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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454047/renal-perivascular-adipose-tissue-form-and-function
#1
Carolina Baraldi A Restini, Alex Ismail, Ramya K Kumar, Robert Burnett, Hannah Garver, Gregory D Fink, Stephanie W Watts
Renal sympathetic activity affects blood pressure in part by increasing renovascular resistance via release of norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves onto renal arteries. Here we test the idea that adipose tissue adjacent to renal blood vessels, i.e. renal perivascular adipose tissue (RPVAT), contains a pool of NE which can be released to alter renal vascular function. RPVAT was obtained from around the main renal artery/vein of the male Sprague Dawley rats. Thoracic aortic PVAT and mesenteric PVAT also were studied as brown-like and white fat comparators respectively...
February 14, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453764/comparative-analysis-of-human-ucb-and-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-their-differentiation-potential-into-brown-and-white-adipocytes
#2
Afrooz Rashnonejad, Gulinnaz Ercan, Cumhur Gunduz, Ali Akdemir, Yigit Ozer Tiftikcioglu
The differentiation potential of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) into brown and white adipocytes in comparison to Adipose tissue derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) were investigated in order to characterize their potency for future cell therapies. MSCs were isolated from ten UCB samples and six liposuction materials. MSCs were differentiated into white and brown adipocytes after characterization by flow cytometry. Differentiated adipocytes were stained with Oil Red O and hematoxylin/eosin...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453465/screening-of-potential-adipokines-identifies-s100a4-as-a-marker-of-pernicious-adipose-tissue-and-insulin-resistance
#3
Peter Arner, Paul Petrus, David Esteve, Anne Boulomié, Erik Näslund, Anders Thorell, Hui Gao, Ingrid Dahlman, Mikael Rydén
BACKGROUND: Adipokines are peptides secreted from white adipose tissue (WAT), which have been linked to WAT dysfunction and metabolic complications of obesity. We set out to identify novel adipokines in subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) linked to insulin resistance (IR). METHODS: Gene expression was determined by microarray and qPCR in obese and non-obese subjects with varying degree of IR. WAT-secreted and circulating protein levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: In sWAT of 80 obese women discordant for IR, 44 genes encoding potential adipose-secreted proteins were differentially expressed...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453232/a-randomized-multicenter-phase-ii-study-of-docosahexaenoic-acid-in-patients-with-a-history-of-breast-cancer-premalignant-lesions-or-benign-breast-disease
#4
Ayca Gucalp, Xi K Zhou, Elise D Cook, Judy E Garber, Katherine D Crew, Julie R Nangia, Priya Bhardwaj, Dilip D Giri, Olivier Elemento, Akanksha Verma, Hanhan Wang, J Jack Lee, Lana A Vornik, Carrie Mays, Diane Weber, Valerie Sepeda, Holly O'Kane, Margaret Krasne, Samantha Williams, Patrick G Morris, Brandy M Heckman-Stoddard, Barbara K Dunn, Clifford A Hudis, Powel H Brown, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity, a cause of subclinical inflammation, is a risk factor for the development of postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) and is associated with poorer cancer outcomes. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid, possesses anti-inflammatory properties. We hypothesized that treatment with DHA would reduce the expression of proinflammatory genes and aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, in benign breast tissue of overweight/obese women. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II study of DHA given for 12 weeks to overweight/obese women with a history of stage I-III BC, DCIS/LCIS, Paget's disease, or proliferative benign breast disease was carried out...
February 16, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449715/leptin-and-brain-adipose-crosstalks
#5
REVIEW
Alexandre Caron, Syann Lee, Joel K Elmquist, Laurent Gautron
Interactions between the brain and distinct adipose depots have a key role in maintaining energy balance, thereby promoting survival in response to metabolic challenges such as cold exposure and starvation. Recently, there has been renewed interest in the specific central neuronal circuits that regulate adipose depots. Here, we review anatomical, genetic and pharmacological studies on the neural regulation of adipose function, including lipolysis, non-shivering thermogenesis, browning and leptin secretion. In particular, we emphasize the role of leptin-sensitive neurons and the sympathetic nervous system in modulating the activity of brown, white and beige adipose tissues...
