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Sugar and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094181/the-oxidative-induction-of-dna-lesions-in-cancer-cells-by-5-thio-d-glucose-and-6-thio-d-fructopyranose-and-their-genotoxic-effects-part-3
#1
Anna Czubatka-Bienkowska, Anna Macieja, Joanna Sarnik, Zbigniew J Witczak, Tomasz Poplawski
Thio-sugars have been described as potent inhibitors of cancer cell growth but the detailed mechanism of action remains unknown. Herein we investigated the mechanism of their anticancer action in the HeLa cell line. We investigated two thio-sugars: 5-thio-d-glucose (FCP1) and 6-thio-β-d-fructopyranose (FCP2). We have observed that FCP1 as well as FCP2 clearly induced oxidative DNA lesions in cancer cells and increased the level of cellular ROS. A spin trap and antioxidants have decreased the level of DNA lesions induced by FCPs...
January 7, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088584/proton-pump-inhibition-and-cancer-therapeutics-a-specific-tumor-targeting-or-it-is-a-phenomenon-secondary-to-a-systemic-buffering
#2
REVIEW
Enrico Spugnini, Stefano Fais
One of the unsolved mysteries in oncology includes the strategies that cancer cells adopt to cope with an adverse microenvironment. However, we knew, from the Warburg's discovery that through their metabolism based on sugar fermentation, cancer cells acidify their microenvironment and this progressive acidification induces a selective pressure, leading to the development of very malignant cells entirely armed to survive in the hostile microenvironment generated by their own metabolism. In the last decades a primordial role for proton exchangers has been supported as a key tumor advantage in facing off the acidic milieu...
January 11, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087410/repair-of-8-oxog-a-mismatches-by-the-mutyh-glycosylase-mechanism-metals-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Douglas M Banda, Nicole N Nuñez, Michael A Burnside, Katie M Bradshaw, Sheila S David
Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) may infringe on the passing of pristine genetic information by inducing DNA inter- and intra-strand crosslinks, protein-DNA crosslinks, and chemical alterations to the sugar or base moieties of DNA. 8-Oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) is one of the most prevalent DNA lesions formed by RONS and is repaired through the base excision repair (BER) pathway involving the DNA repair glycosylases OGG1 and MUTYH in eukaryotes. MUTYH removes adenine (A) from 8-oxoG:A mispairs, thus mitigating the potential of G:C to T:A transversion mutations from occurring in the genome...
January 10, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086850/the-prevalence-trend-of-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-and-risk-factors-in-korean-adults-results-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2008-2013
#4
Binh Thang Tran, Bo Yoon Jeong, Jin-Kyoung Oh
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities in the clinical markers of metabolic syndrome (MS) are associated with the development of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some cancers. MS prevalence in Korea increased between the mid-1990s and mid-2000s; however, no data on the recent trends of MS prevalence are available. Thus, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MS, the five components of MS, and the related risk factors in Korean adults by using recent data. METHODS: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2008 and 2013 were used...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075401/anti-neuroblastoma-properties-of-a-recombinant-sunflower-lectin
#5
Marcela Pinedo, Melanie Genoula, María Ximena Silveyra, André De Oliveira Carvalho, Mariana Regente, Marianela Del Río, Júlia Ribeiro Soares, Valdirene Moreira Gomes, Laura De La Canal
According to their sugar recognition specificity, plant lectins are proposed as bioactive proteins with potential in cancer treatment and diagnosis. Helja is a mannose-specific jacalin-like lectin from sunflower which was shown to inhibit the growth of certain fungi. Here, we report its recombinant expression in a prokaryotic system and its activity in neurobalstoma cells. Helja coding sequence was fused to the pET-32 EK/LIC, the enterokinase/Ligation-independent cloning vector and a 35 kDa protein was obtained in Escherichia coli representing Helja coupled to thioredoxin (Trx)...
January 10, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074124/involvement-of-blood-mononuclear-cells-in-the-infertility-age-associated-diseases-and-cancer-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Antonin Bukovsky
Blood mononuclear cells consist of T cells and monocyte derived cells. Beside immunity, the blood mononuclear cells belong to the complex tissue control system (TCS), where they exhibit morphostatic function by stimulating proliferation of tissue stem cells followed by cellular differentiation, that is stopped after attaining the proper functional stage, which differs among various tissue types. Therefore, the term immune and morphostatic system (IMS) should be implied. The TCS-mediated morphostasis also consists of vascular pericytes controlled by autonomic innervation, which is regulating the quantity of distinct tissues in vivo...
