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Sugar and inflammation

Francine Kengne Mediesse, Thaddée Boudjeko, Anantharaju Hasitha, Matharasala Gangadhar, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Perumal Yogeeswari
BACKGROUND: Khaya grandifoliola (C.D.C.) stem bark, Cymbopogon citratus (Stapf) and Cryptolepis sanguinolenta (Lindl.) Schltr leaves are used in Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have been performed on the biological activities of secondary metabolites extracted from these plants. However, to the best of our knowledge, the anti-neuro inflammatory and protective roles of the polysaccharides of these three plants have not yet been elucidated...
March 12, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Gemma Sangüesa, José Carlos Montañés, Miguel Baena, Rosa María Sánchez, Núria Roglans, Marta Alegret, Juan Carlos Laguna
PURPOSE: Sugar-sweetened beverage intake is a risk factor for insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, fatty liver, and steatohepatitis (NASH). Sub-chronic supplementation of liquid fructose, but not glucose, in female rats increases liver and plasma triglycerides without inflammation. We hypothesized that chronic supplementation of fructose would cause NASH and liver insulin resistance. METHODS: We supplemented female Sprague-Dawley rats with water or either fructose or glucose 10% w/v solutions under isocaloric conditions for 7 months...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Zhi Yu, Sylvia H Ley, Qi Sun, Frank B Hu, Vasanti S Malik
Few studies have evaluated the relationships between intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and intermediate biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk. Associations between artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) and fruit juice with cardiometabolic biomarkers are also unclear. We investigated habitual SSB, ASB and fruit juice intake in relation to biomarkers of hepatic function, lipid metabolism, inflammation and glucose metabolism. We analysed cross-sectional data from 8492 participants in the Nurses' Health Study who were free of diabetes and CVD...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Xu Chu, Shuhu Zhou, Ran Sun, Lin Wang, Chunye Xing, Ruqing Liang, Qingxia Kong
Patients with diabetes mellitus are easy to experience diabetic encephalopathy (DE) and other cognition dysfunction, whereas the neural alterations in developing this disease are unknown yet. Chrysophanol (CHR) is one of traditional Chinese medicine which was reported to show protective effects in cognition dysfunction and inflammatory in previously studies. In this current study, whether CHR protects learning and memory dysfunctions induced by diabetes disease or not and underlying mechanisms were studied...
March 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Isabel González-Mariscal, Rodrigo A Montoro, Máire E Doyle, Qing-Rong Liu, Michael Rouse, Jennifer F O'Connell, Sara Santa-Cruz Calvo, Susan M Krzysik-Walker, Soumita Ghosh, Olga D Carlson, Elin Lehrmann, Yongqing Zhang, Kevin G Becker, Chee W Chia, Paritosh Ghosh, Josephine M Egan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) regulates insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. CB1R is expressed on pancreatic beta cells and is coupled to the G protein Gαi, suggesting a negative regulation of endogenous signalling in the beta cell. Deciphering the exact function of CB1R in beta cells has been confounded by the expression of this receptor on multiple tissues involved in regulating metabolism. Thus, in models of global genetic or pharmacological CB1R blockade, it is difficult to distinguish the indirect effects of improved insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues from the direct effects of inhibiting CB1R in beta cells per se...
March 1, 2018: Diabetologia
Sunhye Lee, Katherine I Keirsey, Rebecca Kirkland, Zachary I Grunewald, Joan G Fischer, Claire B de La Serre
Background: Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been linked to obesity-associated chronic inflammation. Microbiota manipulation may therefore affect obesity-related comorbidities. Blueberries are rich in anthocyanins, which have anti-inflammatory properties and may alter the gut microbiota. Objective: We hypothesized that blueberry supplementation would alter the gut microbiota, reduce systemic inflammation, and improve insulin resistance in high-fat (HF)-diet-fed rats...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Patrícia Lima Falcão, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro de Campos
Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of the CD25 marker on the surface of naturally occurring T cells (Tregs) of mice, which have a self-reactive cellular profile. Recently, expression of other markers that aid in the identification of these cells has been detected in lymphocyte subtypes of individuals suffering of autoimmune and idiopathic diseases, including: CD25, CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4), HLA-DR (human leukocyte antigen) and Interleukin 10 (IL-10), opening new perspectives for a better understanding of an association between such receptors present on the cell surface and the prognosis of autoimmune diseases...
