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Sugar and inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893829/sansevieria-roxburghiana-schult-schult-f-family-asparagaceae-attenuates-type-2-diabetes-and-its-associated-cardiomyopathy
#1
Niloy Bhattacharjee, Ritu Khanra, Tarun K Dua, Susmita Das, Bratati De, M Zia-Ul-Haq, Vincenzo De Feo, Saikat Dewanjee
BACKGROUND: Sansevieria roxburghiana Schult. & Schult. F. (Family: Asparagaceae) rhizome has been claimed to possess antidiabetic activity in the ethno-medicinal literature in India. Therefore, present experiments were carried out to explore the protective role of edible (aqueous) extract of S. roxburghiana rhizome (SR) against experimentally induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its associated cardiomyopathy in Wistar rats. METHODS: SR was chemically characterized by GC-MS analysis...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888584/small-molecule-inhibiting-nf-kb-ameliorates-oxidative-stress-and-suppresses-renal-inflammation-in-early-stage-of-alloxan-induced-diabetic-nephropathy-in-rat
#2
Manash P Borgohain, Mangala Lakhar, Sahabuddin Ahmed, Liakat Chowdhury, Saurabh Kumar, Rajat Pant, Abhinav Choubey
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the major microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which ultimately gives rise to cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress produced by prolonged hyperglycaemia and chronic renal inflammation are the two key players in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. NF-kB-mediated inflammatory cascade is a strong contributor to the renovascular inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we studied the effects of piceatannol, a potent NF-kB inhibitor, on various oxidative stress markers and diabetic renal inflammatory pathway in rat induced by alloxan...
November 26, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853646/hepatocellular-carcinoma-is-accelerated-by-nash-involving-m2-macrophage-polarization-mediated-by-hif-1%C3%AE-induced-il-10
#3
Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Banishree Saha, Benedek Gyongyosi, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Gyongyi Szabo
Obesity-related inflammation promotes cancer development. Tissue resident macrophages affect tumor progression and the tumor micro-environment favors polarization into alternatively activated macrophages (M2) that facilitate tumor invasiveness. Here, we dissected the role of western diet-induced NASH in inducing macrophage polarization in a carcinogen initiated model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Adult C57BL/6 male mice received diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 24 weeks of high fat-high cholesterol-high sugar diet (HF-HC-HSD)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853291/a-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-rapidly-alters-muscle-integrity-inflammation-and-gut-microbiota-in-male-rats
#4
Kelsey H Collins, Heather A Paul, David A Hart, Raylene A Reimer, Ian C Smith, Jaqueline L Rios, Ruth A Seerattan, Walter Herzog
The chronic low-level inflammation associated with obesity is known to deleteriously affect muscle composition. However, the manner in which obesity leads to muscle loss has not been explored in detail or in an integrated manner following a short-term metabolic challenge. In this paper, we evaluated the relationships between compromised muscle integrity, diet, systemic inflammatory mediators, adipose tissue, and gut microbiota in male Sprague-Dawley rats. We show that intramuscular fat, fibrosis, and the number of pro-inflammatory cells increased by 3-days and was sustained across 28-days of high-fat high-sugar feeding compared to control-diet animals...
November 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832073/lack-of-effect-of-oral-sulforaphane-administration-on-nrf2-expression-in-copd-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Robert A Wise, Janet T Holbrook, Gerard Criner, Sanjay Sethi, Sobharani Rayapudi, Kuladeep R Sudini, Elizabeth A Sugar, Alyce Burke, Rajesh Thimmulappa, Anju Singh, Paul Talalay, Jed W Fahey, Charles S Berenson, Michael R Jacobs, Shyam Biswal
BACKGROUND: COPD patients have high pulmonary and systemic oxidative stress that correlates with severity of disease. Sulforaphane has been shown to induce expression of antioxidant genes via activation of a transcription factor, nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). METHODS: This parallel, placebo-controlled, phase 2, randomized trial was conducted at three US academic medical centers. Patients who met GOLD criteria for COPD and were able to tolerate bronchoscopies were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive placebo, 25 μmoles, or 150 μmoles sulforaphane daily by mouth for four weeks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818275/dietary-phosphorus-burden-increases-cariogenesis-independent-of-vitamin-d-uptake
#6
REVIEW
Ping Shi, J Max Goodson, Chrispinus H Mumena, Afrozul Haq, Mohammed S Razzaque
An association between excessive sugar consumption and dental decay, particularly in children, has been well-established. In this study we have analyzed whether consumption of phosphorus, an important ingredient of sugary drinks, has any association with the evolvement of dental decay. Food consumption, gingival redness and dental decay were evaluated in a total of 8,317children with the mean age of 9.99 +0.68 years with a strong gender bias (p<0.0005); boys being more affected than girls. Our results showed a significant association (p=0...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816946/advanced-glycation-end-products-mediated-cellular-and-molecular-events-in-the-pathology-of-diabetic-nephropathy
#7
Anil Kumar Pasupulati, P Swathi Chitra, G Bhanuprakash Reddy
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients and a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Degenerative changes such as glomerular hypertrophy, hyperfiltration, widening of basement membranes, tubulointerstitial fibrosis, glomerulosclerosis and podocytopathy manifest in various degrees of proteinuria in DN. One of the key mechanisms implicated in the pathogenesis of DN is non-enzymatic glycation (NEG). NEG is the irreversible attachment of reducing sugars onto free amino groups of proteins by a series of events, which include the formation of Schiff's base and an Amadori product to yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs)...
