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Sugar and cancer

K Warfa, I Drake, P Wallström, G Engström, E Sonestedt
Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables)...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Izabela Jatczak-Pawlik, Michal Gorzkiewicz, Maciej Studzian, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Lukasz Pulaski, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
PURPOSE: Fourth-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers fully surface-modified by maltose (dense shell, PPI-m DS) were shown to be biocompatible in cellular models, which is important for their application in drug delivery. We decided to verify also their inherent bioactivity, including immunomodulatory activity, for potential clinical applications. We tested their effects on the THP-1 monocytic cell line model of innate immunity effectors. METHODS: To estimate the cytotoxicity of dendrimers the reasazurin assay was performed...
October 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
Urszula K Komarnicka, Radosław Starosta, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Michał Płotek, Małgorzata Puchalska, Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk
In this paper we present lomefloxacin's (HLm, 2nd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic agent) organic and inorganic derivatives: aminomethyl(diphenyl)phosphine (PLm), its oxide as well as new copper(I) iodide or copper(I) thiocyanate complexes with PLm and 2,9-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline (dmp) or 2,2'-biquinoline (bq) as the auxiliary ligands. The synthesized compounds were fully characterised by NMR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopies. Selected structures were analysed by theoretical DFT (density functional theory) methods...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Romina Schwarzlin, Nika Pušenjak, Damjan Makuc, Mitja Križman, Irena Vovk, Janez Plavec, Urban Švajger
BACKGROUND: It had been demonstrated that sugars from various plants can act as potent agents, which induce apoptosis of cancer cells. METHODS: Using HPLC, we fractionated a mixture of two plant extracts from the plant family Solanaceae, namely Capsicum chinense and the plant family Amaryllidaceae namely Allium sativum. We evaluated the effect of different fractions on apoptosis of HepG2 cell line. The most effective fraction was further studied to determine its molecular composition using mass spectrometry (MS) and NMR...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Manuela Viola, Kathrin Brüggemann, Evgenia Karousou, Ilaria Caon, Elena Caravà, Davide Vigetti, Burkhard Greve, Christian Stock, Giancarlo De Luca, Alberto Passi, Martin Götte
Proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans modulate numerous cellular processes relevant to tumour progression, including cell proliferation, cell-matrix interactions, cell motility and invasive growth. Among the glycosaminoglycans with a well-documented role in tumour progression are heparan sulphate, chondroitin/dermatan sulphate and hyaluronic acid/hyaluronan. While the mode of biosynthesis differs for sulphated glycosaminoglycans, which are synthesised in the ER and Golgi compartments, and hyaluronan, which is synthesized at the plasma membrane, these polysaccharides partially compete for common substrates...
October 15, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Michio Kimura
 The present study was conducted to establish pharmaceutical intervention guidelines to enable hospital pharmacists to provide optimal pharmacotherapy to cancer patients. Many patients who use oral anticancer agents showed favorable drug compliance but insufficient drug adherence. It was demonstrated that in order to improve drug adherence, it is important to conduct interventions tailored to the patients' conditions so as to encourage interest in their medications, as well as to gain their understanding on the necessity and the side effects of their medications...
2016: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Harikrishna Bavireddi, Raghavendra Vasudeva Murthy, Madhuri Gade, Sivakoti Sangabathuni, Raghavendra Kikkeri
A host-guest interaction between Ru(ii)-complexes and sugar-capped β-cyclodextrin was employed to synthesize metalloglycodendrimers. These glycodendrimers demonstrated selective carbohydrate-protein interactions and controlled the delivery of the Ru(ii) complexes into cancer cells, which may facilitate cell-specific apoptosis. Lectin binding assay revealed micromolar range IC50 values with different plant lectins. Cell viability assay and confocal imaging studies of Ru(ii) complexes exhibited cytotoxic activities in cancer cells compared to normal cells with IC50 values close to other literature Ru(ii) complexes...
