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Sugar and inflammation

Qi Ge, Liang Chen, Min Tang, Shu Zhang, Lu Gao, Shangshang Ma, Lanlan Liu, Ming Kong, Qin Yao, Keping Chen, Fan Feng
Mulberry leaves are one of the most commonly used medicinal and herbaceous traditional Chinese medicines that are currently considered for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. The alkaloids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides in mulberry leaves impart regulatory effects on blood sugar levels. To identify the hypoglycemia-related active components in mulberry leaves and their targets, the present study conducted gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which identified 202 components of mulberry leaf, of which 22 components may have significant curative effects on diabetes mellitus and its complications and chronic inflammation...
May 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
D Pang, T Yan, E Trevisi, S J Krizsan
This study compared the effects of a grain-based conventional concentrate (GC) and a concentrate based on agro-industrial by-products (BC), fed with grass silage harvested at early (ES) or late (LS) maturity stage, on dairy performance, CH4 and CO2 emissions, and metabolic status of dairy cows. Twenty lactating Nordic Red cows averaging 81 d in milk and 31.9 kg of milk/d pre-trial were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. The silages were harvested 2 wk apart from the same primary growth grass ley...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Evita Belegri, Leslie Eggels, Susanne E la Fleur, Anita Boelen
Obesity has been associated with increased susceptibility to infection in humans and rodents. Obesity is also associated with low-grade hypothalamic inflammation that depends not only on body weight but also on diet. In the present study, we investigated if the bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]-induced acute phase response is aggravated in rats on a 1-week free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet and explained by diet-induced hypothalamic inflammation. Male Wistar rats were on an fcHFHS diet or chow for 1 week and afterwards intraperitoneally injected with LPS or saline...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Karen W Della Corte, Ines Perrar, Katharina J Penczynski, Lukas Schwingshackl, Christian Herder, Anette E Buyken
It has been postulated that dietary sugar consumption contributes to increased inflammatory processes in humans, and that this may be specific to fructose (alone, in sucrose or in high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)). Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis and systematic literature review to evaluate the relevance of fructose, sucrose, HFCS, and glucose consumption for systemic levels of biomarkers of subclinical inflammation. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane libraries were searched for controlled intervention studies that report the effects of dietary sugar intake on (hs)CRP, IL-6, IL-18, IL-1RA, TNF-α, MCP-1, sICAM-1, sE-selectin, or adiponectin...
May 12, 2018: Nutrients
Hamed Khalili, Niclas Hakansson, Simon S Chan, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Ola Olen, Andrew T Chan, Andrew R Hart, Alicja Wolk
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Consumption of sweetened beverages has been associated with inflammation, based on measurements of C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor, as well as immune-mediated disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. We investigated associations with Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 83,042 participants (44-83 years old) enrolled in the Cohort of Swedish Men or the Swedish Mammography Study...
May 8, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Karim G Kheniser, Carmen M Polanco Santos, Sangeeta R Kashyap
The effects of diabetes and diabetes therapy on bone are less known among clinicians. Traditionally, the emphasis of diabetes therapy has been on reducing cardiovascular risk by facilitating reductions in weight, blood pressure, blood sugar, systemic inflammation, and lipid levels. Now, with ample research demonstrating that patients with diabetes are more susceptible to bone fractures relative to controls, there has been a greater or renewed interest in studying the effects of diabetes therapy on bone. Interestingly, the majority of antidiabetic agents positively affect bone, but a few have detrimental effects...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
Shichao Yu, Gaoqun Zhang, Li Hua Jin
A high-sugar diet (HSD) induces Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity, which severely threaten human health. The Drosophila T2D model has been constructed to study the mechanisms of insulin resistance, diet-induced cardiovascular diseases and other conditions. Innate immunity is the first line of defense against invading pathogens and parasites. However, few studies have focused on the relationship between a HSD and the innate immune response in Drosophila. In this study, we fed flies a high-sucrose diet and observed defects in the phagocytosis of latex beads and B...
May 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Farideh Shishehbor, Mahnaz Rezaeyan Safar, Elham Rajaei, Mohammad Hosein Haghighizadeh
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the effect of cinnamon on disease activity, serum levels of some inflammatory markers, and cardiovascular risk factors in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, 36 women with RA were randomly divided to 2 groups, receiving 4 capsules of either 500 mg cinnamon powder or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, liver enzymes, serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), blood pressure, and clinical symptoms were determined at baseline and end of the week 8...
May 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Christopher A Mutch, Alvaro A Ordonez, Hecong Qin, Matthew Parker, Lauren E Bambarger, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Joseph Blecha, Valerie Carroll, Celine Taglang, Robert Flavell, Renuka Sriram, Henry VanBrocklin, Oren Rosenberg, Michael A Ohliger, Sanjay K Jain, Kiel D Neumann, David M Wilson
Imaging studies are frequently used to support the clinical diagnosis of infection. These techniques include computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for structural information and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) or positron emission tomography (PET) for metabolic data. However, frequently, there is significant overlap in the imaging appearance of infectious and noninfectious entities using these tools. To address this concern, recent approaches have targeted bacteria-specific metabolic pathways...
May 8, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
Markku I Tammi, Sanna Oikari, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen, Kirsi Rilla, Päivi Auvinen, Raija H Tammi
Hyaluronan accumulates in the stroma of several solid tumors and promotes their progression. Both enhanced synthesis and fragmentation of hyaluronan are required as a part of this inflammatory process resembling wound healing. Increased expression of the genes of hyaluronan synthases (HAS1-3) are infrequent in human tumors, while posttranslational modifications that activate the HAS enzymes, and glucose shunted to the UDP-sugar substrates HASs, can have crucial contributions to tumor hyaluronan synthesis. The pericellular hyaluronan influences virtually all cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, controlling migration, proliferation, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and stem cell functions...