November 7, 2016: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800715/molecular-modeling-dynamics-studies-and-density-functional-theory-approaches-to-identify-potential-inhibitors-of-sirt4-protein-from-homo-sapiens-a-novel-target-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes
#8
Sanjay K Choubey, Dhamodharan Prabhu, Mutharasappan Nachiappan, Jayshree Biswal, Jeyaraman Jeyakanthan
Type 2 Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges in the world and WHO projects it to be the 7(th) leading cause of death in 2030. It is a chronic condition affecting the way our body metabolizes sugar. Insulin resistance is high risk factor marked by expression of Lipoprotein Lipases and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor that predisposes to type 2 diabetes. AMP-dependent protein kinase in AMPK signaling pathway is a central sensor of energy status. Deregulation of AMPK signaling leads to inflammation, oxidative stress and deactivation of autophagy which are implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790472/arterial-stiffness-and-trace-elements-in-apparently-healthy-population-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Gangapatnam Subrahmanyam, Rama Mohan Pathapati, Krishnan Ramalingam, Selvam Armugam Indira, Katari Kantha, Bhemasen Soren
INTRODUCTION: Stiffening of arteries is a natural ageing process. Any diseases/disorders or risk factors that escalate oxidative stress, microvascular inflammation and endothelial damage may promote to premature vascular stiffening. Any imbalance in these trace element levels may independently contribute to the changes in the components in the arterial wall and thus, arterial stiffness via one or more mechanisms. AIM: To evaluate the severity of arterial stiffness in apparently healthy population and also to evaluate role of various risk factors and trace elements in the severity of arterial stiffness...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784241/a-review-on-the-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-steviol-glycosides-extracted-from-stevia-rebaudiana
#10
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Elham Abdollahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a sweet and nutrient-rich plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves contain steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudioside (A to F), steviolbioside, and isosteviol, which are responsible for the plant's sweet taste, and have commercial value all over the world as a sugar substitute in foods, beverages and medicines. Among the various steviol glycosides, stevioside, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C are the major metabolites and these compounds are on average 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757227/new-insights-into-therapeutic-strategies-for-gut-microbiota-modulation-in-inflammatory-diseases
#11
Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Claudio Fukumori, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira
The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753523/golgi-proteins-in-circulating-human-platelets-are-distributed-across-non-stacked-scattered-structures
#12
Shilpi Yadav, Jonathan K Williamson, Maria A Aronova, Andrew A Prince, Irina D Pokrovskaya, Richard D Leapman, Brian Storrie
Platelets are small, anucleate cell fragments that are central to hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. They are derived from megakaryocytes from which they inherit their organelles. As platelets can synthesize proteins and contain many of the enzymes of the secretory pathway, one might expect all mature human platelets to contain a stacked Golgi apparatus, the central organelle of the secretory pathway. By thin section electron microscopy, stacked membranes resembling the stacked Golgi compartment in megakaryocytes and other nucleated cells can be detected in both proplatelets and platelets...
October 18, 2016: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27717115/pomegranate-juice-prevents-development-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-rats-by-attenuating-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#13
Maryam Noori, Bahar Jafari, Azita Hekmatdoost
BACKGROUND: The effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on the risk factors of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have been reported previously; however, the effects on NAFLD and its prevention have not yet been clarified. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of PJ consumption with respect to the prevention of NAFLD/NASH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either a high-fat, high sugar diet (model group); a high-fat, high sugar diet plus PJ (model+PJ); or a chow diet ad libitum for 7 weeks...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705750/a-physiological-characterization-of-the-cafeteria-diet-model-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-the-rat
#14
Mariana Gomez-Smith, Sudhir Karthikeyan, Matthew S Jeffers, Rafal Janik, Lynsie A Thomason, Bojana Stefanovic, Dale Corbett
Many promising findings from pre-clinical research have failed to translate to the clinic due to their inability to incorporate human disease co-morbidity. A variety of rodent diets and feeding durations are currently used in models of human metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes. One model, the Cafeteria (CAF) diet, makes use of grocery store-purchased food items that more closely approximate the human ultra-processed diet than commercial high-fat or high-sugar rodent diets. The present study describes the development of metabolic syndrome in rats fed a CAF diet as well as the recovery of metabolic syndrome following a healthy "lifestyle" change...