December 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070314/calories-and-sugars-in-boba-milk-tea-implications-for-obesity-risk-in-asian-pacific-islanders
#7
Jae Eun Min, David B Green, Loan Kim
In the last several decades, obesity rates have reached epidemic proportions, and increases the risk for a host of comorbidities, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain kinds of cancers. Boba milk tea, first became popular in the 1990s throughout Asia, and has gained more popularity in the United States and in Europe since 2000. Currently, available nutrition data from online sites suggest this beverage contains high amounts of sugar and fat. One published nutrition study suggests that boba tea drinks are part of the larger group of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) because these beverages are usually sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059703/glycolysis-and-glutaminolysis-cooperatively-control-t-cell-function-by-limiting-metabolite-supply-to-n-glycosylation
#8
Lindsey Araujo, Phillip Khim, Haik Mkhikian, Christie-Lynn Mortales, Michael Demetriou
Rapidly proliferating cells switch from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis plus glutaminolysis, markedly increasing glucose and glutamine catabolism. Although Otto Warburg first described aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells >90 years ago, the primary purpose of this metabolic switch remains controversial. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway requires glucose and glutamine for de novo synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc, a sugar-nucleotide that inhibits receptor endocytosis and signaling by promoting N-acetylglucosamine branching of Asn (N)-linked glycans...
January 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053567/metabolomic-and-elemental-analysis-of-camel-and-bovine-urine-by-gc-ms-and-icp-ms
#9
Syed Rizwan Ahamad, Abdul Qader Alhaider, Mohammad Raish, Faiyaz Shakeel
Recent studies from the author's laboratory indicated that camel urine possesses antiplatelet activity and anti-cancer activity which is not present in bovine urine. The objective of this study is to compare the volatile and elemental components of bovine and camel urine using GC-MS and ICP-MS analysis. We are interested to know the component that performs these biological activities. The freeze dried urine was dissolved in dichloromethane and then derivatization process followed by using BSTFA for GC-MS analysis...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035390/influence-of-microrna%C3%A2-34a-on-proliferation-invasion-and-metastasis-of-hct116-cells
#10
Chunyan Li, Shuming Lu, Yingyan Wang, Shibin Guo, Tianyu Zhao, Xiaosheng Wang, Bo Song
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of microRNA (miR)‑34a expression in the proliferation, invasion and metastasis of colon cancer and its underlying mechanisms. HCT116 cells were cultured in high‑sugar Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 1000 U/ml penicillin‑streptomycin. Following digestion and resuspension, the cells were used for transfection, expression and western blot analysis. HCT116 cells from miR‑34a transfection, negative control and blank control groups were seeded into a 96‑well plate at a density of 105 cells/ml, and 200 µl complete DMEM was added...
February 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029258/liposomes-for-pet-and-mr-imaging-and-for-dual-targeting-magnetic-field-glucose-moiety-synthesis-properties-and-in-vivo-studies
#11
Jeremy Malinge, Bastien Géraudie, Paul Savel, Valerie Nataf, Aurelie Prignon, Claire Provost, Yongmin Zhang, Phalla Ou, Khaldoun Kerrou, Jean-Noel Talbot, Jean-Michel Siaugue, Matthieu Sollogoub, Christine Menager
We describe the potentiality of a new liposomal formulation enabling PET and MR imaging for cancer diagnosis. The bimodality is achieved by coupling a 68Ga-based radiotracer on the bilayer of ultra magnetic liposomes. In order to enhance the targeting properties obtained under a permanent magnetic field, a sugar moiety was added in the lipid formulation. Two new phospholipids were synthesized, one with a specific chelator of 68Ga (DSPE-PEG-NODAGA) and one with a glucose moiety (DSPE-PEG-Glucose). The liposomes were produced according to a fast and safe process, with a high radiolabeling yield...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029138/the-potential-of-cyclodextrins-as-novel-active-pharmaceutical-ingredients-a-short-overview
#12
REVIEW
Massimiliano Pio di Cagno
Cyclodextrins (CDs) are cyclic oligosaccharides of natural origin that were discovered more than 100 years ago. The peculiar cone-like conformation of the sugar ring, expressing a lipophilic cavity and a hydrophilic external surface, allows these substances to spontaneously complex poorly soluble compounds in an aqueous environment. For more than 50 years, these substances have found applicability in the pharmaceutical and food industries as solubilizing agents for poorly soluble chemical entities. Nowadays, several research groups all over the world are investigating their potential as active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) for the treatment of several illnesses (e...
December 25, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017156/sugar-based-biopolymers-in-nanomedicine-new-emerging-era-for-cancer-imaging-and-therapy
#13
Mehmet S Eroglu, Ebru Toksoy Oner, Esra Cansever Mutlu, Muge Sennaroglu Bostan
Since last decade, sugar based biopolymers are recognized in nanomedicine as promising materials for cancer imaging and therapy. Their durable, biocompatible and adhesive properties enable the fine tuning of their molecular weights (MW) and their miscellaneous nature makes the molecules acquire various conformations. These in turn provide effective endocytosis by cancer cell membranes that have already been programmed for internalization of different kinds of sugars. Therefore, biocompatible sugar based nanoparticles (SBNPs) are suitable for both cell-selective delivery of drugs and imaging through the human body...
