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Sugar and inflammation and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660366/tools-and-drugs-for-uracil-nucleotide-activated-p2y-receptors
#1
REVIEW
Muhammad Rafehi, Christa E Müller
P2Y receptors (P2YRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides. Physiological P2YR agonists include purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates, such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, nucleotide sugars, and dinucleotides. Eight subtypes exist, P2Y1 , P2Y2 , P2Y4 , P2Y6 , P2Y11 , P2Y12 , P2Y13 , and P2Y14 , which represent current or potential future drug targets. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of ligands for the subgroup of the P2YR family that is activated by uracil nucleotides: P2Y2 (UTP, also ATP and dinucleotides), P2Y4 (UTP), P2Y6 (UDP), and P2Y14 (UDP, UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose)...
April 13, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602454/optimise-the-microbial-flora-with-milk-and-yoghurt-to-prevent-disease
#2
James A Morris
Pathogenic bacteria, which are temporary or permanent members of our microbial flora, cause or contribute to a wide range of human disease at all ages. Conditions include Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer, autoimmunity and psychosis, amongst others. The mechanism of damage is inflammation which can be chronic or acute. An optimal microbial flora includes a wide range of pathogenic bacteria in low dose. This allows specific immunity to be developed and maintained with minimal inflammatory damage...
May 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472785/honey-single-food-stuff-comprises-many-drugs
#3
REVIEW
Shahid Ullah Khan, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Khaista Rahman, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Wasim Ullah Khan, Sajid Kamal, Baharullah Khattak, Ali Muhammad, Hikmat Ullah Khan
Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447929/a-complex-systems-approach-to-cancer-prevention
#4
P W Jupp
Cancer incidence continues to be a major health problem possibly because cancer is a complex system comprising many agents that interact in a non-linear manner resulting in many possible outcomes. The degree of complexity of a cancer system could be vast involving multiple endogenous and exogenous agents interacting with the over 10 trillion cells comprising the body. It is hypothesized that the practical management of this complexity may be a key to cancer prevention and possibly treatment. But the management and resolution of such an immensely complex system is difficult and may require a multidisciplinary approach including physics, biology, biochemistry and medical science...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434857/correlation-between-tap-detection-and-common-digestive-tract-precancerous-lesions
#5
Changqing Sun, Fang Deng, Lingjun Meng, Guohua Chen
The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of abnormal sugar-chain glycoprotein tumor abnormal protein (TAP) in the screening of common digestive tract pre-cancer colon adenocarcinoma lesions. A total of 50 colitis patients, 50 colon polyp patients and 50 colon adenocarcinoma patients admitted to our hospital from March, 2012 to May, 2014 were included. Fresh blood from patient's fingertips was collected and condensation staining was used to detect TAP expression. Positive expressions of TAP in patients in the colitis, colon polyp and colon adenocarcinoma groups prior to treatment were 6,76 and 92%, respectively...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432917/polyphenol-extracts-from-dried-sugarcane-inhibit-inflammatory-mediators-in-an-in-vitro-colon-cancer-model
#6
Daniel Bucio-Noble, Liisa Kautto, Christoph Krisp, Malcolm S Ball, Mark P Molloy
Sugarcane is an important crop grown in tropical regions for sugar, and for ethanol production. Sugarcane is also a source of phytochemicals but its nutraceutical potential has been under-explored. We show that ethanol extracts of whole dried sugarcane (WDS) recovers a rich content of polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity that act on inflammatory mediator proteins. To investigate the mechanisms of this activity, we stimulated SW480 colon cancer cells with lipopolysaccharide, exposed cells to WDS and quantitated changes to the proteome and phosphoproteome using label-free mass spectrometry...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351623/development-of-sugar-chain-binding-single-chain-variable-fragment-antibody-to-adult-t-cell-leukemia-cells-using-glyco-nanotechnology-and-phage-display-method
#7
Kaname Muchima, Taro Todaka, Hiroyuki Shinchi, Ayaka Sato, Arisa Tazoe, Rikiya Aramaki, Yuhei Kakitsubata, Risa Yokoyama, Naomichi Arima, Masanori Baba, Masahiro Wakao, Yuji Ito, Yasuo Suda
Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an intractable blood cancer caused by the infection of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1, and effective medical treatment is required. It is known that the structure and expression levels of cell surface sugar chains vary depending on cell states such as inflammation and cancer. Thus, it is expected that the antibody specific for ATL cell surface sugar chain would be an effective diagnostic tool and a strong candidate for the development of an anti-ATL drug. Here, we developed a stable sugar chain-binding single-chain variable fragment antibody (scFv) that can bind to ATL cells using a fibre-type Sugar Chip and phage display method...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222421/the-transcriptomic-signature-of-disease-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#8
