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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737586/ambient-air-pollution-and-human-performance-contemporaneous-and-acclimatization-effects-of-ozone-exposure-on-athletic-performance
#1
Jamie T Mullins
This paper utilizes a unique dataset of competitive outcomes from intercollegiate track and field competition to identify the relationship between recent ambient pollution exposure histories and human performance among a young and fit population in a diverse range of physically demanding "tasks". I find that higher contemporaneous ozone levels are associated with poorer performances in events that heavily tax the respiratory system. This is the case despite the low exposure levels observed in the studied sample, which are similar to those regularly experienced across the developed world...
May 8, 2018: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689117/relative-age-effects-in-international-age-group-championships-a-study-of-spanish-track-and-field-athletes
#2
Javier Brazo-Sayavera, María Asunción Martínez-Valencia, Lisa Müller, Georgios Andronikos, Russell J J Martindale
The relative age effect is a well-researched phenomenon, however there is still a dearth of understanding in track and field and female sport. This study investigated the role of relative age on selection for international competition of Spanish age group athletes between 2006-2014. Six hundred and forty two athletes competed for Spain at U20 or U18 age group international competition (n = 359 males; 283 females) across 9 years. The birthdates of these athletes were compared against the population of registered athletes at that time (14,502 males; 10,096 females)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667867/excelling-at-youth-level-in-competitive-track-and-field-athletics-is-not-a-prerequisite-for-later-success
#3
Philip E Kearney, Philip R Hayes
Enhancing our understanding of athlete development would be valuable for coaches, parents and administrators to set realistic performance expectations and to advance youth sport policy. To this end, a database of track and field performances was examined. Records of 134,313 performances by athletes aged between 12 and 35 years in sprinting, throwing, jumping and middle distance events were analysed. Results revealed that a minority (Male, 9%; Female, 13%) of top 20 ranked senior athletes were also ranked in the top 20 at Under 13 (U13)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659337/hyperandrogenic-athletes-performance-differences-in-elite-standard-200m-and-800m-finals
#4
Jonathan Ospina Betancurt, Maria S Zakynthinaki, Maria Jose Martinez-Patiño, Carlos Cordente Martinez
The purpose of this study was to examine whether the difference in elite-standard track and field performance between women athletes with and without hyperandrogenism reaches the 10-12% difference in performance between men and women, using only results from elite-standard track and field final competitions. Officially available data from two hyperandrogenic women (Caster Semenya and Dutee Chand) were compared with the characteristic performance of 200m and 800m elite-standard finals. The finishing times of Caster Semenya, before her ineligibility to compete in 2009 and after the suspension of the 2011 IAAF Hyperandrogenism Regulations were found to be respectively 1...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643758/prevalence-of-supplement-use-in-recreationally-active-kazakhstan-university-students
#5
Denis Vinnikov, Zhanna Romanova, Anar Dushpanova, Karashash Absatarova, Zhazira Utepbergenova
Background: Little is known about the supplements use and recreational sport practices in Kazakhstan university students. Therefore, the aim of this study was to ascertain supplements use prevalence and their predictors in this population. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of both undergraduate and graduate level students was completed in 2017 et al.-Farabi Kazakh National University, the largest higher institution in the country, from almost all Schools. A 45-item questionnaire was used to record physical activity, supplements use, lifestyle attributes (smoking, alcohol, sleep, etc...
2018: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599725/validity-and-reliability-of-10-hz-global-positioning-system-to-assess-in-line-movement-and-change-of-direction
#6
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Filipe M Clemente, Cornelis M I van der Linden, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
The objectives of the present study were to examine the validity and reliability of the 10 Hz Johan GPS unit in assessing in-line movement and change of direction. The validity was tested against the criterion measure of 200 m track-and-field (track-and-field athletes, n = 8) and 20 m shuttle run endurance test (female soccer players, n = 20). Intra-unit and inter-unit reliability was tested by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV), respectively. An analysis of variance examined differences between the GPS measurement and five laps of 200 m at 15 km/h, and t -test examined differences between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564304/track-and-field-practice-and-bone-outcomes-among-adolescents-a-pilot-study-abcd-growth-study
#7
Yuri da Silva Ventura Faustino-da-Silva, Ricardo Ribeiro Agostinete, André Oliveira Werneck, Santiago Maillane-Vanegas, Kyle Robinson Lynch, Isabella Neto Exupério, Igor Hideki Ito, Romulo Araújo Fernandes
Background: Osteoporosis is considered a public health problem with high worldwide prevalence. One approach to prevention is through the promotion of physical activity, especially exercise, during adolescence. Methods: This study compared bone variables in different body segments in adolescents according to participation in track and field. The study included 34 adolescents (22 boys), of whom 17 were track and field athletes and 17 were control subjects. Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2 ) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were analyzed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (total body stratified by body segments)...