December 21, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997546/the-eatwell-guide-modelling-the-health-implications-of-incorporating-new-sugar-and-fibre-guidelines
#14
Linda J Cobiac, Peter Scarborough, Asha Kaur, Mike Rayner
OBJECTIVE: To model population health impacts of dietary changes associated with the redevelopment of the UK food-based dietary guidelines (the 'Eatwell Guide'). METHOD: Using multi-state lifetable methods, we modelled the impact of dietary changes on cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancers over the lifetime of the current UK population. From this model, we determined change in life expectancy and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) that could be averted...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994410/estimation-of-salivary-sialic-acid-in-oral-premalignancy-and-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#15
Vishakha Chaudhari, G L Pradeep, Nilima Prakash, Aarti M Mahajan
AIMS: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter...
October 2016: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991726/an-optimized-version-of-the-secretome-protein-enrichment-with-click-sugars-specs-method-leads-to-enhanced-coverage-of-the-secretome
#16
Alperen Serdaroglu, Stephan A Müller, Ute Schepers, Stefan Bräse, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Peer-Hendrik Kuhn
The secretome, the entirety of all soluble proteins either being secreted or proteolytically released by a cell, plays a key role in intercellular communication of multicellular organisms. Pathological alterations contribute to diseases such as hypertension, cancer, autoimmune disorders or neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, studying disease related perturbations of the secretome and the secretome itself covers an important aspect of cellular physiology. We recently developed the Secretome Protein Enrichment with Click Sugars (SPECS) method which enables the analysis of secretomes of in vitro cell cultures even in the presence of fetal calf serum with mass spectrometry...
December 19, 2016: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988387/insights-into-the-role-of-maladaptive-hexosamine-biosynthesis-and-o-glcnacylation-in-development-of-diabetic-cardiac-complications
#17
Cheng Xue Qin, Rochelle Sleaby, Amy J Davidoff, James R Bell, Miles J De Blasio, Leanne M Delbridge, John C Chatham, Rebecca H Ritchie
Diabetes mellitus significantly increases the risk of heart failure, independent of coronary artery disease. The mechanisms implicated in the development of diabetic heart disease, commonly termed diabetic cardiomyopathy, are complex, but much of the impact of diabetes on the heart can be attributed to impaired glucose handling. It has been shown that the maladaptive nutrient-sensing hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) contributes to diabetic complications in many non-cardiac tissues. Glucose metabolism by the HBP leads to enzymatically-regulated, O-linked attachment of a sugar moiety molecule, β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), to proteins, affecting their biological activity (similar to phosphorylation)...
December 14, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983842/cardiac-glycoside-constituents-of-streblus-asper-with-potential-antineoplastic-activity
#18
Yulin Ren, Wei-Lun Chen, Daniel D Lantvit, Ellen J Sass, Pratik Shriwas, Tran Ngoc Ninh, Hee-Byung Chai, Xiaoli Zhang, Djaja D Soejarto, Xiaozhuo Chen, David M Lucas, Steven M Swanson, Joanna E Burdette, A Douglas Kinghorn
Three new (1-3) and two known (4 and 5) cytotoxic cardiac glycosides were isolated and characterized from a medicinal plant, Streblus asper Lour. (Moraceae), collected in Vietnam, with six new analogues and one known derivative (5a-g) synthesized from (+)-strebloside (5). A preliminary structure-activity relationship study indicated that the C-10 formyl and C-5 and C-14 hydroxy groups and C-3 sugar unit play important roles in the mediation of the cytotoxicity of (+)-strebloside (5) against HT-29 human colon cancer cells...
December 16, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982682/acrylamide-a-common-food-toxin-related-to-physiological-functions-and-health
#19
M Semla, Z Goc, M Martinikova, R Omelka, G Formicki
Acrylamide (AA) is a highly reactive organic compound capable of polimeryzation to form polyacrylamide, which is commonly used throughout a variety of industries. Given its toxic effect on humans and animals, the last 20 years have seen an increased interest in research devoted to the AA. One of the main sources of AA is food. AA appears in heated food following the reaction between aminoacids and reduced sugars. Large concentrations of AA can be found in popular staples such as coffee, bread or potato products...
December 16, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968878/dietary-patterns-and-risk-of-breast-cancer-in-chinese-women-a-population-based-case-control-study
#20
Shurong Lu, Xingyu Huang, Hao Yu, Jie Yang, Renqiang Han, Jian Su, Wencong Du, Jinyi Zhou, Xiaojin Yu, Ming Wu
BACKGROUND: The incidence rate of breast cancer has markedly increased in recent years in China, yet the association of breast cancer with dietary patterns such as a Chinese traditional diet has not been studied. We aimed to examine this association among women from the Jiangsu Province of China. METHODS: In this case-control study, we used the data from local population-based cancer registry agency to recruit newly diagnosed patients with primary breast cancer as cases...
October 2016: Lancet
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