September 27, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Daniele Tibullo, Nunzia Caporarello, Cesarina Giallongo, Carmelina Daniela Anfuso, Claudia Genovese, Carmen Arlotta, Fabrizio Puglisi, Nunziatina L Parrinello, Vincenzo Bramanti, Alessandra Romano, Gabriella Lupo, Valeria Toscano, Roberto Avola, Maria Violetta Brundo, Francesco Di Raimondo, Salvatore Antonio Raccuia
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal B-cell malignancy characterized by an accumulation of clonal plasma cells (PC) in the bone marrow (BM) leading to bone destruction and BM failure. Despite recent advances in pharmacological therapy, MM remains a largely incurable pathology. Therefore, novel effective and less toxic agents are urgently necessary. In the last few years, pomegranate has been studied for its potential therapeutic properties including treatment and prevention of cancer. Pomegranate juice (PGJ) contains a number of potential active compounds including organic acids, vitamins, sugars, and phenolic components that are all responsible of the pro-apoptotic effects observed in tumor cell line...
October 1, 2016: Nutrients
Emilie H Zobel, Tine W Hansen, Peter Rossing, Bernt Johan von Scholten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We explore how a global shift in the food system caused by global economic growth, increase in available food per capita and in food processing is a driver of the obesity epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Economic development in most areas of the world has resulted in increased purchasing power and available per capita food. Supermarkets and a growing fast-food industry have transformed our dietary pattern. Ultra-processed food rich on sugars and saturated fat is now the major source of energy in most countries...
September 30, 2016: Current Obesity Reports
Xiangqian Gao, Shengnan Liu, Yunli Shi, Zhenhua Huang, Yi Mi, Qian Mi, Jinna Yang, Qingzhi Gao
Novel cis-2-methylmalonato(trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)platinum(II) glycoconjugates derived from different sugar motifs, namely, glucose (Glu-Me-Pt), mannose (Man-Me-Pt) and galactose (Gal-Me-Pt) were designed and synthesized based on the third generation clinical drug oxaliplatin for potential glucose transporters (GLUTs) mediated tumor targeting. All platinum(II) glycoconjugates were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, HRMS as well as (195)Pt-NMR analysis. Despite their substantial improvement in water solubility, the conjugates exhibited comparable or better in vitro cytotoxicities than oxaliplatin determined in six different human cancer cell lines...
September 16, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Bhumika Ray, Shweta Agarwal, Heena Kadian, Kaweri Gambhir, Parag Sharma, Ranjana Mehrotra
Mitoxantrone (1,4-dihydroxy-5,8-bis[[2-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]amino]-9,10-anthracenedione) is a synthetically designed antineoplastic agent and structurally similar to classical anthracyclines. It is widely used as a potent chemotherapeutic component against various kinds of cancer and possesses lesser cardio-toxic effects with respect to naturally occurring anthracyclines. In the present study, we have investigated the binding features of mitoxantrone-tRNA complexation at physiological pH using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, and UV-visible absorption spectroscopic techniques...
August 9, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Yung-Ju Chen, Angela D Myracle, Matthew A Wallig, Elizabeth H Jeffery
Western-style high fat, high sugar diets are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and increased liver cancer risk. Sulforaphane from broccoli may protect against these. Previously we initiated broccoli feeding to mice prior to exposure to the hepatocarcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and saw protection against NAFLD and liver cancer. Here we administered DEN to unweaned mice, initiating broccoli feeding two weeks later, to determine if broccoli protects against cancer progression. Specifically, male 15-day-old C57BL/6J mice were given DEN and placed on a Western or Western+10%Broccoli diet from the age of 4 weeks through 7 months...
June 2016: Journal of Functional Foods
Vanessa L Hale, Jun Chen, Stephen Johnson, Sean C Harrington, Tracy C Yab, Thomas C Smyrk, Heidi Nelson, Lisa A Boardman, Brooke R Druliner, Theodore R Levin, Douglas K Rex, Dennis J Ahnen, Peter Lance, David A Ahlquist, Nicholas Chia
BACKGROUND: Adenomatous polyps are the most common precursor to colorectal cancer (CRC), the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. We sought to learn more about early events of carcinogenesis by investigating shifts in the gut microbiota of patients with adenomas. METHODS: We analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences from the fecal microbiota of patients with adenomas (n=233) and without (n=547). RESULTS: Multiple taxa were significantly more abundant in patients with adenomas, including Bilophila, Desulfovibrio, pro-inflammatory bacteria in the genus Mogibacterium, and multiple Bacteroidetes species...
