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Sugar and inflammation

Angélica Thomaz Vieira, Claudio Fukumori, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira
The interaction between the gut microbiota and the host immune system is very important for balancing and resolving inflammation. The human microbiota begins to form during childbirth; the complex interaction between bacteria and host cells becomes critical for the formation of a healthy or a disease-promoting microbiota. C-section delivery, formula feeding, a high-sugar diet, a high-fat diet and excess hygiene negatively affect the health of the microbiota. Considering that the majority of the global population has experienced at least one of these factors that can lead to inflammatory disease, it is important to understand strategies to modulate the gut microbiota...
June 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Shilpi Yadav, Jonathan K Williamson, Maria A Aronova, Andrew A Prince, Irina D Pokrovskaya, Richard D Leapman, Brian Storrie
Platelets are small, anucleate cell fragments that are central to hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. They are derived from megakaryocytes from which they inherit their organelles. As platelets can synthesize proteins and contain many of the enzymes of the secretory pathway, one might expect all mature human platelets to contain a stacked Golgi apparatus, the central organelle of the secretory pathway. By thin section electron microscopy, stacked membranes resembling the stacked Golgi compartment in megakaryocytes and other nucleated cells can be detected in both proplatelets and platelets...
October 18, 2016: Platelets
Maryam Noori, Bahar Jafari, Azita Hekmatdoost
BACKGROUND: The effects of pomegranate juice (PJ) on the risk factors of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)/Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH) have been shown previously; however, its effects on NAFLD and its prevention has not yet been elucidated. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of PJ consumption on prevention of NAFLD/NASH development. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either high-fat, high sugar diet (model group), or high-fat, high sugar diet plus PJ (model+PJ), or chow diet ad libitum for seven weeks...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Mariana Gomez-Smith, Sudhir Karthikeyan, Matthew S Jeffers, Rafal Janik, Lynsie A Thomason, Bojana Stefanovic, Dale Corbett
Many promising findings from pre-clinical research have failed to translate to the clinic due to their inability to incorporate human disease co-morbidity. A variety of rodent diets and feeding durations are currently used in models of human metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes. One model, the Cafeteria (CAF) diet, makes use of grocery store-purchased food items that more closely approximate the human ultra-processed diet than commercial high-fat or high-sugar rodent diets. The present study describes the development of metabolic syndrome in rats fed a CAF diet as well as the recovery of metabolic syndrome following a healthy "lifestyle" change...
October 2, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Biswanath Dinda, Anthony M Kyriakopoulos, Subhajit Dinda, Vassilis Zoumpourlis, Nikolaos S Thomaidis, Aristea Velegraki, Charlambos Markopoulos, Manikarna Dinda
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Cornus mas L. (cornelian cherry) fruits have been used for centuries as traditional cuisine and folk medicine in various countries of Europe and Asia. In folk medicines, the fruits and other parts of the plant have been used for prevention and treatment of a wide range of diseases such as diabetes, diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, fevers, rheumatic pain, skin and urinary tract infections, kidney and liver diseases, sunstroke, among others. This review provides a systematic and constructive overview of ethnomedicinal uses, chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of this plant as well as future research need for its commercial utilization as nutraceutical food supplement and medicine...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Begoña Ruiz-Núñez, D A Janneke Dijck-Brouwer, Frits A J Muskiet
The mantra that dietary (saturated) fat must be minimized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has dominated nutritional guidelines for decades. Parallel to decreasing intakes of fat and saturated fatty acids (SFA), there have been increases in carbohydrate and sugar intakes, overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The "lipid hypothesis" coined the concept that fat, especially SFA, raises blood low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and thereby CVD risk. In view of current controversies regarding their adequate intakes and effects, this review aims to summarize research regarding this heterogenic group of fatty acids and the mechanisms relating them to (chronic) systemic low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome and notably CVD...
October 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Lara Cusack, Rodney Schnellbacher, Elizabeth W Howerth, David A Jiménez, Joerg Mayer, Stephen Divers
An adult, intact male sugar glider ( Petaurus breviceps ) presented for acute caudal abdominal swelling. Treatment by the referring veterinarian included aspiration of urine from the swelling. On physical examination, mild depression, pale mucus membranes, and caudal abdominal swelling were noted. Focused ultrasonographic assessment revealed a fluid-filled caudal abdominal structure and subjective bladder wall thickening. The following day, the sugar glider was severely depressed. Hematology results included hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and azotemia...
September 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Alma Akhmetova, Timur Saliev, Iain U Allan, Matthew J Illsley, Talgat Nurgozhin, Sergey Mikhalovsky
The process of wound healing is often accompanied by bacterial infection or critical colonization, resulting in protracted inflammation, delayed reepithelization, and production of pungent odors. The malodor produced by these wounds may lower health-related quality of life and produce psychological discomfort and social isolation. Current management focuses on reducing bacterial activity within the wound site and absorbing malodorous gases. For example, charcoal-based materials have been incorporated into dressing for direct adsorption of the responsible gases...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Wound, Ostomy, and Continence Nursing
Katia Lejnev, Lena Khomsky, Krister Bokvist, Shani Mistriel-Zerbib, Tahel Naveh, Thomas Bradley Farb, Jorge Alsina-Fernandez, Daphne Atlas
Impaired insulin signaling and the associated insulin-resistance in liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, represents a hallmark of the pathogenesis of type 2-diabetes-mellitus. Here we show that in the liver of db/db mice, a murine model of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia, the elevated activities of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK; ERK1/2 and p38(MAPK)), and Akt/PKB are abolished by rosiglitazone-treatment, which normalizes blood glucose in db/db mice. This is unequivocal evidence of a functional link between the activation of the MAPK specific inflammatory-pathway and high-blood sugar...
