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Sugar and inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533660/genes-emotions-and-gut-microbiota-the-next-frontier-for-the-gastroenterologist
#1
REVIEW
Arturo Panduro, Ingrid Rivera-Iñiguez, Maricruz Sepulveda-Villegas, Sonia Roman
Most medical specialties including the field of gastroenterology are mainly aimed at treating diseases rather than preventing them. Genomic medicine studies the health/disease process based on the interaction of the human genes with the environment. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is an ideal model to analyze the interaction between our genes, emotions and the gut microbiota. Based on the current knowledge, this mini-review aims to provide an integrated synopsis of this interaction to achieve a better understanding of the GI disorders related to bad eating habits and stress-related disease...
May 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522975/hypoxia-and-inactivity-related-physiological-changes-constipation-inflammation-are-not-reflected-at-the-level-of-gut-metabolites-and-butyrate-producing-microbial-community-the-planhab-study
#2
Robert Šket, Nicole Treichel, Tadej Debevec, Ola Eiken, Igor Mekjavic, Michael Schloter, Marius Vital, Jenna Chandler, James M Tiedje, Boštjan Murovec, Zala Prevoršek, Blaž Stres
We explored the assembly of intestinal microbiota in healthy male participants during the run-in (5 day) and experimental phases [21-day normoxic bed rest (NBR), hypoxic bedrest (HBR)], and hypoxic ambulation (HAmb) in a strictly controlled laboratory environment, balanced fluid, and dietary intakes, controlled circadian rhythm, microbial ambiental burden, and 24/7 medical surveillance. The fraction of inspired O2 (FiO2) and partial pressure of inspired O2 (PiO2) were 0.209 and 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg for NBR and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511733/similarities-and-interactions-between-the-ageing-process-and-high-chronic-intake-of-added-sugars
#3
Eva Gatineau, Sergio Polakof, Dominique Dardevet, Laurent Mosoni
In our societies, the proportions of elderly people and of obese individuals are increasing. Both factors are associated with high health-related costs. During obesity, many authors suggest that it is a high chronic intake of added sugars (HCIAS) that triggers the shift towards pathology. However, the majority of studies were performed in young subjects and only a few were interested in the interaction with the ageing process. Our purpose was to discuss the metabolic effects of HCIAS, compare with the effects of ageing, and evaluate how deleterious the combined action of HCIAS and ageing could be...
May 17, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503281/effect-of-septimeb-tm-as-a-new-natural-extract-on-severe-sepsis-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Alieh Pourdast, Maryam Sanaei, Sirous Jafari, Mostafa Mohammadi, Hossein Khalili, Gita Shafiee, Zeinab Ahadi, Mahsa Rostami, Saba Alizad, Ramin Heshmat, Minoo Mohraz
BACKGROUND: Septimeb as a herbal medicine has regulatory effects on inflammation. This study set to evaluate the effects of Septimeb among patients with sepsis on inflammatory biomarkers and survival rate. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 51 patients with sepsis from the ICU and medical ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital were divided into two groups: Septimeb (n=25) and control group (n=26). In the control group, the patients received a standard treatment only for 7 days, while Septimeb group received Septimeb (6cc vial with 500cc serum glucose infusion 5% daily for one to two hours) plus standard treatment of sepsis for 7 days...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494583/isolation-identification-and-biological-evaluation-of-phenolic-compounds-from-the-traditional-north-american-confectionery-maple-sugar
#5
Yongqiang Liu, Kenneth Rose, Nicholas Dasilva, Shelby Johnson, Navindra P Seeram
Maple sap, collected from the sugar maple (Acer saccharum) tree, is boiled to produce the popular plant-derived sweetener, maple syrup, which can then be further evaporated to yield the traditional North American confectionery, maple sugar. While maple sap and maple syrup have been previously studied, the phytochemical constituents of maple sugar are unknown. Herein, thirty phenolic compounds, 1-30, primarily lignans, were isolated and identified (by HRESIMS and NMR) from maple sugar. The isolates included the phenylpropanoid-based lignan tetramers, (erythro,erythro)-4'',4'''-dihydroxy-3,3',3'',3''',5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8'';4',8'''-bisoxy-8,8'-dineolignan-7'',7''',9'',9'''-tetraol, 29, and (threo,erythro)-4'',4'''-dihydroxy-3,3',3'',3''',5,5'-hexamethoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-4,8'';4',8'''-bisoxy-8,8'-dineolignan-7'',7''',9'',9'''-tetraol, 30, neither of which have been identified from maple sap or maple syrup before...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476142/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-dpp-4-inhibition-with-linagliptin-reduces-western-diet-induced-myocardial-traf3ip2-expression-inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-female-mice
#6
Annayya R Aroor, Javad Habibi, Hemanth Kumar Kandikattu, Mona Garro-Kacher, Brady Barron, Dongqing Chen, Melvin R Hayden, Adam Whaley-Connell, Shawn B Bender, Thomas Klein, Jaume Padilla, James R Sowers, Bysani Chandrasekar, Vincent G DeMarco
BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction (DD), a hallmark of obesity and primary defect in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, is a predictor of future cardiovascular events. We previously reported that linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, improved DD in Zucker Obese rats, a genetic model of obesity and hypertension. Here we investigated the cardioprotective effects of linagliptin on development of DD in western diet (WD)-fed mice, a clinically relevant model of overnutrition and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...
