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Sugar and cancer

Hege Berg Henriksen, Monica Hauger Carlsen, Ingvild Paur, Sveinung Berntsen, Siv Kjølsrud Bøhn, Anne Juul Skjetne, Ane Sørlie Kværner, Christine Henriksen, Lene Frost Andersen, Sigbjørn Smeland, Rune Blomhoff
Background: The Norwegian food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim at reducing the risk of developing chronic diseases and promote overall health. We studied the effect of the Norwegian FBDG in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. There is a need for a time-efficient dietary assessment tool measuring adherence to these guidelines in patients treated for dietary dependent cancer, such as CRC patients. Objective: To evaluate a new short food frequency questionnaire (NORDIET-FFQ), developed to estimate adherence to the Norwegian FBDG among CRC patients...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Ileana-Andreea Ratiu, Hossam Al-Suod, Magdalena Ligor, Tomasz Ligor, Viorica Railean-Plugaru, Bogusław Buszewski
Cyclitols are phytochemicals naturally occurring in plant material which attracted an increasing interest due to multiple medicinal attributes, amongst the most important are the anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. Due to their valuable properties, sugars are used in food industry as sweeteners, preservatives, texture modifiers, fermentation substrates, flavoring and coloring agents. In this study we report for the first time the quantitative analysis of sugars and cyclitols isolated from Solidago virgaurea L...
March 15, 2018: Electrophoresis
Sara Nejatinamini, Catherine Kubrak, Mirey Álvarez-Camacho, Vickie E Baracos, Sunita Ghosh, Wendy V Wismer, Vera C Mazurak
This study assessed dietary and micronutrient intakes of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients at key points in the disease trajectory and evaluated the contribution of oral nutritional supplements (ONS) to micronutrient intake. HNC patients (n = 114) completed a three-day dietary record and a tool to assess Nutrition Impact Scores (NIS) at baseline, post-treatment, and follow-up. Foods were classified into food categories. Micronutrient, protein, and energy intakes were compared to European Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition guidelines for cancer patients...
March 13, 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Cheng Tian, Meimei Wang, Shanshan Liu, Hang Ma, Kai He, Deqi Zhou, Yanlin Li, Xiaoli Ye, Xuegang Li
A new small molecule glycoprotein SPG-8700 with potential anti-colorectal cancer activity was firstly separated by tracking of bioactivity from a new sweet potato variety Zhongshu-1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography and amino acid analyzer were applied separately to determine the molecular weight and compositions of this glycoprotein. Flow cytometry analysis and western blotting analysis were employed to explore it's mechanism of the anti-colorectal cancer...
March 12, 2018: Natural Product Research
Ninon Very, Agata Steenackers, Caroline Dubuquoy, Jeanne Vermuse, Laurent Dubuquoy, Tony Lefebvre, Ikram El Yazidi-Belkoura
The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) integrates glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and nucleotides metabolisms for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is the nucleotide sugar donor for O-linked β-N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation) processes. O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is the enzyme which transfers the N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residue onto target proteins. Several studies previously showed that glucose metabolism dysregulations associated with obesity, diabetes or cancer correlated with an increase of OGT expression and global O-GlcNAcylation levels...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Linwen Zhang, Christopher J Sevinsky, Brian M Davis, Akos Vertes
Specific subpopulations in a heterogeneous collection of cells, e.g., cancer stem cells in a tumor, are often associated with biological or medical conditions. Fluorescence microscopy, based on biomarkers labelled with fluorescent probes, is a widely used technique for the visualization and selection of such cells. Phenotypic differences for these subpopulations at the molecular level can be identified by their untargeted analysis using single cell mass spectrometry (MS). Here, we combine capillary microsampling MS with fluorescence microscopy for the analysis of metabolite and lipid levels in single cells to discern the heterogeneity of subpopulations corresponding to mitotic stages...
