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White adipose tissue

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656108/epoxygenase-inactivation-exacerbates-diet-and-aging-associated-metabolic-dysfunction-resulting-from-impaired-adipogenesis
#1
Antoni Olona, Ximena Terra, Jeong-Hun Ko, Carme Grau-Bové, Montserrat Pinent, Anna Ardevol, Ana Garcia Diaz, Aida Moreno-Moral, Matthew Edin, David Bishop-Bailey, Darryl C Zeldin, Timothy J Aitman, Enrico Petretto, Mayte Blay, Jacques Behmoaras
OBJECTIVE: When molecular drivers of healthy adipogenesis are perturbed, this can cause hepatic steatosis. The role of arachidonic acid (AA) and its downstream enzymatic cascades, such as cyclooxygenase, in adipogenesis is well established. The exact contribution of the P450 epoxygenase pathway, however, remains to be established. Enzymes belonging to this pathway are mainly encoded by the CYP2J locus which shows extensive allelic expansion in mice. Here we aimed to establish the role of endogenous epoxygenase during adipogenesis under homeostatic and metabolic stress conditions...
March 9, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655944/regular-aerobic-exercise-correlates-with-reduced-anxiety-and-incresed-levels-of-irisin-in-brain-and-white-adipose-tissue
#2
Nazan Uysal, Oguz Yuksel, Servet Kizildag, Zeynep Yuce, Hikmet Gumus, Aslı Karakilic, Guven Guvendi, Basar Koc, Sevim Kandis, Mehmet Ates
We have recently shown that regular voluntary aerobic exercised rats have low levels of anxiety. Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is produced by many tissues; and the role it plays in anxiolytic behavior is unknown. In this study we aimed to investigate the correlation between anxiety like behavior and irisin levels following regular voluntary aerobic exercise in male mice. We've have shown that anxiety levels decreased in exercised mice, while irisin levels increased in the brain, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, kidney, and pancreas tissues...
April 12, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651293/homeobox-a5-promotes-white-adipose-tissue-browning-through-inhibition-of-the-tenascin-c-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-inflammatory-signaling-in-mice
#3
Weina Cao, Hongtao Huang, Tianyu Xia, Chenlong Liu, Saeed Muhammad, Chao Sun
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces rapid increase in systemic inflammatory factors. As adipose tissue is a key contributor to the inflammatory response to numerous metabolic stimuli, it is important to understand the mechanism behind the LPS-induced inflammation in white adipose tissue (WAT). Homeobox a5 (Hoxa5) is an important transcription factor, which is highly expressed in adipose tissue, and its mRNA expression is increased at cold exposure in mice. So far, the function of Hoxa5 in adipose tissue browning has been poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649530/self-assembled-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles-implications-as-a-nanomedicine-for-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#4
Jun Gi Rho, Hwa Seung Han, Ji Hye Han, Hansang Lee, Van Quy Nguyen, Wang Hee Lee, Seunglee Kwon, Sungeun Heo, Juhwan Yoon, Han Ho Shin, Eun-Young Lee, Hoin Kang, Siyoung Yang, Eun Kyung Lee, Jae Hyung Park, Wook Kim
Self-assembled hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (HA-NPs) have been extensively investigated for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications owing to their biocompatibility and receptor-binding properties. Here, we report that an empty HA-NP itself not bearing any drug has therapeutic effects on adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. HA-NPs inhibited not only the receptor-mediated internalization of low-molecular-weight (LMW) free HA but also LMW free HA-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in mouse primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) isolated from wild-type mice, but not in CD44-null (CD44-/-) BMDMs...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643769/the-role-of-physical-exercise-to-improve-the-browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-via-pomc-neurons
#5
REVIEW
Kellen C da Cruz Rodrigues, Rodrigo M Pereira, Thaís D P de Campos, Rodrigo F de Moura, Adelino S R da Silva, Dennys E Cintra, Eduardo R Ropelle, José R Pauli, Michel B de Araújo, Leandro P de Moura