Sophie Cazanave, Alexei Podtelezhnikov, Kristian Jensen, Mulugeta Seneshaw, Divya P Kumar, Hae-Ki Min, Prasanna K Santhekadur, Bubu Banini, Adolfo Gabriele Mauro, Abdul M Oseini, Robert Vincent, Keith Q Tanis, Andrea L Webber, Liangsu Wang, Pierre Bedossa, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Arun J Sanyal
A longitudinal molecular model of the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) over time is lacking. We have recently validated a high fat/sugar water-induced animal (an isogenic strain of C57BL/6 J:129S1/SvImJ mice) model of NAFLD that closely mimics most aspects of human disease. The hepatic transcriptome of such mice with fatty liver (8 weeks), steatohepatitis with early fibrosis (16-24 weeks) and advanced fibrosis (52 weeks) after initiation of the diet was evaluated and compared to mice on chow diet...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202699/comparison-of-lipopolysaccharides-composition-of-two-different-strains-of-helicobacter-pylori
#9
Kristy Leker, Ivonne Lozano-Pope, Keya Bandyopadhyay, Biswa P Choudhury, Marygorret Obonyo
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that is recognized as a major cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Comparable to other Gram-negative bacteria, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are an important cellular component of the outer membrane of H. pylori. The LPS of this organism plays a key role in its colonization and persistence in the stomach. In addition, H. pylori LPS modulates pathogen-induced host inflammatory responses resulting in chronic inflammation within the gastrointestinal tract...
December 4, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113952/do-all-roads-lead-to-the-rome-the-glycation-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Saheem Ahmad, Firoz Akhter, Uzma Shahab, Zeeshan Rafi, Mohd Sajid Khan, Rabia Nabi, Mohd Salman Khan, Khurshid Ahmad, Jalaluddin Mohammad Ashraf, Moinuddin
Oxidative, carbonyl, and glycative stress have gained substantial attention recently for their alleged influence on cancer progression. Oxidative stress can trigger variable transcription factors, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), protein-53 (p-53), activating protein-1 (AP-1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), β-catenin/Wnt and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Activated transcription factors can lead to approximately 500 different alterations in gene expression, and can alter expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, regulatory cell cycle molecules, and anti-inflammatory molecules...
November 4, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874144/circadian-disruption-promotes-tumor-growth-by-anabolic-host-metabolism-experimental-evidence-in-a-rat-model
#11
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Raful Navarro-Espíndola, Mara A Guzmán-Ruíz, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ana López-Bago, Ricardo Lascurain, Cinthya Córdoba-Manilla, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND: Light at night creates a conflicting signal to the biological clock and disrupts circadian physiology. In rodents, light at night increases the risk to develop mood disorders, overweight, disrupted energy metabolism, immune dysfunction and cancer. We hypothesized that constant light (LL) in rats may facilitate tumor growth via disrupted metabolism and increased inflammatory response in the host, inducing a propitious microenvironment for tumor cells. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to LL or a regular light-dark cycle (LD) for 5 weeks...
September 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745644/profiling-anti-neu5gc-igg-in-human-sera-with-a-sialoglycan-microarray-assay
#12
Shani Leviatan Ben-Arye, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Vered Padler-Karavani
Cells are covered with a cloak of carbohydrate chains (glycans) that is commonly altered in cancer and that includes variations in sialic acid (Sia) expression. These are acidic sugars that have a 9-carbon backbone and that cap vertebrate glycans on cell surfaces. Two of the major Sia forms in mammals are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and its hydroxylated form, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). Humans cannot produce endogenous Neu5Gc due to the inactivation of the gene encoding cytidine 5'monophosphate-Neu5Ac (CMP-Neu5Ac) hydroxylase (CMAH)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367220/lectins-interconnecting-proteins-with-biotechnological-pharmacological-and-therapeutic-applications
#13
REVIEW
Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Priscila Marcelino Dos Santos Silva, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia
Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334971/expanding-glycosaminoglycan-chemical-space-towards-the-creation-of-sulfated-analogs-novel-polymers-and-chimeric-constructs
#14
Rachel S Lane, Kalib St Ange, Behnam Zolghadr, Xinyue Liu, Christina Schäffer, Robert J Linhardt, Paul L DeAngelis
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have therapeutic potential in areas ranging from angiogenesis, inflammation, hemostasis and cancer. GAG bioactivity is conferred by intrinsic structural features, such as disaccharide composition, glycosidic linkages and sulfation pattern. Unfortunately, the in vitro enzymatic synthesis of defined GAGs is quite restricted by a limited understanding of current GAG synthases and modifying enzymes. Our work provides insights into GAG-active enzymes through the creation of sulfated oligosaccharides, a new polysaccharide and chimeric polymers...