February 2018: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563884/symptoms-of-anxiety-and-depression-in-young-athletes-using-the-hospital-anxiety-and-depression-scale
#8
Stephanie Weber, Christian Puta, Melanie Lesinski, Brunhild Gabriel, Thomas Steidten, Karl-Jürgen Bär, Marco Herbsleb, Urs Granacher, Holger H W Gabriel
Elite young athletes have to cope with multiple psychological demands such as training volume, mental and physical fatigue, spatial separation of family and friends or time management problems may lead to reduced mental and physical recovery. While normative data regarding symptoms of anxiety and depression for the general population is available (Hinz and Brähler, 2011), hardly any information exists for adolescents in general and young athletes in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess overall symptoms of anxiety and depression in young athletes as well as possible sex differences...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558842/effects-of-different-conditioning-activities-on-100-m-dash-performance-in-high-school-track-and-field-athletes
#9
João B Ferreira-Júnior, Ana P M Guttierres, Irismar G A Encarnação, Jorge R P Lima, Diego A Borba, Eduardo D S Freitas, Michael G Bemben, Carlos A Vieira, Martim Bottaro
This study compared the effects of different conditioning activities on the 100-m dash performance of 11 male, high school track and field athletes (mean age = 16.3; SD = 1.2 years). Participants performed a 100-m dash seven minutes after each of four randomized conditioning protocols, with each condition and 100-m dash separated by 3-10 days. The conditioning protocols were (a) control, no conditioning activity; (b) weighted plyometric, three sets of 10 repetitions of alternate leg bounding with additional load of 10% of the body mass; (c) free sprint, two 20-m sprints; and (d) resisted sprint (RS), two 20-m resisted sprints using an elastic tubing tool...
January 1, 2018: Perceptual and Motor Skills
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554189/incidence-and-risk-of-concussions-in-youth-athletes-comparisons-of-age-sex-concussion-history-sport-and-football-position
#10
William T Tsushima, Andrea M Siu, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Bolin L Chang, Nathan M Murata
Objective: This study was designed to determine concussion incidence, risk, and relative risk among middle and high school athletes participating in various sports. Method: Data were retrospectively obtained from 10,334 athletes of 12 different sports in Hawaii. In addition to determining the overall concussion incidence, comparisons of incidence, risk, and relative risk were made according to age, sex, concussion history, sport, and football position. Results: The overall incidence of concussion among youth athletes was 1,250 (12...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543080/peak-age-and-performance-progression-in-world-class-track-and-field-athletes
#11
Thomas A Haugen, Paul A Solberg, Carl Foster, Ricardo Morán-Navarro, Felix Breitschädel, Will G Hopkins
The aim of this study was to quantify peak age and improvements over the preceding years to peak age in elite athletic contestants according to athlete performance level, sex and discipline. Individual season bests for world-ranked top 100 athletes from 2002 to 2016 (14937 athletes and 57049 individual results) were downloaded from the International Association of Athletics Federations' web site. Individual performance trends were generated by fitting a quadratic curve separately to each athlete's performance and age data using a linear modeling procedure...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29519195/sport-specific-and-non-specific-practice-of-strong-and-weak-responders-in-junior-and-senior-elite-athletics-a-matched-pairs-analysis
#12
Arne Güllich
Elite track and field athletes with greater and lesser multi-year performance improvement were compared regarding their developmental sport-specific and non-specific, organised (coach-led) and non-organised (peer-led) sporting activities. Athlete pairs were matched on gender, discipline and baseline performance in competitions (at 13/19 years). Their unequal subsequent performance development during junior (13-17 years; n = 138) and senior (19-23+ years; n = 80) age ranges defined "strong responders" and "weak responders"...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513142/faster-higher-stronger-older-relative-age-effects-are-most-influential-during-the-youngest-age-grade-of-track-and-field-athletics-in-the-united-kingdom
#13
Philip E Kearney, Philip R Hayes, Alan Nevill
The relative age effect (RAE) is a common phenomenon in youth sport, whereby children born early in the selection year are more likely to experience success and to sustain participation. There is a lack of research investigating variables which influence RAEs within track and field athletics. Such information is vital to guide policies in relation to competition structure, youth development squads and coach education. A database of competition results was analysed to determine the extent to which RAEs were present in track and field athletics in the United Kingdom...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492109/higher-frequency-of-hamstring-injuries-in-elite-track-and-field-athletes-who-had-a-previous-injury-to-the-ankle-a-17-years-observational-cohort-study
#14
Nikolaos Malliaropoulos, Georgios Bikos, Maria Meke, Korakakis Vasileios, Xavier Valle, Heinz Lohrer, Nicola Maffulli, Nat Padhiar
Background: Inversion injury to the ankle and hamstring injuries are common problems in most sports. It is not known whether these injuries constitute a predisposing factor or a precursor of injury or re-injury of these anatomical locations. Therefore, we wished to test the hypothesis that a previous inversion ankle injury exerted a significant effect on the chance of an athlete suffering from a subsequent ipsilateral hamstring injury and vice versa. Methods: In an observational cohort study over 17 years (1998-2015), 367 elite track and field athletes, were grouped according to their first traumatic isolated ankle or hamstring injury...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480758/sports-injuries-at-the-rio-de-janeiro-2016-summer-olympics-use-of-diagnostic-imaging-services
#15
Ali Guermazi, Daichi Hayashi, Mohamed Jarraya, Michel D Crema, Roald Bahr, Frank W Roemer, João Grangeiro, Richard G Budgett, Torbjorn Soligard, Romulo Domingues, Abdalla Skaf, Lars Engebretsen
Purpose To describe the occurrence of imaging-depicted sports-related stress injuries, fractures, and muscle and tendon disorders during the 2016 Summer Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Materials and Methods Data on radiologic examinations were collected and retrospectively analyzed centrally by two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists (with a third musculoskeletal radiologist acting as an adjudicator in case of discrepancies). Descriptive data on all imaging examinations by using radiography, ultrasonography (US), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging were collected and analyzed according to imaging modality, country of origin of the athletes, type of sport, and type and location of injury...
