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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433158/characterization-of-a-sulfated-galactoglucan-from-antrodia-cinnamomea-and-its-anticancer-mechanism-via-tgf%C3%AE-fak-slug-axis-suppression
#1
Mei-Kuang Lu, Tung-Yi Lin, Chun-Hao Hu, Chi-Hsein Chao, Chia-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Yeh Hsu
A sulfated 1,4-β-d-galactoglucan (B86-III) with 1,6-branches was isolated and identified from Antrodia cinnamomea. The repeating unit of B86-III was proposed based on one-dimensional 1D ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT-135) and 2D (DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC) NMR spectra. The conformation of the sugars was hypothesized to be a rare boat form instead of a (4)C1 chair form. The sulfate substitutions were suggested to be on the C-2 and C-3 positions, resulting in the following structure: B86-III inhibited the viability of H1975 lung cancer cells via cell apoptosis, including the activation of caspase 3 and PARP...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431937/structural-modifications-in-the-sugar-moiety-as-a-key-to-improving-the-anticancer-effectiveness-of-doxorubicin
#2
REVIEW
Marta Denel-Bobrowska, Agnieszka Marczak
Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most commonly used and effective chemotherapeutic agents. Despite its clinical benefits, the use of DOX is often limited by serious adverse effects, such as severe cardiotoxicity and myelosuppression. Recent progress in chemical synthesis has enabled the design of modified anthracyclines with a sugar moiety being a desirable subject of research. A series of new analogues of DOX has been synthesised, in which the amino group in the daunosamine moiety was replaced by a formamidine system containing the rest of the cyclic secondary amine with gradually increased ring size...
April 18, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423676/tumor-associated-macrophages-promote-ezrin-phosphorylation-mediated-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-through-fut4-ley-up-regulation
#3
Aman Wang, Chang Lu, Zhen Ning, Wei Gao, Yunpeng Xie, Ningning Zhang, Jinxiao Liang, Faisal S Abbasi, Qiu Yan, Jiwei Liu
Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are key components of tumor microenvironment (TME) during tumorigenesis and progression. However, the role of TAMs in lung adenocarcinoma is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism underlying the crosstalk between TAMs and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of lung adenocarcinoma. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic cancer sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY) was aberrantly elevated in various solid tumors, it plays critical role in the invasion and metastasis...
March 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418182/cyclometalated-iridium-iii-bipyridine-phenylboronic-acid-complexes-as-luminescent-probes-for-sialic-acids-and-bioimaging-reagents
#4
Hua-Wei Liu, Wendell Ho-Tin Law, Lawrence Cho-Cheung Lee, Jonathan Chun-Wai Lau, Kenneth Kam-Wing Lo
Sialic acids play important roles in mammalian development, cell-cell attachment, and signaling. Since cancer cells utilize their overexpressed sialylated antigens to propagate metastases, the development of probes for sialic acids is of high importance. Herein, we report three luminescent cyclometalated iridium(III) bipyridine complexes bearing a phenylboronic acid (PBA) moiety. Spectrophotometric titrations revealed that the PBA complexes displayed higher binding affinity to the most common sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) compared with simple sugars that are commonly found on glycoproteins...
