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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244870/human-hepatic-lipase-overexpression-in-mice-induces-hepatic-steatosis-and-obesity-through-promoting-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-white-adipose-tissue-lipolysis-and-fatty-acid-uptake
#1
Lídia Cedó, David Santos, Núria Roglans, Josep Julve, Victor Pallarès, Andrea Rivas-Urbina, Vicenta Llorente-Cortes, Joan Carles Laguna, Francisco Blanco-Vaca, Joan Carles Escolà-Gil
Human hepatic lipase (hHL) is mainly localized on the hepatocyte cell surface where it hydrolyzes lipids from remnant lipoproteins and high density lipoproteins and promotes their hepatic selective uptake. Furthermore, hepatic lipase (HL) is closely associated with obesity in multiple studies. Therefore, HL may play a key role on lipid homeostasis in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT). In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of hHL expression on hepatic and white adipose triglyceride metabolism in vivo...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242563/ck2-modulates-adipocyte-insulin-signaling-and-is-up-regulated-in-human-obesity
#2
Christian Borgo, Gabriella Milan, Francesca Favaretto, Fabio Stasi, Roberto Fabris, Valentina Salizzato, Luca Cesaro, Anna Belligoli, Marta Sanna, Mirto Foletto, Luca Prevedello, Vincenzo Vindigni, Romeo Bardini, Arianna Donella-Deana, Roberto Vettor
Insulin plays a major role in glucose metabolism and insulin-signaling defects are present in obesity and diabetes. CK2 is a pleiotropic protein kinase implicated in fundamental cellular pathways and abnormally elevated in tumors. Here we report that in human and murine adipocytes CK2-inhibition decreases the insulin-induced glucose-uptake by counteracting Akt-signaling and GLUT4-translocation to the plasma membrane. In mice CK2 acts on insulin-signaling in adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle and its acute inhibition impairs glucose tolerance...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237750/mechanism-by-which-arylamine-n-acetyltransferase-1-ablation-causes-insulin-resistance-in-mice
#3
João Paulo Camporez, Yongliang Wang, Kasper Faarkrog, Natsasi Chukijrungroat, Kitt Falk Petersen, Gerald I Shulman
A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (Nat2) gene has recently been identified as associated with insulin resistance in humans. To understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which alterations in Nat2 activity might cause insulin resistance, we examined murine ortholog Nat1 knockout (KO) mice. Nat1 KO mice manifested whole-body insulin resistance, which could be attributed to reduced muscle, liver, and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity. Hepatic and muscle insulin resistance were associated with marked increases in both liver and muscle triglyceride (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) content, which was associated with increased PKCε activation in liver and increased PKCθ activation in skeletal muscle...
December 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236751/lysophosphatidic-acid-receptor-mrna-levels-in-heart-and-white-adipose-tissue-are-associated-with-obesity-in-mice-and-humans
#4
Amy Brown, Intekhab Hossain, Lester J Perez, Carine Nzirorera, Kathleen Tozer, Kenneth D'Souza, Purvi C Trivedi, Christie Aguiar, Alexandra M Yip, Jennifer Shea, Keith R Brunt, Jean-Francois Legare, Ansar Hassan, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Petra C Kienesberger
BACKGROUND: Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor signaling has been implicated in cardiovascular and obesity-related metabolic disease. However, the distribution and regulation of LPA receptors in the myocardium and adipose tissue remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to characterize the mRNA expression of LPA receptors (LPA1-6) in the murine and human myocardium and adipose tissue, and its regulation in response to obesity. METHODS: LPA receptor mRNA levels were determined by qPCR in i) heart ventricles, isolated cardiomyocytes, and perigonadal adipose tissue from chow or high fat-high sucrose (HFHS)-fed male C57BL/6 mice, ii) 3T3-L1 adipocytes and HL-1 cardiomyocytes under conditions mimicking gluco/lipotoxicity, and iii) human atrial and subcutaneous adipose tissue from non-obese, pre-obese, and obese cardiac surgery patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236311/mir-221-negatively-regulates-inflammation-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-white-adipose-tissue-by-repression-of-sirtuin-1-sirt1
#5
Jie Peng, Yuanfei Zhou, Zhao Deng, Hong Zhang, Yinghui Wu, Tongxing Song, Yang Yang, Hongkui Wei, Jian Peng
It is well known that obesity-induced white adipose tissue inflammation is an important reason for insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) is an important regulator of inflammtion response pathways in white adipose tissue. Here, we found that miR-221 negatively regulated SIRT1 in white adipose tissue during inflammation and HFD-induced obesity. MiR-221 is a putative oncogene which has been found overexpressed in a number of human tumors. Recently, it has also found that miR-221 was increased in obese adipose tissue and may be involved in inflammation and insulin-resistance...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236301/synergistic-effect-of-carnosine-on-browning-of-adipose-tissue-in-exercised-obese-rats-a-focus-on-circulating-irisin-levels