September 20, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Torsten P M Scheithauer, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Willem M de Vos, Max Nieuwdorp, Daniël H van Raalte
OBJECTIVE: The twin pandemics of obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) are a global challenge for health care systems. Changes in the environment, behavior, diet, and lifestyle during the last decades are considered the major causes. A Western diet, which is rich in saturated fat and simple sugars, may lead to changes in gut microbial composition and physiology, which have recently been linked to the development of metabolic diseases. METHODS: We will discuss evidence that demonstrates the influence of the small and large intestinal microbiota on weight regulation and the development of insulin resistance, based on literature search...
September 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Matthias Prager, Janine Büttner, Philip Grunert, David Ellinghaus, Carsten Büning
BACKGROUND: Smoking worsens Crohn's disease (CD). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a transcription factor that mediates the toxicity of dioxinlike chemicals. We hypothesized that AHR variants and smoking influence CD. METHODS: Exon-intron boundaries and coding and promoter regions of AHR gene were sequenced (28 patients with inflammatory bowel disease; 4 healthy controls). Two identified variants (rs7796976 and rs2066853) were studied for an association with intestinal permeability (IP, oral sugar test) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (stratified according to the smoking status)...
October 2016: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Jay W Porter, Andrea N Steward, John T Halvorson, John G Seifert, Sarah Bronsky, Ashley E Connors, Mary P Miles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Fatemeh Haidari, Mehrnoosh Zakerkish, Majid Karandish, Azadeh Saki, Sakineh Pooraziz
BACKGROUND: Low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) has been shown to correlate with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic and inflammatory markers in non-obese patients with T2DM. METHODS: Eighty-four non-obese patients with T2DM were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary information was obtained from all the participants...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Dongsheng Du, Yan Lu, Zhihong Cheng, Daofeng Chen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The spikes of Prunella vulgaris have long been used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat various inflammation-related diseases. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize homogenous polysaccharides from this herb and to evaluate their anticomplement activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Anticomplement activity-guided fractionation of the hot water extract of P. vulgaris was performed by DEAE-cellulose and size-exclusion chromatography, yielding two homogeneous polysaccharides PW-PS1 and PW-PS2...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Peyman Mosberian-Tanha, Margareth Øverland, Thor Landsverk, Felipe E Reveco, Johan W Schrama, Andries J Roem, Jane W Agger, Liv T Mydland
The primary aim of this experiment was to evaluate the intestinal barrier permeability in vivo in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed increasing levels of soyabean meal (SBM). The relationship between SBM-induced enteritis (SBMIE) and the permeability markers was also investigated. Our results showed that the mean score of morphological parameters was significantly higher as a result of 37·5 % SBM inclusion in the diet, while the scores of fish fed 25 % SBM or lower were not different from those of the fish meal-fed controls (P < 0·05)...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science
A Samuelsson, J M Pombo, C W Coen, C Mallard, P Gressens, L Poston
OBJECTIVE: Mounting evidence suggests that an overactive immune response during pregnancy may alter the development of the central nervous system in the foetus. An increased concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been demonstrated in amniotic fluid of obese pregnancy. This study investigate if low-chronic inflammation, during brain development may have enduring effects on hypothalamic immune response leading to autonomic disturbances and sympathetic mediated hypertension arising from maternal obesity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ananthi Subash, Gayathri Veeraraghavan, Veeresh Kumar Sali, Meenakshi Bhardwaj, Hannah R Vasanthi
Turbinaria ornata, a commonly found marine brown algae along the Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory potential and the bioactive compound present in it was characterized. Cotton pellet induced granuloma model in rats was used to assess the anti-inflammatory potential of the aqueous extract of Turbinaria ornata (ATO) (30, 100 and 300mg/kg, p.o) which was compared with dexamethasone (0.1mg/kg, p.o) a standard anti-inflammatory agent. Granuloma weight, haematological parameters and plasma markers (LDH, GPT, and CRP) were estimated...
October 20, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Jamshid Karimi, Mojgansadat Safe, Ahmad Sadeghian, Shiva Borzooei, Ehsan Siahpoushi
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Since changes in some immune system indicators such as leukocyte count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in the blood and Inflammation is directly in relation with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis, measuring these indicators in patients with type 2 diabetes and comparing them with control group can be a suitable indicator of Inflammation and prognosis of the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current study was done on 75 patients with type 2 diabetes and 72 healthy individuals as patient and healthy group respectively...
June 8, 2016: Human Antibodies
Mohamed Elsayed Kelany, Tahir M Hakami, Adel H Omar, Mohamed A Abdallah
AIMS: The present study evaluated the effects of sitagliptin-insulin against type 2 diabetes mellitus with neuropathy in rats and possible neuroprotective mechanisms. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in 32 adult male albino rats by 6-week high-fat high-sugar diet followed by streptozotocin 30 mg/kg intraperitoneal injection. For 4 weeks thereafter, diabetic rats were divided into 4 groups, each group receiving one of the following daily: vehicle (untreated diabetic), insulin 10 IU/kg SC, sitagliptin 30 mg/kg PO or sitagliptin-insulin...
July 23, 2016: Pharmacology
James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe
The "Salt Hypothesis" is the notion that an increase in salt intake will increase blood pressure and thus increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD),which has been a point of contention for decades. Despite this, numerous health organizations, dietary guidelines, and government policies advocate population-wide salt restriction. However, there is no conclusive proof that restricting salt intake reduces the risk of hypertension (HTN) and/or CVD events; sodium restriction in fact may paradoxically lead to adverse health outcomes...
July 20, 2016: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
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