July 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249935/an-adolescent-and-early-adulthood-dietary-pattern-associated-with-inflammation-and-the-incidence-of-breast-cancer
#15
Holly R Harris, Walter C Willett, Rita L Vaidya, Karin B Michels
Adolescence is a highly susceptible period for mammary carcinogenesis, but few prospective studies have examined the role of adolescent diet in breast cancer risk. Reduced rank regression has previously been used to identify a dietary pattern associated with markers of inflammation (C-reactive protein, IL6, and TNFα receptor 2). We investigated whether an adolescent and early adulthood inflammatory dietary pattern was associated with breast cancer among 45,204 women in the Nurses' Health Study II using reduced rank regression...
March 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933449/clearing-the-fog-a-review-of-the-effects-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-added-sugars-on-chemotherapy-induced-cognitive-deficits
#16
REVIEW
Tonya S Orchard, Monica M Gaudier-Diaz, Kellie R Weinhold, A Courtney DeVries
Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy have been an important part of extending survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer. However, chemotherapy can cause potentially toxic side effects in the brain that impair memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed in up to 30% of women treated. Women report that post-chemotherapy cognitive deficits negatively impact quality of life and may last up to ten years after treatment. Mechanisms underlying these cognitive impairments are not fully understood, but emerging evidence suggests that chemotherapy induces structural changes in the brain, produces neuroinflammation, and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis...
February 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853646/hepatocellular-carcinoma-is-accelerated-by-nash-involving-m2-macrophage-polarization-mediated-by-hif-1%C3%AE-induced-il-10
#17
Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Banishree Saha, Benedek Gyongyosi, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Gyongyi Szabo
Obesity-related inflammation promotes cancer development. Tissue resident macrophages affect tumor progression and the tumor micro-environment favors polarization into alternatively activated macrophages (M2) that facilitate tumor invasiveness. Here, we dissected the role of western diet-induced NASH in inducing macrophage polarization in a carcinogen initiated model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Adult C57BL/6 male mice received diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 24 weeks of high fat-high cholesterol-high sugar diet (HF-HC-HSD)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784241/a-review-on-the-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-steviol-glycosides-extracted-from-stevia-rebaudiana
#18
REVIEW
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Elham Abdollahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a sweet and nutrient-rich plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves contain steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudioside (A to F), steviolbioside, and isosteviol, which are responsible for the plant's sweet taste, and have commercial value all over the world as a sugar substitute in foods, beverages and medicines. Among the various steviol glycosides, stevioside, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C are the major metabolites and these compounds are on average 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447047/high-sensitivity-and-low-toxicity-fucose-probe-for-glycan-imaging-and-biomarker-discovery
#19
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Sho Funayama, Hidehiko Shogomori, Miyako Nakano, Kazuki Nakajima, Ritsuko Oka, Shinobu Kitazume, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Masahiro Sano, Hiroaki Korekane, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Hsiu-Yu Lee, Chi-Huey Wong, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Fucose, a terminal sugar in glycoconjugates, critically regulates various physiological and pathological phenomena, including cancer development and inflammation. However, there are currently no probes for efficient labeling and detection of this sugar. We chemically synthesized a novel series of alkynyl-fucose analogs as probe candidates and found that 7-alkynyl-fucose gave the highest labeling efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Among the fucose analogs, 7-alkynyl-fucose was the best substrate against all five fucosyltransferases examined...
July 21, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347105/pioglitazone-does-not-increase-the-risk-of-type-ii-diabetes-in-patients-with-bladder-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#20
Youhong Dong, Anping Wang
The aim of the retrospective study was to analyze the effect of pioglitazone on the expression of tumor tissue inflammation factor interleukin (IL)-8, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of type II diabetes in bladder cancer patients. In addition, whether there was a correlation between pioglitazone and the occurrence of male bladder cancer was also investigated. In total, 42 male cases diagnosed with type II diabetes secondary to bladder cancer were selected...
July 2016: Oncology Letters
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