October 2, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705748/cornus-mas-l-cornelian-cherry-an-important-european-and-asian-traditional-food-and-medicine-ethnomedicine-phytochemistry-and-pharmacology-for-its-commercial-utilization-in-drug-industry
#15
REVIEW
Biswanath Dinda, Anthony M Kyriakopoulos, Subhajit Dinda, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Aristea Velegraki, Charlambos Markopoulos, Manikarna Dinda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits have been used for centuries as traditional cuisine and folk medicine in various countries of Europe and Asia. In folk medicines, the fruits and other parts of the plant have been used for prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, fevers, rheumatic pain, skin and urinary tract infections, kidney and liver diseases, sunstroke, among others. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of this plant as well as future research need for its commercial utilization as nutraceutical food supplement and medicine...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692243/the-relation-of-saturated-fatty-acids-with-low-grade-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-disease
#16
Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, D A Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, Frits A J Muskiet
The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The "lipid hypothesis" coined the concept that fat, especially SFA, raises blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and thereby CVD risk. In view of current controversies regarding their adequate intakes and effects, this review aims to summarize research regarding this heterogenic group of fatty acids and the mechanisms relating them to (chronic) systemic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and notably CVD...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27691951/bilateral-hydronephrosis-in-a-sugar-glider-petaurus-breviceps
#17
Lara Cusack, Rodney Schnellbacher, Elizabeth W Howerth, David A Jiménez, Joerg Mayer, Stephen Divers
An adult, intact male sugar glider ( Petaurus breviceps ) presented for acute caudal abdominal swelling. Treatment by the referring veterinarian included aspiration of urine from the swelling. On physical examination, mild depression, pale mucus membranes, and caudal abdominal swelling were noted. Focused ultrasonographic assessment revealed a fluid-filled caudal abdominal structure and subjective bladder wall thickening. The following day, the sugar glider was severely depressed. Hematology results included hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and azotemia...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684356/a-comprehensive-review-of-topical-odor-controlling-treatment-options-for-chronic-wounds
#18
Alma Akhmetova, Timur Saliev, Iain U Allan, Matthew J Illsley, Talgat Nurgozhin, Sergey Mikhalovsky
The process of wound healing is often accompanied by bacterial infection or critical colonization, resulting in protracted inflammation, delayed reepithelization, and production of pungent odors. The malodor produced by these wounds may lower health-related quality of life and produce psychological discomfort and social isolation. Current management focuses on reducing bacterial activity within the wound site and absorbing malodorous gases. For example, charcoal-based materials have been incorporated into dressing for direct adsorption of the responsible gases...
November 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27658743/thioredoxin-mimetic-peptides-txm-inhibit-inflammatory-pathways-associated-with-high-glucose-and-oxidative-stress
#19
Katia Lejnev, Lena Khomsky, Krister Bokvist, Shani Mistriel-Zerbib, Tahel Naveh, Thomas Bradley Farb, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, Daphne Atlas
Impaired insulin signaling and the associated insulin-resistance in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, represents a hallmark of the pathogenesis of type 2-diabetes-mellitus. Here we show that in the liver of db/db mice, a murine model of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, the elevated activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK; ERK1/2 and p38(MAPK)), and Akt/PKB are abolished by rosiglitazone-treatment, which normalizes blood glucose in db/db mice. This is unequivocal evidence of a functional link between the activation of the MAPK specific inflammatory-pathway and high-blood sugar...
October 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617199/causality-of-small-and-large-intestinal-microbiota-in-weight-regulation-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Torsten P M Scheithauer, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: The twin pandemics of obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are a global challenge for health care systems. Changes in the environment, behavior, diet, and lifestyle during the last decades are considered the major causes. A Western diet, which is rich in saturated fat and simple sugars, may lead to changes in gut microbial composition and physiology, which have recently been linked to the development of metabolic diseases. METHODS: We will discuss evidence that demonstrates the influence of the small and large intestinal microbiota on weight regulation and the development of insulin resistance, based on literature search...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
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