Obesity is a public health issue that affects more than 600 million adults worldwide. The disease is characterized by fat accumulation, mainly in the abdominal area. The human body is mainly composed of two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT); however, the browning process generates a different type of brown fat-like adipocyte in WAT, which similar to BAT has thermogenic capacity by activating UCP-1. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus plays an important role in WAT browning via POMC neurons, which are influenced by synergistic insulin and leptin signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642802/effect-of-high-fat-diet-on-immature-female-mice-and-messenger-and-noncoding-rna-expression-profiling-in-ovary-and-white-adipose-tissue
#6
Bin-Bin Huang, Xiao-Chun Liu, Xiao-Yun Qin, Jie Chen, Pei-Gen Ren, Wei-Fen Deng, Jian Zhang
Obesity is a chronic multifactorial disease prevalent in many areas of the world and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In women, obesity increases the risks of both metabolic and reproductive diseases, such as diabetes and infertility. The mechanisms underlying these effects, especially in young women, are largely unknown. To explore these mechanisms, we established a high-fat diet (HFD) model of obesity in immature female mice. Microarray analysis of gene expression in ovaries and white adipose tissue identified a large number of differentially expressed genes (>1...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629347/%C3%AE-carotene-inhibits-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activator-protein-1-and-stat3-and-regulates-abnormal-expression-of-some-adipokines-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#7
Soon Ok Cho, Min-Hyun Kim, Hyeyoung Kim
Background: Oxidative stress occurs in white adipose tissue and dysregulates the expression of adipokines secreted from adipocytes. Since adipokines influence inflammation, supplementation with antioxidants might be beneficial for preventing oxidative stress-mediated inflammation in adipocytes and inflammation-associated complications. β-Carotene is the most prominent antioxidant carotenoid and scavenges reactive oxygen species in various tissues. The purpose of this study was to determine whether β-carotene regulates the expression of adipokines, such as adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with glucose/glucose oxidase (G/GO)...
March 2018: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628262/chitosan-oligosaccharides-improve-the-disturbance-in-glucose-metabolism-and-reverse-the-dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-in-diabetic-mice
#8
Junping Zheng, Xubing Yuan, Gong Cheng, Siming Jiao, Cui Feng, Xiaoming Zhao, Heng Yin, Yuguang Du, Hongtao Liu
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Wild type C57BL/6J mice or diabetic db/db mice were treated with vehicle or COS for three months. COS treatment significantly decreased the blood glucose (P < 0.01) and reversed the insulin resistance (P < 0.05) in db/db mice, which was accompanied by suppressing the inflammation mediators (P < 0.05), down-regulating the lipogenesis (P < 0.01) and inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation (P < 0...
June 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626526/differential-modulation-of-white-adipose-tissue-endocannabinoid-levels-by-n-3-fatty-acids-in-obese-mice-and-type-2-diabetic-patients
#9
Martin Rossmeisl, Jana Pavlisova, Petra Janovska, Ondrej Kuda, Kristina Bardova, Jana Hansikova, Michaela Svobodova, Marina Oseeva, Jiri Veleba, Jan Kopecky, Petr Zacek, Eva Fiserova, Terezie Pelikanova, Jan Kopecky
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) might regulate metabolism by lowering endocannabinoid levels. We examined time-dependent changes in adipose tissue levels of endocannabinoids as well as in parameters of glucose homeostasis induced by n-3 PUFA in dietary-obese mice, and compared these results with the effect of n-3 PUFA intervention in type 2 diabetic (T2DM) subjects. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed for 8, 16 or 24 weeks a high-fat diet alone (cHF) or supplemented with n-3 PUFA (cHF + F). Overweight/obese, T2DM patients on metformin therapy were given for 24 weeks corn oil (Placebo; 5 g/day) or n-3 PUFA concentrate as above (Omega-3; 5 g/day)...