September 26, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Ágatha Nogueira Previdelli, Samantha Caesar de Andrade, Regina Mara Fisberg, Dirce Maria Marchioni
The use of dietary patterns to assess dietary intake has become increasingly common in nutritional epidemiology studies due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the diet. Currently, two main approaches have been widely used to assess dietary patterns: data-driven and hypothesis-driven analysis. Since the methods explore different angles of dietary intake, using both approaches simultaneously might yield complementary and useful information; thus, we aimed to use both approaches to gain knowledge of adolescents' dietary patterns...
2016: Nutrients
Aleksandra Szulc, Lukasz Pulaski, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
Maltose-modified poly(propylene imine) glycodendrimers (PPI-m OS) of the 4th generation provide a promising strategy for leukemia treatment. Anticancer therapy with nucleoside analog drugs such as cytarabine (Ara-C) frequently has limited efficacy due to drug resistance, inefficient uptake and accumulation of the drug inside cancer cells where it has to be transformed into the active triphosphate congener. The cationic nature of PPI dendrimers makes it possible to form complexes with nucleotide Ara-C triphosphate forms (Ara-CTP)...
September 22, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Y Fujii, T Fujiwara, Y Koide, I Hasan, S Sugawara, S Rajia, S M A Kawsar, D Yamamoto, D Araki, R A Kanaly, Y Ogawa, H Fujita, Y Ozeki
An N-acetyl sugar-binding lectin (termed iNoL) displaying cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells was isolated from the slipper lobster Ibacus novemdentatus (family Scyllaridae). iNoL recognized monosaccharides containing N-acetyl group, and glycoproteins (e.g., BSM) containing oligosaccharides with N-acetyl sugar. iNoL was composed of five subunits (330, 260, 200, 140, and 30 kDa), which in turn consisted of 70-, 40-, and 30-kDa polypeptides held together by disulfide bonds. Electron microscopic observations and gel permeation chromatography indicated that iNoL was a huge (500-kDa) molecule and had a polygonal structure under physiological conditions...
September 22, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Pramod Kumar Sharma, Arup Kumar Misra, Vikram Singh, Ajay Gupta, Shrishti Saroha, Surjit Singh
Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in women. Epirubicin and cyclophosphamide (EC) is one of the chemotherapeutic regimens used for the treatment of breast cancer. We describe a case treated with EC regimen and who presented to us with symptoms suggestive of diabetes mellitus postchemotherapy. Absence of family history of diabetes and normal blood sugar level, prechemotherapy points toward drug-induced hyperglycemia. These chemotherapeutic agents capable of altering immune response and might act synergistically to cause immunological damage to the islets of pancreas which might precipitate diabetes mellitus...
July 2016: Journal of Pharmacology & Pharmacotherapeutics
Joane K Rustiguel, Ricardo O S Soares, Steve P Meisburger, Katherine M Davis, Kristina L Malzbender, Nozomi Ando, Marcelo Dias-Baruffi, Maria Cristina Nonato
Galectins are proteins involved in diverse cellular contexts due to their capacity to decipher and respond to the information encoded by β-galactoside sugars. In particular, human galectin-4, normally expressed in the healthy gastrointestinal tract, displays differential expression in cancerous tissues and is considered a potential drug target for liver and lung cancer. Galectin-4 is a tandem-repeat galectin characterized by two carbohydrate recognition domains connected by a linker-peptide. Despite their relevance to cell function and pathogenesis, structural characterization of full-length tandem-repeat galectins has remained elusive...
2016: Scientific Reports
Marina Venero Galanternik, Mark E Lush, Tatjana Piotrowski
Collective cell migration is an essential process during embryonic development and diseases such as cancer, and still much remains to be learned about how cell intrinsic and environmental cues are coordinated to guide cells to their targets. The migration-dependent development of the zebrafish sensory lateral line proves to be an excellent model to study how proteoglycans control collective cell migration in a vertebrate. Proteoglycans are extracellular matrix glycoproteins essential for the control of several signaling pathways including Wnt/β-catenin, Fgf, BMP and Hh...
September 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Isaak Quast, Benjamin Peschke, Jan D Lünemann
Immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) antibodies are key effector proteins of the immune system. They recognize antigens with high specificity and are indispensable for immunological memory following pathogen exposure or vaccination. The constant, crystallizable fragment (Fc) of IgG molecules mediates antibody effector functions such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity, antibody-mediated cellular cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis. These functions are regulated by a single N-linked, biantennary glycan of the heavy chain, which resides just below the hinge region, and the presence of specific sugar moieties on the glycan has profound implications on IgG effector functions...
September 17, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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