#6
Mona F Schaalan, Basma K Ramadan, Azza H Abd Elwahab
BACKGROUND: The recent appreciation of the energy burning capacity of brown adipose tissue turns it to an attractive target as anti-obesity therapy. OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the effect of L-carnosine on browning of white adipose tissue in exercised obese rats. METHODS: Sixty adult male Wistar albino rats between 7-8 weeks-old weighing 130-150 g were allocated into six groups;(i) normal control rats fed normal diet; (ii) high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats, (iii) normal control rats fed normal diet and injected with L-carnosine (250mg/kg), (iv) HFD-rats injected with L-carnosine (250mg/kg),(v): HFD-rats subjected to exercise training; (vi): HFD- rats subjected to exercise training and L-carnosine together...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235464/syk-kinase-mediates-brown-fat-differentiation-and-activation
#7
Marko Knoll, Sally Winther, Anirudh Natarajan, Huan Yang, Mengxi Jiang, Prathapan Thiru, Aliakbar Shahsafaei, Tony E Chavarria, Dudley W Lamming, Lei Sun, Jacob B Hansen, Harvey F Lodish
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism influences glucose homeostasis and metabolic health in mice and humans. Sympathetic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors in response to cold induces proliferation, differentiation, and UCP1 expression in pre-adipocytes and mature brown adipocytes. Here we show that spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is upregulated during brown adipocyte differentiation and activated by β-adrenergic stimulation. Deletion or inhibition of SYK, a kinase known for its essential roles in the immune system, blocks brown and white pre-adipocyte proliferation and differentiation in vitro, and results in diminished expression of Ucp1 and other genes regulating brown adipocyte function in response to β-adrenergic stimulation...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233981/a-mir-327-fgf10-fgfr2-mediated-autocrine-signaling-mechanism-controls-white-fat-browning
#8
Carina Fischer, Takahiro Seki, Sharon Lim, Masaki Nakamura, Patrik Andersson, Yunlong Yang, Jennifer Honek, Yangang Wang, Yanyan Gao, Fang Chen, Nilesh J Samani, Jun Zhang, Masato Miyake, Seiichi Oyadomari, Akihiro Yasue, Xuri Li, Yun Zhang, Yizhi Liu, Yihai Cao
Understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating beige adipocyte formation may lead to the development of new therapies to combat obesity. Here, we report a miRNA-based autocrine regulatory pathway that controls differentiation of preadipocytes into beige adipocytes. We identify miR-327 as one of the most downregulated miRNAs targeting growth factors in the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) under conditions that promote white adipose tissue (WAT) browning in mice. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments reveal that miR-327 targets FGF10 to prevent beige adipocyte differentiation...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233934/chronic-infusion-of-taurolithocholate-into-the-brain-increases-fat-oxidation-in-mice
#9
Hannah M Eggink, Lauren L Tambyrajah, Rosa van den Berg, Isabel Mol, Jose K van den Heuvel, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Andries Kalsbeek, Johannes A Romijn, Patrick C N Rensen, Sander Kooijman, Maarten R Soeters
Bile acids can function in the postprandial state as circulating signaling molecules in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism via the transmembrane receptor TGR5 and nuclear receptor FXR. Both receptors are present in the central nervous system, but their function in the brain is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of taurolithocholate (tLCA), a strong TGR5 agonist, and GW4064, a synthetic FXR agonist, on energy metabolism. We determined the effects of chronic icv infusion of tLCA, GW4064, or vehicle on energy expenditure, body weight and composition as well as tissue specific fatty acid uptake in mice equipped with osmotic minipumps...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230714/obesity-phenotypes-depot-differences-in-adipose-tissue-and-their-clinical-implications
#10
REVIEW
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
Obesity, defined as excess fat mass, increases risks for multiple chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and several types of cancer. Beyond adiposity per se, the pattern of fat distribution, android or truncal as compared to gynoid or peripheral, has a profound influence on systemic metabolism and hence risk for obesity complications. Not only factors as genetics, environment, gender, and age account for the apparent compartmentalization of white adipose tissue (WAT) in the body...