April 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416608/hyper-o-glcnacylation-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-through-interplay-with-phosphorylation-and-acetylation
#5
Zhiyuan Ma, Robert J Chalkley, Keith Vosseller
O-GlcNAcylation is the covalent addition of an O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) sugar moiety to hydroxyl groups of serine/threonine residues of cytosolic and nuclear proteins. O-GlcNAcylation, analogous to phosphorylation, plays critical roles in gene expression through direct modification of transcription factors such as NF-κB. Aberrantly increased NF-κB O-GlcNAcylation has been linked to NF-κB constitutive activation and cancer development. Therefore, it is of a great biological and clinical significance to dissect the molecular mechanisms that tune NF-κB activity...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416368/nutritional-management-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-review-study
#6
REVIEW
Zeinab Faghfoori, Siavash Fazelian, Mahdi Shadnoush, Reza Goodarzi
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age, which leads to reproductive, hormonal and metabolic abnormalities. Due to the presence of insulin resistance, PCOS increases the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, hypertension, lipid disorders, cardiovascular diseases and malignancies such as breast and endometrial cancer. The actual cause of this syndrome is unknown but environmental factors such as dietary habits play an important role in prevention and treatment and lifestyle modifications are the most important therapeutic strategies in these patients...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415682/low-dose-of-2-deoxy-d-glucose-kills-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells-and-reverses-glucocorticoid-resistance-via-n-linked-glycosylation-inhibition-under-normoxia
#7
Ling Gu, Zhihui Yi, Yanle Zhang, Zhigui Ma, Yiping Zhu, Ju Gao
Recent studies showed that 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glucose analog with dual activity of inhibiting glycolysis and N-linked glycosylation, can be selectively taken up by cancer cells and be used as a potential chemo- and radio-sensitizer. Meanwhile, 2-DG can kill cancer cells under normoxia. However, its efficacy is limited by the high-dose induced systemic toxicity. Here, we showed that low-dose 2-DG could be used as a single agent to kill acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells, and as a GC sensitizer to overcome GC resistance under normoxia...
March 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414560/aloe-arborescens-polysaccharides-in-vitro-immunomodulation-and-potential-cytotoxic-activity
#8
Jilan A Nazeam, Haidy A Gad, Ahmed Esmat, Hala M El-Hefnawy, Abdel-Naser B Singab
Different polysaccharides were isolated from the leaves of Aloe arborescens using the gradient power of hydrogen followed by antitumor and immunomodulatory assay. The total polysaccharide content of different fractions, water-soluble polysaccharide (WAP), acid-soluble polysaccharide (ACP), and alkaline-soluble polysaccharide (ALP), was estimated using a phenol-sulfuric acid spectrophotometric method. WAP possessed a higher content of mannose and glucose than either ACP or ALP. In vitro antitumor activity was investigated in three different cancer cell lines, and in vitro immunomodulatory potential was assessed through phagocytosis and lymphocyte transformation assay...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413327/effects-of-ginseng-on-two-main-sex-steroid-hormone-receptors-estrogen-and-androgen-receptors
#9
REVIEW
Joonwoo Park, Heewon Song, Si-Kwan Kim, Myeong Soo Lee, Dong-Kwon Rhee, YoungJoo Lee
Ginseng has been used in China for at least two millennia and is now popular in over 35 countries. It is one of the world's popular herbs for complementary and alternative medicine and has been shown to have helpful effects on cognition and blood circulation, as well as anti-aging, anti-cancer, and anti-diabetic effects, among many others. The pharmacological activities of ginseng are dependent mainly on ginsenosides. Ginsenosides have a cholesterol-like four trans-ring steroid skeleton with a variety of sugar moieties...
April 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408472/the-sweet-side-of-the-cell-cycle
#10
REVIEW
Ee Phie Tan, Francesca E Duncan, Chad Slawson
Cell division (mitosis) and gamete production (meiosis) are fundamental requirements for normal organismal development. The mammalian cell cycle is tightly regulated by different checkpoints ensuring complete and precise chromosomal segregation and duplication. In recent years, researchers have become increasingly interested in understanding how O-GlcNAc regulates the cell cycle. The O-GlcNAc post-translation modification is an O-glycosidic bond of a single β-N-acetylglucosamine sugar to serine/threonine residues of intracellular proteins...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408175/an-oncofetal-glycosaminoglycan-modification-provides-therapeutic-access-to-cisplatin-resistant-bladder-cancer
#11
Roland Seiler, Htoo Zarni Oo, Davide Tortora, Thomas M Clausen, Chris K Wang, Gunjan Kumar, Marina Ayres Pereira, Maj S Ørum-Madsen, Mette Ø Agerbæk, Tobias Gustavsson, Mie A Nordmaj, Jamie R Rich, Nada Lallous, Ladan Fazli, Sherry S Lee, James Douglas, Tilman Todenhöfer, Shaghayegh Esfandnia, Dulguun Battsogt, John S Babcook, Nader Al-Nakouzi, Simon J Crabb, Igor Moskalev, Bernhard Kiss, Elai Davicioni, George N Thalmann, Paul S Rennie, Peter C Black, Ali Salanti, Mads Daugaard
BACKGROUND: Although cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) improves survival of unselected patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC), only a minority responds to therapy and chemoresistance remains a major challenge in this disease setting. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical significance of oncofetal chondroitin sulfate (ofCS) glycosaminoglycan chains in cisplatin-resistant MIBC and to evaluate these as targets for second-line therapy. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: An ofCS-binding recombinant VAR2CSA protein derived from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (rVAR2) was used as an in situ, in vitro, and in vivo ofCS-targeting reagent in cisplatin-resistant MIBC...
