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Sugar and inflammation and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853646/hepatocellular-carcinoma-is-accelerated-by-nash-involving-m2-macrophage-polarization-mediated-by-hif-1%C3%AE-induced-il-10
#1
Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Banishree Saha, Benedek Gyongyosi, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Gyongyi Szabo
Obesity-related inflammation promotes cancer development. Tissue resident macrophages affect tumor progression and the tumor micro-environment favors polarization into alternatively activated macrophages (M2) that facilitate tumor invasiveness. Here, we dissected the role of western diet-induced NASH in inducing macrophage polarization in a carcinogen initiated model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Adult C57BL/6 male mice received diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 24 weeks of high fat-high cholesterol-high sugar diet (HF-HC-HSD)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784241/a-review-on-the-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-steviol-glycosides-extracted-from-stevia-rebaudiana
#2
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Elham Abdollahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a sweet and nutrient-rich plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves contain steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudioside (A to F), steviolbioside, and isosteviol, which are responsible for the plant's sweet taste, and have commercial value all over the world as a sugar substitute in foods, beverages and medicines. Among the various steviol glycosides, stevioside, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C are the major metabolites and these compounds are on average 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447047/high-sensitivity-and-low-toxicity-fucose-probe-for-glycan-imaging-and-biomarker-discovery
#3
Yasuhiko Kizuka, Sho Funayama, Hidehiko Shogomori, Miyako Nakano, Kazuki Nakajima, Ritsuko Oka, Shinobu Kitazume, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Masahiro Sano, Hiroaki Korekane, Tsui-Ling Hsu, Hsiu-Yu Lee, Chi-Huey Wong, Naoyuki Taniguchi
Fucose, a terminal sugar in glycoconjugates, critically regulates various physiological and pathological phenomena, including cancer development and inflammation. However, there are currently no probes for efficient labeling and detection of this sugar. We chemically synthesized a novel series of alkynyl-fucose analogs as probe candidates and found that 7-alkynyl-fucose gave the highest labeling efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Among the fucose analogs, 7-alkynyl-fucose was the best substrate against all five fucosyltransferases examined...
July 21, 2016: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347105/pioglitazone-does-not-increase-the-risk-of-type-ii-diabetes-in-patients-with-bladder-cancer-a-retrospective-study
#4
Youhong Dong, Anping Wang
The aim of the retrospective study was to analyze the effect of pioglitazone on the expression of tumor tissue inflammation factor interleukin (IL)-8, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) of type II diabetes in bladder cancer patients. In addition, whether there was a correlation between pioglitazone and the occurrence of male bladder cancer was also investigated. In total, 42 male cases diagnosed with type II diabetes secondary to bladder cancer were selected...
July 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27075026/sugared-biomaterial-binding-lectins-achievements-and-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
P Bojarová, V Křen
Lectins, a distinct group of glycan-binding proteins, play a prominent role in the immune system ranging from pathogen recognition and tuning of inflammation to cell adhesion or cellular signalling. The possibilities of their detailed study expanded along with the rapid development of biomaterials in the last decade. The immense knowledge of all aspects of glycan-lectin interactions both in vitro and in vivo may be efficiently used in bioimaging, targeted drug delivery, diagnostic and analytic biological methods...
July 19, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26774083/glycative-stress-from-advanced-glycation-end-products-ages-and-dicarbonyls-an-emerging-biological-factor-in-cancer-onset-and-progression
#6
REVIEW
Jer-An Lin, Chi-Hao Wu, Chi-Cheng Lu, Shih-Min Hsia, Gow-Chin Yen
In recent years, glycative stress from exogenous or endogenous advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and highly reactive dicarbonyls has gained great attention for its putative effects on cancer development. AGEs are a group of compounds formed from the complex chemical reaction of reducing sugars with compounds containing an amino group. AGEs bind to and activate the receptor for AGEs (RAGE), which is a predominant modulator of inflammation-associated cancer, and AGEs induce reactive oxygen species that are an important regulator of the hallmarks of cancer...
August 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26729790/a-sucrose-enriched-diet-promotes-tumorigenesis-in-mammary-gland-in-part-through-the-12-lipoxygenase-pathway
#7
Yan Jiang, Yong Pan, Patrea R Rhea, Lin Tan, Mihai Gagea, Lorenzo Cohen, Susan M Fischer, Peiying Yang
Epidemiologic studies have shown that dietary sugar intake has a significant impact on the development of breast cancer. One proposed mechanism for how sugar impacts cancer development involves inflammation. In the current study, we investigated the impact of dietary sugar on mammary gland tumor development in multiple mouse models, along with mechanisms that may be involved. We found that sucrose intake in mice comparable with levels of Western diets led to increased tumor growth and metastasis, when compared with a nonsugar starch diet...