April 27, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Erin L Stephenson, V Wee Yong
The extracellular matrix of the central nervous system is an interconnected network of proteins and sugars. It is crucial for homeostasis, but its remodeling in neurological diseases impacts both injury and repair. Here we introduce an extracellular matrix family member that participates in immune-matrix interactions, the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans integrate signals from the microenvironment to activate immune cells, and they boost inflammatory responses by binding immunological receptors including toll-like receptors, selectins, CD44, and β1 integrin...
April 24, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Ebru Karasu, Steffen U Eisenhardt, Julia Harant, Markus Huber-Lang
Cells communicate with other cells in their microenvironment by transferring lipids, peptides, RNA, and sugars in extracellular vesicles (EVs), thereby also influencing recipient cell functions. Several studies indicate that these vesicles are involved in a variety of critical cellular processes including immune, metabolic, and coagulatory responses and are thereby associated with several inflammatory diseases. Furthermore, EVs also possess anti-inflammatory properties and contribute to immune regulation, thus encouraging an emerging interest in investigating and clarifying mechanistic links between EVs and innate immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Muhammad Rafehi, Christa E Müller
P2Y receptors (P2YRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides. Physiological P2YR agonists include purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates, such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, nucleotide sugars, and dinucleotides. Eight subtypes exist, P2Y1 , P2Y2 , P2Y4 , P2Y6 , P2Y11 , P2Y12 , P2Y13 , and P2Y14 , which represent current or potential future drug targets. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of ligands for the subgroup of the P2YR family that is activated by uracil nucleotides: P2Y2 (UTP, also ATP and dinucleotides), P2Y4 (UTP), P2Y6 (UDP), and P2Y14 (UDP, UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose)...
April 13, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sara Fridell, Edvin Ström, Christian Agebratt, Per Leanderson, Hans Guldbrand, Fredrik H Nystrom
Objectives/Aims: Fruit is often advocated as a healthy source of nutrients and vitamins. However, the high contents of sugars in many fruits could potentially counteract positive effects on the teeth. Materials and methods: We recruited 30 healthy non-obese participants who were randomised to either supplement their diet with extra fruits or nuts, each at +7 kcal/kg body weight/day, for 2 months. Results: Fructose intake increased from 9...
2018: BDJ Open
Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Farnaz Keyhani-Nejad
When glucose-fructose dimers are supplied as the slowly digestible, completely absorbable, low glycemic index (GI) sugar isomaltulose, the detrimental effects of high GI sucrose are avoided. This difference requires the presence of intact glucose-induced insulinotropic peptide receptor (GIPR) and is mediated by the rapid uptake of glucose and the stimulation of GIP release from K cells in the upper small intestine. GIP promotes lipogenesis, fatty liver, insulin resistance, and postprandial inflammation, and reduces fat oxidation in skeletal muscle, partly by hypothalamic interference with energy partitioning and epigenetic programming...
March 27, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
James A Morris
Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
M Isabel Ordiz, Caroline Davitt, Kevin Stephenson, Sophia Agapova, Oscar Divala, Nurmohammad Shaikh, Mark J Manary
The dual sugar absorption test, specifically the lactulose:mannitol test, is used to assess gut health. Lactulose absorption is said to represent gut damage and mannitol absorption is used as a measure of normal small bowel function and serves as normalizing factor for lactulose. A underappreciated limitation of this common understanding of the lactulose:mannitol test is that mannitol is not absorbed to any substantial extent by a transcellular process. Additionally, this interpretation of lactulose:mannitol is not consistent with current understanding of paracellular pathways, where three pathway types exist: pore, leak, and unrestricted...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ya Li, Huimin Zhou, Feng Wang, Lu Han, Minghao Liu, Yihui Li, Zhihao Wang, Mengxiong Tang, Wei Zhang, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysregulated inflammation in adipose tissue, marked by increased pro-inflammatory T-cell accumulation and reduced regulatory T cells (Treg), contributes to diabetes-associated insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying T-cell-mediated inflammation in adipose tissue remain largely unknown. METHODS: Sixty apolipoprotein E (ApoE-/-) mice were randomly divided into chow and diabetes groups. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat and high-sugar diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin...
March 21, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Emon K Das, Pui Y Lai, Austin T Robinson, Joan Pleuss, Mohamed M Ali, Jacob M Haus, David D Gutterman, Shane A Phillips
The postprandial state can negatively influence flow mediated dilation (FMD), a predictor of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. This investigation was designed to determine the effect of regular aerobic and/or resistance exercise on postprandial FMD after a high sugar or high fat mixed meal. Forty-five healthy participants were recruited from one of four groups: lean sedentary (SED), runners, weight lifters, and cross-trainers. Participants were randomly crossed over to a high sugar meal (HSM) and a high fat mixed meal (HFMM; both fat and carbohydrate)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
David C Nieman, Nicholas D Gillitt, Wei Sha, Debora Esposito, Sivapriya Ramamoorthy
OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: Using a randomized, crossover, counterbalanced approach, cyclists (N = 20, overnight fasted state) engaged in the four 75-km time trials (2-week washout) while ingesting two types of bananas with similar carbohydrate (CHO) but different phenolic content (Cavendish, CAV; mini-yellow, MIY, 63% higher polyphenols), a 6% sugar beverage (SUG), and water only (WAT). CHO intake was set at 0.2 g/kg every 15 minutes. Blood samples were collected pre-exercise and 0 h-, 0...
2018: PloS One
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