April 10, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406643/polyketides-and-anthranilic-acid-possessing-6-deoxy-%C3%AE-l-talopyranose-from-a-streptomyces-species
#12
Sangkeun Son, Sung-Kyun Ko, Mina Jang, Jae Kyoung Lee, Min Cheol Kwon, Dong Hyo Kang, In-Ja Ryoo, Jung-Sook Lee, Young-Soo Hong, Bo Yeon Kim, Jae-Hyuk Jang, Jong Seog Ahn
A bioassay-guided investigation in conjunction with chemical screening led to the isolation of three new glycosides, ulleungoside (1), 2-methylaminobenzoyl 6-deoxy-α-l-talopyranoside (2), and naphthomycinoside (3), along with three known secondary metabolites (5-7) from Streptomyces sp. KCB13F030. Their structures were elucidated by detailed NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. Absolute configurational analysis of the sugar units based on the magnitudes of the coupling constants, NOESY correlations, chemical derivatization, and optical rotation measurements revealed that compounds 1-3 and 5 incorporate the rare deoxyhexose 6-deoxy-α-l-talopyranose...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393287/starch-enriched-diet-modulates-the-glucidic-profile-in-the-rat-colonic-mucosa
#13
Maria Gabriella Gabrielli, Daniele Tomassoni
PURPOSE: The protective function of the intestinal mucosa largely depends on carbohydrate moieties that as a part of glycoproteins and glycolipids form the epithelial glycocalyx or are secreted as mucins. Modifications of their expression can be induced by an altered intestinal microenvironment and have been associated with inflammatory disorders and colorectal cancer. Given the influence of dietary factors on the gut ecosystem, here we have investigated whether a long term feeding on a starch-rich diet can modulate the glucidic profile in the colonic mucosa of rats...
April 9, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385528/mannose-conjugated-platinum-complexes-reveals-effective-tumor-targeting-mediated-by-glucose-transporter-1
#14
Ran Liu, Hong Li, Xiangqian Gao, Qian Mi, Hongxia Zhao, Qingzhi Gao
Despite numerous studies that report the glucose derived glycoconjugates as antitumor candidates, using mannose as sugar motif for specific tumor targeting remains less studied. In this research, two novel mannose-conjugated platinum complexes 4a and 4b that target the Warburg effect were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. Compared with oxaliplatin, both complexes exhibited substantial enhancement in water solubility as well as excellent or comparative cytotoxicity in six human cancer cell lines...