January 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26614599/association-of-coffee-consumption-with-overall-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-a-large-us-prospective-cohort-study
#8
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Erikka Loftfield, Neal D Freedman, Barry I Graubard, Kristin A Guertin, Amanda Black, Wen-Yi Huang, Fatma M Shebl, Susan T Mayne, Rashmi Sinha
Concerns about high caffeine intake and coffee as a vehicle for added fat and sugar have raised questions about the net impact of coffee on health. Although inverse associations have been observed for overall mortality, data for cause-specific mortality are sparse. Additionally, few studies have considered exclusively decaffeinated coffee intake or use of coffee additives. Coffee intake was assessed at baseline by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models...
December 15, 2015: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26594225/nitroxide-pharmaceutical-development-for-age-related-degeneration-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Jacob A Zarling, Vienna E Brunt, Anne K Vallerga, Weixing Li, Albert Tao, David A Zarling, Christopher T Minson
Nitroxide small molecule agents are in development as preventative or therapeutic pharmaceutical drugs for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiovascular disease, which are two major diseases of aging. These aging diseases are associated with patient genetics, smoking, diet, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. Nitroxide drugs preventing aging-, smoking-, high sugar or high fat diet-, or radiation- and other environmental-induced pathophysiological conditions in aging disease are reviewed...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26556271/symbiotic-human-gut-bacteria-with-variable-metabolic-priorities-for-host-mucosal-glycans
#10
Nicholas A Pudlo, Karthik Urs, Supriya Suresh Kumar, J Bruce German, David A Mills, Eric C Martens
UNLABELLED: Many symbiotic gut bacteria possess the ability to degrade multiple polysaccharides, thereby providing nutritional advantages to their hosts. Like microorganisms adapted to other complex nutrient environments, gut symbionts give different metabolic priorities to substrates present in mixtures. We investigated the responses of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a common human intestinal bacterium that metabolizes more than a dozen different polysaccharides, including the O-linked glycans that are abundant in secreted mucin...
November 10, 2015: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26551879/ethnopharmacological-uses-of-sempervivum-tectorum-l-in-southern-serbia-scientific-confirmation-for-the-use-against-otitis-linked-bacteria
#11
Dejan Stojković, Lillian Barros, Jovana Petrović, Jasmina Glamoclija, Celestino Santos-Buelga, Isabel C F R Ferreira, Marina Soković
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae), known as houseleek, is used in traditional medicine in the treatment of ear inflammation. It can be spread as a pack on wounds, sores, burns, and abscesses and also on painful areas attacked by gout as a refrigerant and astringent. Drinking tea prepared from leaves of S. tectorum is recommended for ulcer treatment. The present study was designed to investigate ethopharmacological use of S. tectorum in the southern Serbia and to further scientifically justify and confirm effectiveness of the leaf juice used in ethnomedicine for ear inflammation, against otitis linked bacteria...
December 24, 2015: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26192491/sialyltransferase-inhibition-and-recent-advances
#12
REVIEW
Libo Wang, Ying Liu, Lijun Wu, Xue-Long Sun
Sialic acids, existing as terminal sugars of glycoconjugates, play important roles in various physiological and pathological processes, such as cell-cell adhesion, immune defense, tumor cell metastasis, and inflammation. Sialyltransferases (STs) catalyze the transfer of sialic acid residues to non-reducing oligosaccharide chains of proteins and lipids, using cytidine monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid (CMP-Neu5Ac) as the donor. Elevated sialyltransferase activity leads to overexpression of cell surface sialic acids and contributes to many disease developments, such as cancer and inflammation...
January 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26077675/progression-of-non-alcoholic-steatosis-to-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis-parallels-cumulative-accumulation-of-danger-signals-that-promote-inflammation-and-liver-tumors-in-a-high-fat-cholesterol-sugar-diet-model-in-mice
#13
Michal Ganz, Terence N Bukong, Timea Csak, Banishree Saha, Jin-Kyu Park, Aditya Ambade, Karen Kodys, Gyongyi Szabo
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a pandemic. While multiple 'hits' have been reported to contribute to NAFLD progression to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and liver cancer, understanding the natural history of the specific molecular signals leading to hepatocyte damage, inflammation and fibrosis, is hampered by the lack of suitable animal models that reproduce disease progression in humans. The purpose of this study was first, to develop a mouse model that closely mimics progressive NAFLD covering the spectrum of immune, metabolic and histopathologic abnormalities present in human disease; and second, to characterize the temporal relationship between sterile/exogenous danger signals, inflammation, inflammasome activation and NAFLD progression...