December 11, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229807/sclerostin-influences-body-composition-by-regulating-catabolic-and-anabolic-metabolism-in-adipocytes
#11
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Priyanka Kushwaha, Meredith L Zoch, Ryan E Tomlinson, Hao Da, Susan Aja, Hye Lim Noh, Jason K Kim, Mehboob A Hussain, Daniel L J Thorek, Michael J Wolfgang, Ryan C Riddle
Sclerostin has traditionally been thought of as a local inhibitor of bone acquisition that antagonizes the profound osteoanabolic capacity of activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling, but serum sclerostin levels in humans exhibit a correlation with impairments in several metabolic parameters. These data, together with the increased production of sclerostin in mouse models of type 2 diabetes, suggest an endocrine function. To determine whether sclerostin contributes to the coordination of whole-body metabolism, we examined body composition, glucose homeostasis, and fatty acid metabolism in Sost-/- mice as well as mice that overproduce sclerostin as a result of adeno-associated virus expression from the liver...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227176/metabolomics-approach-in-the-study-of-the-well-defined-polyherbal-preparation-zyflamend
#12
Eric D Tague, Allen K Bourdon, Amber MacDonald, Maggie S Lookadoo, Edward D Kim, Wesley M White, Paul D Terry, Shawn R Campagna, Brynn H Voy, Jay Whelan
Zyflamend is a highly controlled blend of 10 herbal extracts that synergistically impact multiple cell signaling pathways with anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. More recently, its effects were shown to also modify cellular energetics, for example, activation of fatty acid oxidation and inhibition of lipogenesis. However, its general metabolic effects in vivo have yet to be explored. The objective of this study was to characterize the tissue specific metabolomes in response to supplementation of Zyflamend in mice, with a comparison of equivalent metabolomics data generated in plasma from humans supplemented with Zyflamend...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226756/voluntary-wheel-running-improves-adipose-tissue-immunometabolism-in-ovariectomized-low-fit-rats
#13
Terese M Zidon, Young-Min Park, Rebecca J Welly, Makenzie L Woodford, Rebecca J Scroggins, Steven L Britton, Lauren G Koch, Frank W Booth, Jaume Padilla, Jill A Kanaley, Victoria J Vieira-Potter
Loss of ovarian hormones is associated with increased adiposity, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and insulin resistance (IR). Previous work demonstrated ovariectomized (OVX) rats bred for high aerobic fitness (HCR) are protected against weight gain and IR compared to rats bred for low aerobic fitness (LCR) yet wheel running prevents OVX-induced IR in LCR rats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adipose tissue immunometabolic characteristics from female HCR and LCR rats differs before or after OVX, and whether wheel running mitigates OVX-induced adipose tissue immunometabolic changes in LCR rats...
December 11, 2017: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225213/fish-protein-hydrolysate-exhibits-anti-obesity-activity-and-reduces-hypothalamic-neuropeptide-y-and-agouti-related-protein-mrna-expressions-in-rats
#14
Takafumi Mizushige, Masaki Komiya, Moe Onda, Kenji Uchida, Kohsuke Hayamizu, Yukihito Kabuyama
Fish protein is a source of animal protein that is consumed worldwide. Although it has been reported that the intake of Alaska pollack protein (APP) reduces body fat accumulation and increases muscle weight in rats, the mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood. As a possibility, peptides released from APP in the gastrointestinal tract are important to the functions of APP. In the present study, we examined the effects of APP hydrolysate digested artificially with pepsin and pancreatin on white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle...