April 4, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626477/chronic-cold-exposure-results-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-browning-and-altered-global-metabolism-in-qinghai-tibetan-plateau-pika-ochotona-curzoniae
#10
Jia Li, Quanyu Yang, Zhenzhong Bai, Gregg L Semenza, Ri-Li Ge
The plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae), one of the indigenous animals of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is adapted to life in a cold and hypoxic environment. We conducted a series of genomic, proteomic and morphological studies to investigate whether changes in energy metabolism contribute to adaptation of the plateau pika to cold stress by analyzing summer and winter cohorts. The winter group showed strong morphological and histological features of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT)...
April 4, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626186/de-novo-reconstruction-of-human-adipose-transcriptome-reveals-conserved-lncrnas-as-regulators-of-brown-adipogenesis
#11
Chunming Ding, Yen Ching Lim, Sook Yoong Chia, Arcinas Camille Esther Walet, Shaohai Xu, Kinyui Alice Lo, Yanling Zhao, Dewen Zhu, Zhihui Shan, Qingfeng Chen, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Dan Xu, Lei Sun
Obesity has emerged as an alarming health crisis due to its association with metabolic risk factors such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Recent work has demonstrated the multifaceted roles of lncRNAs in regulating mouse adipose development, but their implication in human adipocytes remains largely unknown. Here we present a catalog of 3149 adipose active lncRNAs, of which 909 are specifically detected in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by performing deep RNA-seq on adult subcutaneous, omental white adipose tissue and fetal BATs...
April 6, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621953/changes-in-metabolism-mitochondrial-function-and-oxidative-stress-between-female-rats-under-nonreproductive-and-3-reproductive-conditions
#12
Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Wendy R Hood, Andreas N Kavazis
Women who do not lactate display increased incidence of obesity, type II diabetes, and cancer. Stuebe and Rich-Edwards proposed that these effects occur because physiological changes that ensue during pregnancy are not reversed without lactation. To empirically test this hypothesis, we compared markers of metabolism, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress between 4 groups of Sprague-Dawley rats: (1) nonreproductive (NR) rats, (2) rats killed at day 20 of gestation, (3) rats that gave birth but were not allowed to suckle their pups (nonlactating), and (4) rats that suckled their young for 14 days...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620433/what-activates-thermogenesis-when-lipid-droplet-lipolysis-is-absent-in-brown-adipocytes
#13
Hyunsu Shin, Hang Shi, Bingzhong Xue, Liqing Yu
Cold exposure activates the sympathetic nervous system. It is generally thought that this sympathetic activation induces heat production by stimulating lipolysis of cytosolic lipid droplets (LDs) in brown adipocytes. However, this concept was not examined in vivo due to lack of appropriate animal models. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that LD lipolysis in brown adipocytes is not required for cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis. Our studies uncovered an essential role of white adipose tissue (WAT) lipolysis in fueling thermogenesis during fasting...
April 5, 2018: Adipocyte
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619215/proteomic-analysis-of-adipose-tissue-during-the-last-weeks-of-gestation-in-pure-and-crossbred-large-white-or-meishan-fetuses-gestated-by-sows-of-either-breed
#14
F Gondret, B Guével, M C Père, H Quesnel, Y Billon, E Com, L Canario, I Louveau, L Liaubet
Background: The degree of adipose tissue development at birth may influence neonatal survival and subsequent health outcomes. Despite their lower birth weights, piglets from Meishan sows (a fat breed with excellent maternal ability) have a higher survival rate than piglets from Large White sows (a lean breed). To identify the main pathways involved in subcutaneous adipose tissue maturation during the last month of gestation, we compared the proteome and the expression levels of some genes at d 90 and d 110 of gestation in purebred and crossbred Large White or Meishan fetuses gestated by sows of either breed...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618580/oxidative-stress-inhibits-healthy-adipose-expansion-through-suppression-of-srebf1-mediated-lipogenic-pathway
#15
Yosuke Okuno, Atsunori Fukuhara, Erika Hashimoto, Hironori Kobayashi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro Shimomura
Recent studies have emphasized the association of adipose oxidative stress (Fat ROS) with the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders in obesity. However, the causal roles of Fat ROS in metabolic disturbances in vivo remain unclear because no mouse model has been available in which oxidative stress is manipulated targeting adipocytes. In this research, we generated two models of Fat ROS-manipulated mice and evaluated the metabolic features in diet-induced obesity. Fat ROS-eliminated mice in which Cat and Sod1 were overexpressed in adipocytes exhibited adipose expansion with decreased ectopic lipid accumulation and improved insulin sensitivity...