May 5, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474500/vitamin-d3-supplementation-of-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-ameliorates-prediabetic-phenotype-in-female-ldlr-and-ldlr-mice
#7
Ramiar Kheder, James Hobkirk, Zeayd Saeed, Justyna Janus, Sean Carroll, Michael J Browning, Cordula Stover
INTRODUCTION: Fatty liver disease is prevalent in populations with high caloric intake. Nutritherapeutic approaches are being considered, such as supplementary Vitamin D3 , to improve aspects of metabolic syndrome, namely fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with obesity. METHODS: We analyzed female LDLR(-/-) and LDLR(+/+) mice on a 10-week diabetogenic diet for markers of fatty liver disease, metabolic strain, and inflammation...
June 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462631/effects-of-selected-dietary-constituents-on-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-levels-in-u-s-adults
#8
Mohsen Mazidi, Andre Pascal Kengne, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Arrigo F Cicero, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Growing evidence suggests that some of the effects of diet on cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur through mechanisms involving subclinical inflammation. We assessed the relationship between selected dietary constituents and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration in a population-based sample of United States adults. METHOD: In this cross-sectional analysis, participants were selected from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and restricted to those with available data on dietary intake, biochemical and anthropometric measurements from 2001 to 2010...
May 2, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457986/metabolome-analysis-of-effect-of-aspirin-on-drosophila-lifespan-extension
#9
Chaochun Song, Chenxing Zhu, Qi Wu, Jiancheng Qi, Yue Gao, Zhichao Zhang, Uma Gaur, Deying Yang, Xiaolan Fan, Mingyao Yang
Effective approaches for drug development involve the repurposing of existing drugs which are already approved by the FDA. Aspirin has been shown to have many health benefits since its discovery as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to treat pain and inflammation. Recent experiments demonstrated the longevity effects of aspirin in Drosophila, but its mechanism remains to be explored. In order to elucidate the effects of drug on metabolism, we carried out the metabolic analysis of aspirin-treated flies...
April 27, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445389/fructose-glucocorticoids-and-adipose-tissue-implications-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Balázs Legeza, Paola Marcolongo, Alessandra Gamberucci, Viola Varga, Gábor Bánhegyi, Angiolo Benedetti, Alex Odermatt
The modern Western society lifestyle is characterized by a hyperenergetic, high sugar containing food intake. Sugar intake increased dramatically during the last few decades, due to the excessive consumption of high-sugar drinks and high-fructose corn syrup. Current evidence suggests that high fructose intake when combined with overeating and adiposity promotes adverse metabolic health effects including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and inflammation. Similarly, elevated glucocorticoid levels, especially the enhanced generation of active glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue due to increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) activity, have been associated with metabolic diseases...
April 26, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433188/metabolic-engineering-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-for-production-of-spermidine-under-optimal-culture-conditions
#11
Sun-Ki Kim, Jung-Hyun Jo, Yong-Cheol Park, Yong-Su Jin, Jin-Ho Seo
Spermidine is a polyamine compound exhibiting important biological activities, such as increasing lifespan, inflammation reduction, and plant growth control. As such, many applications of spermidine as a bio-modulating agent are anticipated. However, sustainable and scalable production of spermidine has not been achieved yet. Therefore, construction of a spermidine production system using Saccharomyces cerevisiae was attempted in this study. In order to secrete spermidine into fermentation broth, TPO1 coding for the polyamine transporter was overexpressed in an engineered S...
June 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425939/fructose-consumption-in-the-development-of-obesity-and-the-effects-of-different-protocols-of-physical-exercise-on-the-hepatic-metabolism
#12
REVIEW
Rodrigo Martins Pereira, José Diego Botezelli, Kellen Cristina da Cruz Rodrigues, Rania A Mekary, Dennys Esper Cintra, José Rodrigo Pauli, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, Leandro Pereira de Moura
Fructose consumption has been growing exponentially and, concomitant with this, the increase in the incidence of obesity and associated complications has followed the same behavior. Studies indicate that fructose may be a carbohydrate with greater obesogenic potential than other sugars. In this context, the liver seems to be a key organ for understanding the deleterious health effects promoted by fructose consumption. Fructose promotes complications in glucose metabolism, accumulation of triacylglycerol in the hepatocytes, and alterations in the lipid profile, which, associated with an inflammatory response and alterations in the redox state, will imply a systemic picture of insulin resistance...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420091/dietary-sugars-and-endogenous-formation-of-advanced-glycation-endproducts-emerging-mechanisms-of-disease
#13
REVIEW
Manuela Aragno, Raffaella Mastrocola
The rapid increase in metabolic diseases, which occurred in the last three decades in both industrialized and developing countries, has been related to the rise in sugar-added foods and sweetened beverages consumption. An emerging topic in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases related to modern nutrition is the role of Advanced Glycation Endproducts (AGEs). AGEs can be ingested with high temperature processed foods, but also endogenously formed as a consequence of a high dietary sugar intake. Animal models of high sugar consumption, in particular fructose, have reported AGE accumulation in different tissues in association with peripheral insulin resistance and lipid metabolism alterations...