February 26, 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445518/why-do-endocrine-profiles-in-elite-athletes-differ-between-sports
#16
Peter H Sönksen, Richard I G Holt, Walailuck Böhning, Nishan Guha, David A Cowan, Christiaan Bartlett, Dankmar Böhning
Background: Endocrine profiles have been measured on blood samples obtained immediately post-competition from 693 elite athletes from 15 Olympic Sports competing at National or International level; four were subsequently excluded leaving 689 for the current analysis. Methods: Body composition was measured by bioimpedance in a sub-set of 234 (146 men and 88 women) and from these data a regression model was constructed that enabled 'estimated' lean body mass and fat mass to be calculated on all athletes...
2018: Clinical Diabetes and Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412695/high-injury-burden-in-elite-adolescent-athletes-a-52-week-prospective-study
#17
Philip von Rosen, Annette Heijne, Anna Frohm, Cecilia Fridén, Anders Kottorp
CONTEXT:   Our understanding of the injury burden in elite adolescent athletes in most sports is limited or unknown because of the lack of prospective, long-term injury studies. OBJECTIVE:   To describe injury patterns in terms of type, location, prevalence and incidence, recurrence, and severity grade; time to first injury; and prevalence of illness in elite adolescent athletes and to compare differences in injury data by sex and sport type. DESIGN:   Cohort study...
March 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393677/effects-of-repetitive-subconcussive-head-trauma-on-the-neuropsychological-test-performance-of-high-school-athletes-a-comparison-of-high-moderate-and-low-contact-sports
#18
William T Tsushima, Hyeong Jun Ahn, Andrea M Siu, Kara Yoshinaga, So Yung Choi, Nathan M Murata
The aim of this study was to examine the neuropsychological test results of non-concussed high school athletes playing at three different levels of contact sports. Based on the concussion risk data of 12 different sports, a High Contact group (n=2819; wrestling/martial arts, cheerleading, track and field, football), a Moderate Contact group (n=2323; softball, basketball, soccer), and a Low Contact group (n=1580; baseball, volleyball, water polo, tennis, cross-country) were formed and compared in terms of their scores on the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT)...
February 2, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389467/the-effect-of-massage-on-acceleration-and-sprint-performance-in-track-field-athletes
#19
Ryan N Moran, John M Hauth, Robert Rabena
PURPOSE: To examine the acute effects of pre-competition massage on acceleration and sprint performance in collegiate track and field athletes. METHODS: Seventeen collegiate male (n = 9) and female (N = 8) track and field athletes participated in the study. Athletes were assigned to a counterbalanced, repeated measures designed experiment testing four treatment conditions of a pre-competition massage, dynamic warm-up, combination of a massage and warm-up, and a placebo ultrasound...
February 2018: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291269/evaluating-the-predictability-of-distance-race-performance-in-ncaa-cross-country-and-track-and-field-from-high-school-race-times-in-the-united-states
#20
Jamie L Brusa
Successful recruiting for collegiate track & field athletes has become a more competitive and essential component of coaching. This study aims to determine the relationship between race performances of distance runners at the United States high school and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) levels. Conditional inference classification tree models were built and analysed to predict the probability that runners would qualify for the NCAA Division I National Cross Country Meet and/or the East or West NCAA Division I Outdoor Track & Field Preliminary Round based on their high school race times in the 800 m, 1600 m, and 3200 m...
December 30, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
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