2017: Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222412/ancestral-perinatal-obesogen-exposure-results-in-a-transgenerational-thrifty-phenotype-in-mice
#15
Raquel Chamorro-Garcia, Carlos Diaz-Castillo, Bassem M Shoucri, Heidi Käch, Ron Leavitt, Toshi Shioda, Bruce Blumberg
Ancestral environmental exposures to non-mutagenic agents can exert effects in unexposed descendants. This transgenerational inheritance has significant implications for understanding disease etiology. Here we show that exposure of F0 mice to the obesogen tributyltin (TBT) throughout pregnancy and lactation predisposes unexposed F4 male descendants to obesity when dietary fat is increased. Analyses of body fat, plasma hormone levels, and visceral white adipose tissue DNA methylome and transcriptome collectively indicate that the F4 obesity is consistent with a leptin resistant, thrifty phenotype...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222347/pioglitazone-inhibits-periprostatic-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obese-mice
#16
Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya Bhardwaj, Xi K Zhou, Hanhan Wang, Domenick J Falcone, Dilip D Giri, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of high-grade prostate cancer (PC) and poor prognosis for PC patients. Recently, we showed that obesity-related periprostatic white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages, was associated with high-grade PC. It's possible, therefore, that agents that suppress periprostatic WAT inflammation will alter the development or progression of PC. Pioglitazone, a ligand of PPARγ is used to treat diabetes and possesses anti-inflammatory properties...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222346/adiposity-inflammation-and-breast-cancer-pathogenesis-in-asian-women
#17
Neil M Iyengar, I-Chun Chen, Xi K Zhou, Dilip D Giri, Domenick J Falcone, Lisle A Winston, Hanhan Wang, Samantha Williams, Yen-Shen Lu, Tsu-Hsin Hsueh, Ann-Lii Cheng, Clifford A Hudis, Ching-Hung Lin, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation in the breast, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that predispose to breast cancer development. We examined whether WAT inflammation and its associated systemic effects correlate with body fat levels in an Asian population where body mass index (BMI) is not an accurate assessment of obesity and cancer risk. We also investigated whether biologic differences could account for the greater proportion of premenopausal estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer in Asian versus western countries...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221731/white-adipose-tissue-is-a-reservoir-for-memory-t-cells-and-promotes-protective-memory-responses-to-infection
#18
Seong-Ji Han, Arielle Glatman Zaretsky, Vinicius Andrade-Oliveira, Nicholas Collins, Amiran Dzutsev, Jahangheer Shaik, Denise Morais da Fonseca, Oliver J Harrison, Samira Tamoutounour, Allyson L Byrd, Margery Smelkinson, Nicolas Bouladoux, James B Bliska, Jason M Brenchley, Igor E Brodsky, Yasmine Belkaid
White adipose tissue bridges body organs and plays a fundamental role in host metabolism. To what extent adipose tissue also contributes to immune surveillance and long-term protective defense remains largely unknown. Here, we have shown that at steady state, white adipose tissue contained abundant memory lymphocyte populations. After infection, white adipose tissue accumulated large numbers of pathogen-specific memory T cells, including tissue-resident cells. Memory T cells in white adipose tissue expressed a distinct metabolic profile, and white adipose tissue from previously infected mice was sufficient to protect uninfected mice from lethal pathogen challenge...
November 30, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221131/hoxa5-increases-mitochondrial-apoptosis-by-inhibiting-akt-mtorc1-s6k1-pathway-in-mice-white-adipocytes
#19
Fei Feng, Qian Ren, Song Wu, Muhammad Saeed, Chao Sun
Homeobox A5(Hoxa5), a member of the Hox family, plays a important role in the regulation of proliferation and apoptosis in cancer cells. The dysregulation of the adipocyte apoptosis in vivo leads to obesity and metabolic disorders. However, the effects of Hoxa5 on adipocyte apoptosis are still unknown. In this study, palmitic acid (PA) significantly increased the mRNA level of Hoxa5 and triggered white adipocyte apoptosis in vivo and in vitro. Further analysis revealed that Hoxa5 enhanced the early and late apoptotic cells and fragmentation of genomic DNA in adipocytes from inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) of mice...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220483/prenatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-disrupts-naturally-occurring-bimodal-dna-methylation-at-proximal-promoter-of-fggy-an-obesity-relevant-gene-encoding-a-carbohydrate-kinase-in-gonadal-white-adipose-tissues-of-cd-1-mice
#20
Julia A Taylor, Keiko Shioda, Shino Mitsunaga, Shiomi Yawata, Brittany M Angle, Susan C Nagel, Frederick S Vom Saal, Toshi Shioda
Exposure of mammalian fetuses to endocrine disruptors can increase the risk of adult-onset diseases. For example, we previously showed that exposure of mouse fetuses to bisphenol A (BPA) caused adult-onset obesity. To obtain insights into roles of epigenetic changes in the delayed toxic effects of endocrine disruption, we determined effects of fetal mouse exposure to BPA on genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression in gonadal white adipose tissues by deep sequencing (MBD-seq and RNA-seq), bisulfite pyrosequencing, and real-time qPCR...
December 6, 2017: Endocrinology
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