April 4, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617909/maternal-nicotine-exposure-mne-leads-to-augmented-expression-of-the-anti-oxidant-adipose-tissue-triglyceride-lipase-atgl-long-term-in-the-white-adipose-of-female-rat-offspring
#16
Nicole G Barra, Taylor VanDuzer, Alison C Holloway, Daniel B Hardy
Globally, approximately 10-25% of women smoke during pregnancy. Since nicotine is highly addictive, women may use nicotine containing products like nicotine replacement therapies for smoking cessation, but the long-term consequences of early life exposure to nicotine remain poorly defined. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that maternal nicotine exposed (MNE) rat offspring exhibit hypertriglyceridemia due to increased hepatic de novo lipogenesis. Hypertriglyceridemia may also be attributed to impaired white adipose tissue (WAT) lipid storage; however, the effects of MNE on WAT are not completely understood...
March 30, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614883/bergamottin-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells-and-weight-regulation-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#17
Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Dongwoo Nam, Jae-Young Um, Sang Hoon Jung, Kwang Seok Ahn
Obesity is a serious and increasing health problem worldwide, and the inhibition of adipogenesis is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for it. Bergamottin (BGM), a component of grapefruit juice, has been reported to regulate lipolysis. However, the physiological role of BGM in obesity has not been evaluated so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BGM on obesity in 3T3-L1 cells and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). BGM inhibited adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells along with a significant decrease in the lipid content by downregulating the expression of two critical adipogenic factors, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP[Formula: see text]) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR[Formula: see text])...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611347/activation-of-the-sympathetic-nervous-system-suppresses-mouse-white-adipose-tissue-hyperplasia-through-the-%C3%AE-1-adrenergic-receptor
#18
Mary K Schneider, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi
Adipose tissue (AT) expands via both hypertrophy and hyperplasia during the development of obesity. While AT hypertrophy involves the increase in size of existing adipocytes, hyperplasia is the process of creating new adipocytes from the pool of adipocyte precursor cells (APCs), which includes adipocyte progenitor cells and preadipocytes. Prior studies have implicated a role of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in regulation of hyperplasia in white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, we aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying SNS regulation of APC proliferation in mouse WAT...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611149/effect-of-ambient-temperature-on-the-proliferation-of-brown-adipocyte-progenitors-and-endothelial-cells-during-postnatal-bat-development-in-syrian-hamsters
#19
Kazuki Nagaya, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Junko Nio-Kobayashi, Shohei Nakagiri, Ayumi Tsubota, Kazuhiro Kimura
In Syrian hamsters, brown adipose tissue (BAT) develops postnatally through the proliferation and differentiation of brown adipocyte progenitors. In the study reported here, we investigated how ambient temperature influenced BAT formation in neonatal hamsters. In both hamsters raised at 23 or 30 °C, the interscapular fat changed from white to brown coloration in an age-dependent manner and acquired the typical morphological features of BAT by day 16. However, the expression of uncoupling protein 1, a brown adipocyte marker, and of vascular endothelial growth factor α were lower in the group raised at 30 °C than in that raised at 23 °C...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608940/an-update-on-the-role-of-irisin-in-the-regulation-of-endocrine-and-metabolic-functions
#20
REVIEW
Mohamed Omer Mahgoub, Crystal D'Souza, Reem S M H AlDarmaki, May M Y H Baniyas, Ernest Adeghate
Irisin is a novel myokine and adipokine that has gained much attention recently due to its mechanisms of action. Irisin is secreted following proteolytic cleavage of its precursor fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5). Following its release, irisin exerts its major action by increasing the expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP 1), which facilitates the conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into beige adipose tissue. Irisin is distributed in various body tissues and several actions have been attributed to its presence in those tissues...
March 30, 2018: Peptides
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