March 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Y B Lou, F X Fan, Y C Mu, X Dong
The aim of this study was to analyze metabolite differences in pancreatic cancer and diabetic patients, to better diagnose these diseases. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the metabolomic differences in blood samples of 50 pancreatic patients, 50 diabetic patients and 50 healthy people. Metabonomic data was analyzed with primary component analysis and discriminant analysis. The results show that pancreatic cancer patients, diabetic patients and healthy people can have significantly distinct metabolite profiles...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Katarzyna Sidoryk, Piotr Cmoch, Marta Świtalska, Bartosz Trzaskowski, Joanna Wietrzyk, Marcin Cybulski
An efficient methodology of the glycosylation process of a secondary plant metabolite (R-Danshensu) and its enantiomer by sugar and 2-deoxy sugar donors was developed. The overall synthesis of the new sugar derivatives involved two steps, starting from the previously synthesized protected R and S Danshensu (1 and 2). The deoxy sugar derivatives of R and S Danshensu were obtained from available tri-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-D-glucal and di-O-acetyl-2-deoxy-D-ramnal. The direct glycosylation of 1 and 2 using glycal activation by an acid catalyst in all cases led to the α-anomers of deoxy sugar derivatives with good yields...
February 23, 2018: Carbohydrate Research
Liang-Zhen You, Yi-Xuan Lin, Zhao-Hui Fang, Guo-Ming Shen, Jin-Dong Zhao, Ting-Ting Wang
Diabetes has become a global public health problem that seriously threatens human health. Traditional Chinese medicine, the characteristics of the role of multiple targets, has a unique advantage in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Astragaloside-Ⅳ (AS-Ⅳ), one of the main activities of Astragalus membranaceus, has a series of pharmacological effects including improvement in the function of endothelial cells and neovascularization, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, regulating energy metabolism, protectionnervous, anti-cancer and so on...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Tobias C Majdanski, David Pretzel, Justyna A Czaplewska, Jürgen Vitz, Pelin Sungur, Stephanie Höppener, Stephanie Schubert, Felix H Schacher, Ulrich S Schubert, Michael Gottschaldt
This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of d-fructose modified poly(ethylene glycol) (Fru-PEG) and fructose modified poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ethyl hexyl glycidyl ether) (Fru-PEG-b-PEHG) that are both prepared by initiation with isopropyliden protected fructose, followed by deprotection of the sugar. The block copolymers are self-assembled into micelles, and are subsequently characterized by cryo-TEM and dynamic light scattering. The fluorescent dye Nile red is encapsulated as a model hydrophobic compound and fluorescent marker to perform initial uptake tests with breast cancer cells...
February 28, 2018: Macromolecular Bioscience
Marwa G Abdelrehim, Eman M Mahfouz, Ashraf A Ewis, Amany E Seedhom, Hassan M Afifi, Fatma M Shebl
Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a serious and rapidly progressing malignancy. Identifying risk factors including dietary elements is important to develop preventive strategies. This study focused on possible links between diet and PC. Methods: We conducted a case-control study including all PC patients diagnosed at Minia Cancer Center and controls from general population from June 2014 to December 2015. Dietary data were collected directly through personal interviews. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify dietary groups...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Yue Chen, Jose M Cordero, Hua Wang, Daniel Franke, Odin B Achorn, Francesca S Freyria, Igor Coropceanu, He Wei, Ou Chen, David J Mooney, Moungi Bawendi
We present a novel ligand, 5-norbornene-2-nonanoic acid, which can be directly added during established QD syntheses in organic solvents to generate "clickable" QDs at a few hundred nmol scale. This ligand has a carboxyl group at one terminus to bind to the surface of quantum dots (QDs) and a norbornene group at the opposite end that enables straightforward phase transfer of QDs into aqueous solutions via efficient norbornene/tetrazine click chemistry. Our ligand system removes the traditional ligand exchange step and can produce water-soluble QDs with a high quantum yield and a small hydrodynamic diameter of ~12 nm at an order of magnitude higher scale than previous methods...
February 26, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Shahid Ullah Khan, Syed Ishtiaq Anjum, Khaista Rahman, Mohammad Javed Ansari, Wasim Ullah Khan, Sajid Kamal, Baharullah Khattak, Ali Muhammad, Hikmat Ullah Khan
Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself...