April 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403789/metaflammation-tissue-specific-alterations-of-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-platform
#14
Raffaella Mastrocola, Manuela Aragno, Giuseppe Alloatti, Massimo Collino, Claudia Penna, Pasquale Pagliaro
In the last decades, the extension of life expectancy and the increased consumption of foods rich in saturated fats and added sugars have exposed the general population to emerging health problems. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), composed of a cluster of factors as obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension, is rapidly increasing in industrialized and developing countries leading to precocious onset of age-related diseases. Indeed, oxidative stress, accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts, and a chronic low-grade inflammation are common features of MS and physiological ageing...
April 7, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397133/the-role-of-diet-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
REVIEW
Raina Shivashankar, James D Lewis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diet may play both a causal and therapeutic role for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Physicians caring for patients with IBD are often asked to make dietary recommendations. However, there are no well-established guidelines on the use of diet as a treatment of IBD. In this review, we describe the evidence supporting diet as a potential cause for IBD, patient-perceived symptoms based on diet, current research on various diets as a treatment for IBD, and areas of future research...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377725/gut-microbiota-dependent-metabolite-trimethylamine-n-oxide-contributes-to-cardiac-dysfunction-in-western-diet-induced-obese-mice
#16
Kui Chen, Xiaoqian Zheng, Mingchen Feng, Dongliang Li, Hongqi Zhang
Excessive consumption of diets high in sugars and saturated fat, frequently known as western diet (WD), may lead to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence shows that WD-induced obesity impairs cardiac function, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of specific dietary nutrients, has emerged as a key contributor to cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. We tested the hypothesis that elevated circulating TMAO levels contribute to cardiac dysfunction in WD-induced obesity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367889/obesity-induction-in-hamster-that-mimics-the-human-clinical-condition
#17
Vivian Jordania DA Silva, Sílvia Regina Costa Dias, Tatiani Uceli Maioli, Luciana Ribeiro Serafim, Luis Fernando Viana Furtado, Maria da Gloria Quintão Silva, Ana Maria Caetano DE Faria, Élida Mara Leite Rabelo
Although obesity is well established in hamsters, studies using diets with high levels of simple carbohydrate associated with lipids are necessary to assess the impact of this type of food in the body. In this studya high sugar and butter diet (HSB) and high temperature were employed towards this end. Obesity was successfully induced at a temperature of 30.3ºC to 30.9°Cafter 38 days feeding the animals an HSB diet.It was shown that although diet is important for the induction of obesity, temperature is also essential because at a temperature slightly below the one required, obesity was not induced, even when the animals were fed for a longer period (150 days)...
March 28, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367220/lectins-interconnecting-proteins-with-biotechnological-pharmacological-and-therapeutic-applications
#18
REVIEW
Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Priscila Marcelino Dos Santos Silva, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia
Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367174/does-obesity-cause-chronic-inflammation-the-association-between-complete-blood-parameters-with-body-mass-index-and-fasting-glucose
#19
Tuba Tulay Koca
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the relationship of complete blood count (CBC) parameters and derivates with fasting blood sugar and the body mass index. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational clinical study. Hospitalized patients who received a physiotherapy program in the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic between March and June 2016 were included. The age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose, erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR), C-reactive protein, and CBC parameters (leukocytes, platelets, neutrophil, lymphocytes, and monocytes) and red cell distribution width, platelet distribution width, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelet-lymphocyte ratio of the patients were recorded...
January 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334971/expanding-glycosaminoglycan-chemical-space-towards-the-creation-of-sulfated-analogs-novel-polymers-and-chimeric-constructs
#20
Rachel S Lane, Kalib St Ange, Behnam Zolghadr, Xinyue Liu, Christina Schäffer, Robert J Linhardt, Paul L DeAngelis
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the in vitro enzymatic synthesis of defined GAGs is quite restricted by a limited understanding of current GAG synthases and modifying enzymes. Our work provides insights into GAG-active enzymes through the creation of sulfated oligosaccharides, a new polysaccharide and chimeric polymers...
March 17, 2017: Glycobiology
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