May 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378090/solute-carrier-organic-anion-transporter-family-member-4a1-slco4a1-as-a-prognosis-marker-of-colorectal-cancer
#15
Myung Jin Ban, Sang Hee Ji, Chi-Kyu Lee, Sang Byung Bae, Han Jo Kim, Tae Sung Ahn, Moon Soo Lee, Moo-Jun Baek, Dongjun Jeong
PURPOSE: Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1 (SLCO4A1) is involved in the transport of various compounds, including sugars, bile salts, organic acids, metal ions, amine compounds, and estrogen. SLCO4A1 is highly expressed in several cancers and a gender bias has been observed in colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated SLCO4A1 expression, its prognostic value in patients with CRC, and its role in CRC cell proliferation and metastasis. METHODS: SLCO4A1 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on specimens from 84 patients with CRC...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367220/lectins-interconnecting-proteins-with-biotechnological-pharmacological-and-therapeutic-applications
#16
REVIEW
Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso Coelho, Priscila Marcelino Dos Santos Silva, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima, Emmanuel Viana Pontual, Patrícia Maria Guedes Paiva, Thiago Henrique Napoleão, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia
Lectins are proteins extensively used in biomedical applications with property to recognize carbohydrates through carbohydrate-binding sites, which identify glycans attached to cell surfaces, glycoconjugates, or free sugars, detecting abnormal cells and biomarkers related to diseases. These lectin abilities promoted interesting results in experimental treatments of immunological diseases, wounds, and cancer. Lectins obtained from virus, microorganisms, algae, animals, and plants were reported as modulators and tool markers in vivo and in vitro; these molecules also play a role in the induction of mitosis and immune responses, contributing for resolution of infections and inflammations...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361752/an-empirically-derived-dietary-pattern-associated-with-breast-cancer-risk-is-validated-in-a-nested-case-control-cohort-from-a-randomized-primary-prevention-trial
#17
Brandon H Hidaka, Bruce F Kimler, Carol J Fabian, Susan E Carlson
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We reported an association between cytologic atypia, a reversible biomarker of breast cancer risk, and lower omega-3/omega-6 fatty acid ratio in blood and breast tissue. Our goal was to develop and validate a dietary pattern index in this high-risk sample of U.S. women, and test its capacity to predict incidence in a nested case-control cohort of Canadian women from a randomized trial of a low-fat dietary intervention for primary prevention of breast cancer. METHODS: Food intake was measured by food frequency questionnaire in the U...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353631/characterization-and-potential-antitumor-activity-of-polysaccharide-from-gracilariopsis-lemaneiformis
#18
Yani Kang, Zhi-Jiang Wang, Dongsheng Xie, Xue Sun, Wenge Yang, Xiaodong Zhao, Nianjun Xu
Substances with valuable antitumor properties have been identified in many marine algae, including an edible polysaccharide from the marine alga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (PGL). We previously reported transcriptome profiling data showing that PGL induced transcriptional alterations generate anti-lung cancer activity. To identify how PGL is detrimental to tumors, we purified PGL to characterize its chemical composition, molecular weight, and sugar and protein content and investigated its antitumor activity...
March 29, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351593/triazole-linked-fluorescent-bisboronic-acid-capable-of-selective-recognition-of-the-lewis-y-antigen
#19
Yan'en Wang, Ruixue Rong, Hua Chen, Mengyuan Zhu, Binghe Wang, Xiaoliu Li
Cell surface carbohydrates of the Lewis blood group antigens, Lewis X (Le(x)), Lewis Y (Le(y)), Lewis A (Le(a)), and their sialylated derivatives, such as sialy Lewis X (sLe(x)) and sialy Lewis A (sLe(a)), play important roles in various recognition processes. These cell surface carbohydrates have also been associated with the development and progression of many types of cancers. Recently, we synthesized four anthracene-based fluorescent bisboronic acid sensors (compounds 2a-d) linked by 'click' chemistry with tethers of different lengths to match the epitope of various Lewis group of sugars...
May 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346741/small-molecules-targeting-human-n-acetylmannosamine-kinase
#20
Stephan Hinderlich, Martin Neuenschwander, Paul-Robin Wratil, Andreas Oder, Michael Lisurek, Long D Nguyen, Jens Peter von Kries, Christian Hackenberger
N-Acetylmannosamine kinase (MNK) plays a key role in the biosynthesis of sialic acids and glycosylation of proteins. Sialylated glycoconjugates affect a large number of biological processes, including immune modulation and cancer transformation. For the search of effective inhibitors of MNK we applied high-throughput screening of drug-like small molecules. Applying different orthogonal assays for their validation we identified four potential MNK-specific inhibitors with IC50 values in the low micromolar range...
March 27, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
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