February 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Allison M Hodge, Julie K Bassett, Roger L Milne, Dallas R English, Graham G Giles
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks would be associated with increased risk of obesity-related cancers. Associations for artificially sweetened soft drinks were assessed for comparison. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with cancers identified by linkage to cancer registries. At baseline, participants completed a 121-item FFQ including separate questions about the number of times in the past year they had consumed sugar-sweetened or artificially sweetened soft drinks...
February 21, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Yiwen Tao, Pinglin Li, Daojing Zhang, Evgenia Glukhov, Lena Gerwick, Chen Zhang, Thomas F Murray, William H Gerwick
Cancer cell cytotoxicity was used to guide the isolation of nine new swinholide-related compounds, named samholides A-I (1-9), from an American Samoan marine cyanobacterium cf. Phormidium sp. Their structures were determined by extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The new compounds share an unusual 20-demethyl 44-membered lactone ring comprised of two monomers, and they demonstrate structural diversity arising from geometric isomerization of double bonds, sugar units with unique glyceryl moieties and varied methylation patterns...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Hiroshi Hoshikawa, Kazuyo Kamitori, Kanako Indo, Terushige Mori, Mizuna Kamata, Tomoko Takahashi, Masaaki Tokuda
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of one rare sugar, D-allose, on normal human cells and cutaneous tissue, and to investigate the radiosensitizing and chemosensitizing potential of D-allose in an in vivo model of head and neck cancer. Results indicated that D-allose did not inhibit the growth of normal human fibroblasts TIG-1 cells, and no apoptotic changes were observed after D-allose and D-glucose treatment. The mRNA expression levels of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in TIG-1 cells after D-allose treatment increased by 2-fold (50...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
S E Mallikarjuna, Shylaja M Dharmesh
Swallow root pectic oligosaccharide fraction (SRO1) from swallow root pectic polysaccharide (SRPP) possessed a molecular size of 831 Da. Structural analysis revealed that it is a rhamnogalacturonan I type, bearing arabinogalactan side chain with β-d-(1→4) galactose along with α-l-Araf (1→5)-α-l-Araf (1→3) structure on α-d-GalA-OAc-(1→2)-α-l-Rha-(1→4)- linear backbone. β-d (1→4) linked galactose being the specific sugar for galectin-3, SRO1 had potentials in inhibiting galectin-3 mediated cancer progression...
April 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Vikas Purohit, Sundeep Mishra
Artificial sweeteners are thought to be beneficial for diabetics or obese where refined sugar can be a problem. These low-calorie sweeteners are seemingly safe to use, provide sweetness without calories, and provide a choice of sweet foods to those who otherwise cannot partake them (refined sugars). However, while artificial sweeteners may indeed restrict calories most of them have no beneficial effects on control of diabetes mellitus; rather possibly increase its risk. Additionally, there could be some other safety concerns possibly risk of cancer...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
P W Jupp
Cancer incidence continues to be a major health problem possibly because cancer is a complex system comprising many agents that interact in a non-linear manner resulting in many possible outcomes. The degree of complexity of a cancer system could be vast involving multiple endogenous and exogenous agents interacting with the over 10 trillion cells comprising the body. It is hypothesized that the practical management of this complexity may be a key to cancer prevention and possibly treatment. But the management and resolution of such an immensely complex system is difficult and may require a multidisciplinary approach including physics, biology, biochemistry and medical science...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
SiSi Yuan, MaoLin Li, Jiansheng Chen, Li Zhou, Wen Zhou
Carbohydrates and their conjugates play important roles in many life processes including fertilization, differentiation, development, immune response, and infection. Their activities were largely dependent on the properties of terminal mono- or disaccharides. Galactose, mannose, fucose, glucose, sialic acid, etc. are commonly used as powerful scaffolds installed on drug molecules for targeting specific tissues including brain, liver and cancers, and as epitopes for enhancing the targeting of various vaccination...
February 13, 2018: ChemMedChem
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