February 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447836/sensory-denervation-of-inguinal-white-fat-modifies-sympathetic-outflow-to-white-and-brown-fat-in-siberian-hamsters
#6
REVIEW
Ngoc Ly T Nguyen, Bingzhong Xue, Timothy J Bartness
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) have sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and sensory innervations. Previous studies from our laboratory revealed central neuroanatomical evidence of WAT sensory and BAT SNS crosstalk with double labeling of inguinal WAT (IWAT) sensory and interscapular BAT (IBAT) SNS neurons. We previously demonstrated that WAT lipolysis increases IBAT temperature, but this effect is absent when IWAT afferents are surgically denervated, which severs both sensory and SNS nerves...
February 12, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443083/mouse-adipose-tissue-collection-and-processing-for-rna-analysis
#7
Paul Tan, Émilie Pepin, Julie L Lavoie
Compared to other tissues, white adipose tissue has a considerably less RNA and protein content for downstream applications such as real-time PCR and Western Blot, since it mostly contains lipids. RNA isolation from adipose tissue samples is also challenging as extra steps are required to avoid these lipids. Here, we present a procedure to collect three anatomically different white adipose tissues from mice, to process these samples and perform RNA isolation. We further describe the synthesis of cDNA and gene expression experiments using real-time PCR...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440390/high-dietary-fat-and-sucrose-results-in-an-extensive-and-time-dependent-deterioration-in-health-of-multiple-physiological-systems-in-mice
#8
James G Burchfield, Melkam A Kebede, Christopher C Meoli, Jacqueline Stöckli, P Tess Whitworth, Amanda L Wright, Nolan J Hoffman, Annabel Y Minard, Xiuquan Ma, James R Krycer, Marin E Nelson, Shi-Xiong Tan, Belinda Yau, Kristen C Thomas, Natalie K Y Wee, Ee-Cheng Khor, Ronaldo F Enriquez, Bryce Vissel, Trevor J Biden, Paul A Baldock, Kyle L Hoehn, James Cantley, Gregory J Cooney, David E James, Daniel J Fazakerley
Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434073/placental-growth-factor-plgf-is-linked-to-inflammation-and-metabolic-disorders-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Mincheol Kang, Jain Jeong, Jinhee Lee, Song Park, Yonghun Sung, Minjee Choi, Wookbong Kwon, Soyoung Jang, Kwang Shik Choi, Yeon Sik Choo, Duhak Yoon, Myoung Ok Kim, Zae Young Ryoo
Placental growth factor (PlGF), a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) sub-family, plays a major role in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Previous study demonstrated that PlGF-overexpressing transgenic (Tg) mice had gestational loss. In addition, PlGF secretion was up-regulated in isolated T lymphocytes (T-cell) upon CD3/CD28 stimulation, suggesting that PlGF could be a regulator of T-cell differentiation and development. T-cells are well known to play a critical role in obesity-induced inflammation...
February 9, 2018: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433059/resveratrol-liposomes-and-lipid-nanocarriers-comparison-of-characteristics-and-inducing-browning-of-white-adipocytes
#10
Yujiao Zu, Haley Overby, Guofeng Ren, Zhaoyang Fan, Ling Zhao, Shu Wang
Trans-resveratrol (R) has a potential to increase energy expenditure via inducing browning in white adipose tissue. However, its low levels of aqueous solubility, stability, and poor bioavailability limit its application. We have successfully synthesized biocompatible, and biodegradable R encapsulated lipid nanocarriers (R-nano), and R encapsulated liposomes (R-lipo). The mean particle size of R-nano and R-lipo were 140 nm and 110 nm, respectively, and their polydispersity index values were less than 0...