December 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
Shahid Ullah Khan, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Khaista Rahman, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Wasim Ullah Khan, Sajid Kamal, Baharullah Khattak, Ali Muhammad, Hikmat Ullah Khan
Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Bigina N R Ginos, Sandi L Navarro, Yvonne Schwarz, Haiwei Gu, Dongfang Wang, Timothy W Randolph, Ali Shojaie, Meredith A J Hullar, Paul D Lampe, Mario Kratz, Marian L Neuhouser, Daniel Raftery, Johanna W Lampe
OBJECTIVE: The effects of diets high in refined grains on biliary and colonic bile acids have been investigated extensively. However, the effects of diets high in whole versus refined grains on circulating bile acids, which can influence glucose homeostasis and inflammation through activation of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (TGR5), have not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled crossover feeding trial (NCT00622661) in 80 healthy adults (40 women/40 men, age 18-45 years) from the greater Seattle Area, half of which were normal weight (BMI 18...
February 16, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Léa Décarie-Spain, Sandeep Sharma, Cécile Hryhorczuk, Victor Issa Garcia, Philip A Barker, Nathalie Arbour, Thierry Alquier, Stephanie Fulton
OBJECTIVE: The incidence of depression is significantly compounded by obesity. Obesity arising from excessive intake of high-fat food provokes anxiodepressive behavior and elicits molecular adaptations in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region well-implicated in the hedonic deficits associated with depression and in the control of food-motivated behavior. To determine the etiology of diet-induced depression, we studied the impact of different dietary lipids on anxiodepressive behavior and metabolic and immune outcomes and the contribution of NAc immune activity...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Ebru Salmanoglu, Sung Kim, Mathew L Thakur
Infection is ubiquitous. However, its management is challenging for both the patients and the health-care providers. Scintigraphic imaging of infection dates back nearly half a century. The advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of disease at cellular and molecular levels have paved the way to the development of a large number of radiopharmaceuticals for scintigraphic imaging of infection. These include radiolabeling of blood elements such as serum proteins, white blood cells (WBCs), and cytokines, to name a few...
March 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
P W Jupp
Cancer incidence continues to be a major health problem possibly because cancer is a complex system comprising many agents that interact in a non-linear manner resulting in many possible outcomes. The degree of complexity of a cancer system could be vast involving multiple endogenous and exogenous agents interacting with the over 10 trillion cells comprising the body. It is hypothesized that the practical management of this complexity may be a key to cancer prevention and possibly treatment. But the management and resolution of such an immensely complex system is difficult and may require a multidisciplinary approach including physics, biology, biochemistry and medical science...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
Changqing Sun, Fang Deng, Lingjun Meng, Guohua Chen
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of abnormal sugar-chain glycoprotein tumor abnormal protein (TAP) in the screening of common digestive tract pre-cancer colon adenocarcinoma lesions. A total of 50 colitis patients, 50 colon polyp patients and 50 colon adenocarcinoma patients admitted to our hospital from March, 2012 to May, 2014 were included. Fresh blood from patient's fingertips was collected and condensation staining was used to detect TAP expression. Positive expressions of TAP in patients in the colitis, colon polyp and colon adenocarcinoma groups prior to treatment were 6,76 and 92%, respectively...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Daniel Bucio-Noble, Liisa Kautto, Christoph Krisp, Malcolm S Ball, Mark P Molloy
Sugarcane is an important crop grown in tropical regions for sugar, and for ethanol production. Sugarcane is also a source of phytochemicals but its nutraceutical potential has been under-explored. We show that ethanol extracts of whole dried sugarcane (WDS) recovers a rich content of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity that act on inflammatory mediator proteins. To investigate the mechanisms of this activity, we stimulated SW480 colon cancer cells with lipopolysaccharide, exposed cells to WDS and quantitated changes to the proteome and phosphoproteome using label-free mass spectrometry...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Marinaldo Pacífico Cavalcanti Neto, Jailane de Souza Aquino, Larissa de Fátima Romão da Silva, Ruanniere de Oliveira Silva, Keyth Sulamitta de Lima Guimarães, Yohana de Oliveira, Evandro Leite de Souza, Marciane Magnani, Hubert Vidal, José Luiz de Brito Alves
The gut microbiota plays an important role in host metabolism and its dysregulation have been related to cardiometabolic disorders (CMD), such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, as well as to chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The implication of the gut microbiota on systemic disorders has been associated with changes in its composition (dysbiosis) as a result of the oxidative unbalance in the body. This alteration may be the result of the adoption of unhealthy lifestyle behavior, including lack of physical activity and fat- or sugar-rich diets, which are largely associated with increased incidence of CMD and CKD...
