praveen Joseph, Sony Malhotra, Tom Burnley, Chris Wood, Daniel K Clare, Martyn Winn, Maya Topf
As the resolutions of Three Dimensional Electron Microscopic reconstructions of biological macromolecules are being improved, there is a need for better fitting and refinement methods at high resolutions and robust approaches for model assessment. Flex-EM/MODELLER has been used for flexible fitting of atomic models in intermediate-to-low resolution density maps of different biological systems. Here, we demonstrate the suitability of the method to successfully refine structures at higher resolutions (2.5-4.5Å) using both simulated and experimental data, including a newly processed map of Apo-GroEL...
May 1, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Qi Qiao, Hao Wu
Innate immunity offers the first line of defense against infections and other types of danger such as tumorigenesis. Its discovery provides tremendous therapeutic opportunities for numerous human diseases. Delving into the structural basis of signal transduction by innate immune receptors, our lab has recently helped to establish the new paradigm in which innate immune receptors transduce ligand-binding signals through formation of higher-order assemblies containing intracellular adapters, signaling enzymes and their substrates...
November 2015: Science China. Life Sciences
Tetyana Gilevska, Natalija Ivdra, Magali Bonifacie, Hans-Hermann Richnow
RATIONALE: The development of compound-specific chlorine isotope analysis (Cl-CSIA) is hindered by the lack of international organochlorine reference materials with isotopic compositions expressed in the δ(37) Cl notation. Thus, a reliable off-line analytical method is needed, allowing direct comparison of the δ(37) Cl values of molecularly different organic compounds with that of ocean-water chloride, to refer measurement results to a Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) scale. METHODS: The analytical method included sealed-tube combustion of organochlorines, precipitation and subsequent conversion of formed inorganic chlorides into methyl chloride (CH3 Cl) for the determination of δ(37) Cl values by Dual-Inlet Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (DI-IRMS)...
July 30, 2015: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
A Shvab, G Haase, A Ben-Shmuel, N Gavert, T Brabletz, S Dedhar, A Ben-Ze'ev
Overactivation of Wnt-β-catenin signaling, including β-catenin-TCF target gene expression, is a hallmark of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We identified the immunoglobulin family of cell-adhesion receptors member L1 as a β-catenin-TCF target gene preferentially expressed at the invasive edge of human CRC tissue. L1 can confer enhanced motility and liver metastasis when expressed in CRC cells. This ability of L1-mediated metastasis is exerted by a mechanism involving ezrin and the activation of NF-κB target genes...
February 4, 2016: Oncogene
Günter Ackermann, Michael Kirschner, Lisa Guggenbühl, Bettina Abel, Axel Klohn, Thomas Mattig
AIMS: Since 2007, Health Promotion Switzerland has implemented a national priority program for a healthy body weight. This article provides insight into the methodological challenges and results of the program evaluation. METHODS: Evaluation of the long-term program required targeted monitoring and evaluation projects addressing different outcome levels. The evaluation was carried out according to the Swiss Model for Outcome Classification (SMOC), a model designed to classify the effects of health promotion and prevention efforts...
2015: Obesity Facts
Julian Renpenning, Kristina L Hitzfeld, Tetyana Gilevska, Ivonne Nijenhuis, Matthias Gehre, Hans-Hermann Richnow
A universal application of compound-specific isotope analysis of chlorine was thus far limited by the availability of suitable analysis techniques. In this study, gas chromatography in combination with a high-temperature conversion interface (GC-HTC), converting organic chlorine in the presence of H2 to gaseous HCl, was coupled to a dual-detection system, combining an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS). The combination of the MS/IRMS detection enabled a detailed characterization, optimization, and online monitoring of the high-temperature conversion process via ion trap MS as well as a simultaneous chlorine isotope analysis by the IRMS...
March 3, 2015: Analytical Chemistry
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