December 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432654/eccrine-sweat-glands-associate-with-the-human-hair-follicle-within-a-defined-compartment-of-dermal-white-adipose-tissue
#11
E Poblet, F Jimenez-Acosta, E Escario-Travesedo, J A Hardman, I Hernández-Hernández, J L Agudo-Mena, J J Cabrera-Galvan, C Nicu, R Paus
BACKGROUND: Eccrine sweat glands (ESGs) are critical for thermoregulation and involved in wound healing. ESGs have traditionally been considered as separate skin appendages without connection to the pilosebaceous unit (PSU). However, recent preliminary evidence has encouraged the hypothesis that PSU and ESG are more interconnected than previously thought. OBJECTIVE: To reevaluate the morphology of human skin adnexa with an integrated 3D perspective in order to explore the possible interconnections that the PSU and the ESG may form...
February 12, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430984/is-chemerin-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-an-evidence-based-clinical-research-from-chinese-women
#12
Zhaoxia Liang, Menglin Zhou, Xu-Kang Xu, Fan Qu, Danqing Chen
The present study aimed to explore the association between gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and Chemerin, by analysing Chemerin level, clinical data and biochemical parameters among 46 GDM patients and 43 controls. It was found that the Chemerin levels from cord blood, peripheral blood, adipose tissue and placenta tissue were all significantly higher in the GDM group than those in the control group (p < .05 for all). Maternal insulin resistance (IR) index and serum inflammation parameters, including C-reactive protein and white blood cells, were also higher in GDM group (p < ...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427626/invited-submission-to-the-diamond-jubilee-special-issue-of-biochemical-pharmacolleptin-induces-sirt1-expression-through-activation-of-nf-e2-related-factor-2-implications-for-obesity-associated-colon-carcinogenesis
#13
Na-Young Song, Yeon-Hwa Lee, Hye-Kyung Na, Jeong-Heum Baek, Young-Joon Surh
Leptin, a representative adipokine secreted from the white adipose tissue, is considered as a potential linker between obesity and cancer. SIRT1 is a NAD+-dependent histone/protein deacetylase speculated to function as an oncogene. In the present study, we found that leptin signaling-defective ob/ob and db/db mice had lower colonic expression of SIRT1 compared with leptin signaling-intact C57BL/6J mice, implying that leptin signaling is crucial for SIRT1 expression in vivo. Moreover, leptin induced up-regulation of SIRT1 in human colon cancer (HCT-116) cells...
February 7, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426973/mir-148a-3p-promotes-rabbit-preadipocyte-differentiation-by-targeting-pten
#14
Hongbing He, Mingcheng Cai, Jiaoyue Zhu, Wudian Xiao, Buwei Liu, Yu Shi, Xue Yang, Xiaohu Liang, Tianhao Zheng, Shenqiang Hu, Xianbo Jia, Shiyi Chen, Jie Wang, Yinghe Qin, Songjia Lai
Although emerging data support crucial roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) during adipogenesis, the detailed mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this study, it was shown that in rabbits, levels of miR-148a-3p not only increased in white adipose tissue during early stages of growth but also during in vitro cultured preadipocyte differentiation. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-148a-3p significantly upregulated the mRNA levels of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and FABP4, as well as the protein levels of PPARγ, as indicated by qPCR and western blotting analyses...
February 9, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420235/loss-of-mitochondrial-protease-clpp-protects-mice-from-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#15
Shylesh Bhaskaran, Gavin Pharaoh, Rojina Ranjit, Ashley Murphy, Satoshi Matsuzaki, Binoj C Nair, Brittany Forbes, Suzana Gispert, Georg Auburger, Kenneth M Humphries, Michael Kinter, Timothy M Griffin, Sathyaseelan S Deepa
Caseinolytic peptidase P (ClpP) is a mammalian quality control protease that is proposed to play an important role in the initiation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a retrograde signaling response that helps to maintain mitochondrial protein homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with the development of metabolic disorders, and to understand the effect of a defective UPRmt on metabolism, ClpP knockout (ClpP-/-) mice were analyzed. ClpP-/- mice fed ad libitum have reduced adiposity and paradoxically improved insulin sensitivity...