2015: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26076631/bioactivities-and-extraction-optimization-of-crude-polysaccharides-from-the-fruits-and-leaves-of-rubus-chingii-hu
#14
Tian-Tian Zhang, Chuan-Li Lu, Jian-Guo Jiang, Min Wang, Dong-Mei Wang, Wei Zhu
Polysaccharides of Rubus chingii Hu fruit and leaf were extracted to compare their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities against breast cancer cells MCF-7 and liver cancer cells Bel-7402. Results showed that all the tested bioactivities of polysaccharides from leaf (L-Ps) were better than those of polysaccharides from fruit (F-Ps). Response surface methodology was then used to optimize the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from leaf. Additionally, polysaccharides from fruit and leaf were characterized and their contents of total sugars, proteins and uronic acid were compared...
October 5, 2015: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26069505/pharmacokinetics-and-biodistribution-of-negatively-charged-pectin-nanoparticles-encapsulating-paclitaxel
#15
Anita K Verma, A Kumar
Pectin, a naturally occurring biopolymer has been found to have increasing applications in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry. Sugars with their three-dimensional structures are important for many biological functions. We report preparation of negatively charged pectin nanoparticles encapsulating paclitaxel, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug for possible therapeutic applications. The mean diameter of the nanoparticles was ~300-350 nm with an encapsulation efficiency ~17 %. The TEM studies indicated that the particles were spherical in shape and their sizes are in unison with the DLS size spectra...
2013: Cancer Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26024397/health-effects-of-changes-in-the-structure-of-dietary-macronutrients-intake-in-western-societies
#16
REVIEW
Katarzyna Okręglicka
A Western-type diet, characterized by a significant share of highly processed and refined foods and high content of sugars, salt, fat and protein from red meat, has been recognized as an important factor contributing to the development of metabolic disorders and the obesity epidemic around the world. Excessive body fat causes metabolic pathologies, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. According to the World Health Organization 1...
2015: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25856678/mushroom-lectins-specificity-structure-and-bioactivity-relevant-to-human-disease
#17
REVIEW
Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan, Razina Rouf, Evelin Tiralongo, Tom W May, Joe Tiralongo
Lectins are non-immunoglobulin proteins that bind diverse sugar structures with a high degree of selectivity. Lectins play crucial role in various biological processes such as cellular signaling, scavenging of glycoproteins from the circulatory system, cell-cell interactions in the immune system, differentiation and protein targeting to cellular compartments, as well as in host defence mechanisms, inflammation, and cancer. Among all the sources of lectins, plants have been most extensively studied. However, more recently fungal lectins have attracted considerable attention due to their antitumor, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities...
2015: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25803191/strawberry-as-a-health-promoter-an-evidence-based-review
#18
REVIEW
Francesca Giampieri, Tamara Y Forbes-Hernandez, Massimiliano Gasparrini, José M Alvarez-Suarez, Sadia Afrin, Stefano Bompadre, Josè L Quiles, Bruno Mezzetti, Maurizio Battino
Since a high intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely related to the incidence of several degenerative diseases, the importance of a balanced diet in relation to human health has received increased consumer attention worldwide. Strawberries (Fragaria X ananassa, Duch.) are a rich source of a wide variety of nutritive compounds such as sugars, vitamins, and minerals, as well as non-nutritive, bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. All of these compounds exert a synergistic and cumulative effect on human health promotion and in disease prevention...
May 2015: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25699059/hyaluronan-synthase-1-a-mysterious-enzyme-with-unexpected-functions
#19
REVIEW
Hanna Siiskonen, Sanna Oikari, Sanna Pasonen-Seppänen, Kirsi Rilla
Hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) is one of three isoenzymes responsible for cellular hyaluronan synthesis. Interest in HAS1 has been limited because its role in hyaluronan production seems to be insignificant compared to the two other isoenzymes, HAS2 and HAS3, which have higher enzymatic activity. Furthermore, in most cell types studied so far, the expression of its gene is low and the enzyme requires high concentrations of sugar precursors for hyaluronan synthesis, even when overexpressed in cell cultures. Both expression and activity of HAS1 are induced by pro-inflammatory factors like interleukins and cytokines, suggesting its involvement in inflammatory conditions...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25575241/targeted-delivery-of-a-sialic-acid-blocking-glycomimetic-to-cancer-cells-inhibits-metastatic-spread
#20
Christian Büll, Thomas Jan Boltje, Eric A W van Dinther, Timo Peters, Annemarie M A de Graaf, Jeanette H W Leusen, Martin Kreutz, Carl G Figdor, Martijn H den Brok, Gosse J Adema
Sialic acid sugars are overexpressed by cancer cells and contribute to the metastatic cascade at multiple levels. Therapeutic interference of sialic acids, however, has been difficult to pursue because of the absence of dedicated tools. Here we show that a rationally designed sialic acid-blocking glycomimetic (P-3F(ax)-Neu5Ac) successfully prevents cancer metastasis. Formulation of P-3F(ax)--Neu5Ac into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles coated with antityrosinase-related protein-1 antibodies allowed targeted delivery of P-3F(ax)--Neu5Ac into melanoma cells, slow release, and long-term sialic acid blockade...
January 27, 2015: ACS Nano
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