February 2, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Débora Vasconcelos Bastos Marques, Amanda Aparecida Felizardo, Raquel Lopes Martins Souza, Alessandro Antônio Costa Pereira, Reggiani Vilela Gonçalves, Rômulo Dias Novaes
Schistosomiasis and malnutrition are often overlapped in poor communities, resulting in disproportionately high mortality rates. Currently, fragmented data make it difficult to define the relationship between diet and schistosomiasis. Thus, we systematically review the preclinical evidence on the impact of diet in Schistosoma mansoni infection. From a structured search, we recovered 27 original articles. All studies used mice and most of them investigated hypoproteic (70.37%), hyperlipidic (22.22%) or vitamin-deficient (7...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology
Jhilmil Dhulekar, Agneta Simionescu
Hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia coexist in diabetes and result in inflammation, degeneration, and impaired tissue remodeling, processes which are not conducive to the desired integration of tissue engineered products into the surrounding tissues. There are several challenges for vascular tissue engineering such as non-thrombogenicity, adequate burst pressure and compliance, suturability, appropriate remodeling responses, and vasoactivity, but, under diabetic conditions, an additional challenge needs to be considered: the aggressive oxidative environment generated by the high glucose and lipid concentrations that lead to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the vascular wall...
January 25, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Juncheng Zhuo, Qiaohuang Zeng, Dake Cai, Xiaohui Zeng, Yuxing Chen, Haining Gan, Xuejun Huang, Nan Yao, Dane Huang, Chengzhe Zhang
Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM), which is characterized by insulin resistance (IR), hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, is a comprehensive dysfunction of metabolism. The insulin receptor (INSR)/phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway is well acknowledged as a predominant pathway associated with glucose uptake; however, the effect of streptozotocin (STZ) plus a high fat and sugar diet (HFSD) on the proteins associated with this pathway requires further elucidation. In order to explore this effect, a T2DM rat model was constructed to investigate T2DM pathogenesis and potential therapeutic advantages...
January 26, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Youngji Han, Eun-Young Kwon, Mi Kyeong Yu, Seon Jeong Lee, Hye-Jin Kim, Seong-Bo Kim, Yang Hee Kim, Myung-Sook Choi
d-allulose is a rare sugar with zero energy that can be consumed by obese/overweight individuals. Many studies have suggested that zero-calorie d-allulose has beneficial effects on obesity-related metabolism in mouse models, but only a few studies have been performed on human subjects. Therefore, we performed a preliminary study with 121 Korean subjects (aged 20-40 years, body mass index ≥ 23 kg/m²). A randomized controlled trial involving placebo control (sucralose, 0.012 g × 2 times/day), low d-allulose (d-allulose, 4 g × 2 times/day), and high d-allulose (d-allulose, 7 g × 2 times/day) groups was designed...
January 31, 2018: Nutrients
Beate Ott, Thomas Skurk, Llias Lagkouvardos, Sandra Fischer, Janine Büttner, Martina Lichtenegger, Thomas Clavel, Andreas Lechner, Michael Rychlik, Dirk Haller, Hans Hauner
Background: High-fat diets (HFDs) have been linked to low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. Objective: The main purpose of the present study was to assess whether acute overfeeding with an HFD affects insulin sensitivity, gut barrier function, and fecal microbiota in humans. Methods: In a prospective intervention study, 24 healthy men [mean ± SD: age 23.0 ± 2.8 y, body mass index (in kg/m2) 23.0 ± 2.1] received an HFD (48% of energy from fat) with an additional 1000 kcal/d (as whipping cream) above their calculated energy expenditure for 7 d...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
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