February 2, 2018: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417398/effects-of-central-fgf21-infusion-on-the-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-and-energy-metabolism-in-rats
#16
Umit Yilmaz, Suat Tekin, Mehmet Demir, Yilmaz Cigremis, Suleyman Sandal
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of intracerebroventricular chronic fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) infusion on hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, energy metabolism, food intake and body weight. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and divided into three groups including control, sham (vehicle) and FGF21 infused groups (n = 10). Intracerebroventricularly, FGF21 and vehicle groups were infused for 7 days with FGF21 (0.72 µg/day) and artificial cerebrospinal fluid, respectively...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414665/improving-hyperglycemic-effect-of-fgf-21-is-associated-with-alleviating-inflammatory-state-in-diabetes
#17
Nan Wang, Tong-Yu Xu, Xu Zhang, Jun-Yan Li, Yun-Xin Wang, Xiao-Chen Guo, Si-Ming Li, Wen-Fei Wang, De-Shan Li
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is accompanied by abnormal glucose metabolism and low-grade chronic inflammation. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21) is a novel metabolic regulator and can function as an endocrine hormone to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, FGF-21 was found to have anti-inflammatory effect, to our knowledge, the effect of FGF-21 on inflammatory state in diabetes has not been elucidated. Here, we use db/db mice as a Type 2 diabetes model to determine whether FGF-21 alleviates inflammatory state while improves hyperglycemia...
February 2, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414510/adiponectin-as-lncrna-inhibits-adipogenesis-by-transferring-from-nucleus-to-cytoplasm-and-attenuating-adiponectin-mrna-translation
#18
Rui Cai, Yunmei Sun, Naren Qimuge, Guoqiang Wang, Yingqian Wang, Guiyan Chu, Taiyong Yu, Gongshe Yang, Weijun Pang
Adiponectin (AdipoQ) is an adipocyte-derived hormone with positive function on systemic glucose and lipid metabolism. Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) is emerging as a vital regulator of adipogenesis. However, AdipoQ-related lncRNAs in lipid metabolism have not been explored. Here, AdipoQ antisense (AS) lncRNA was first identified, and we further found that it inhibited adipogenesis. The half-life of AdipoQ AS lncRNA was 10 h, whereas that of AdipoQ mRNA was 4 h. During adipogenic differentiation, AdipoQ AS lncRNA translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm...
January 29, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414316/ppar%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-switches-fuel-preference-to-lipids-in-promoting-thermogenesis-under-cold-exposure-in-c57bl-6-mice
#19
Rong Gao, Wei Chen, Huang Yan, Xinni Xie, Dongqi Liu, Chenxi Wu, Zhaohui Zhu, Haijing Li, Fangting Dong, Lili Wang
Brown and beige adipose tissues play key roles in adaptive thermogenesis, which is essential for homoiotherms to maintain core temperature under cold exposure. PPARγ is a transcriptional regulator critical for brown adipose tissue (BAT) recruitment and white adipose tissue (WAT) browning. Here we evaluated the impact of PPARγ activation on thermogenic activity in C57BL/6 mice under thermo-neutral and 4 °C cold environment, and revealed the regulating mechanism and metabolic basis. Rosiglitazone slowed body temperature loss in cold environment in C57BL/6 mice, suppressed cold-induced decreases in blood glucose, reversed cold-promoted 18F-FDG uptake, and increased lipid consumption in BAT...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414191/a-glance-at-the-therapeutic-potential-of-irisin-against-diseases-involving-inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-an-introductory-review
#20
REVIEW
Hassan Askari, Sulail Fatima Rajani, Mansour Poorebrahim, Hamed Haghi-Aminjan, Ehsan Raeis-Abdollahi, Mohammad Abdollahi
Irisin is a hormone-like molecule mainly released by skeletal muscles in response to exercise. Irisin induces browning of the white adipose tissue and has been shown to regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. Keeping its energy expenditure and metabolic properties in view, numerous studies have focused on its therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic disorders like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently, the anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of irisin have received a great deal of attention of the scientific society...
January 29, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
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