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Sugar and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913919/a-critical-overview-on-the-biological-and-molecular-features-of-red-and-processed-meat-in-colorectal-carcinogenesis
#1
REVIEW
Arunan Jeyakumar, Lakal Dissabandara, Vinod Gopalan
A recent investigation by the World Health Organisation (WHO) has found that the consumption of processed meat and potentially red meat promotes carcinogenesis and can increase the risk of colorectal cancer. This literature review aims to summarise both the red and processed meat molecules associated with colorectal carcinogenesis and investigate their relationship with the pathogenic process of colorectal cancer. Literature relating to the carcinogenic effect of red and processed meat molecules was critically reviewed...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903453/repair-of-8-oxo-7-8-dihydroguanine-in-prokaryotic-and-eukaryotic-cells-properties-and-biological-roles-of-the-fpg-and-ogg1-dna-n-glycosylases
#2
Serge Boiteux, Franck Coste, Bertrand Castaing
Oxidatively damaged DNA results from the attack of sugar and base moieties by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are formed as byproducts of normal cell metabolism and during exposure to endogenous or exogenous chemical or physical agents. Guanine, having the lowest redox potential, is the DNA base the most susceptible to oxidation, yielding products such as 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) and 2-6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-formamidopyrimidine (FapyG). In DNA, 8-oxoG was shown to be mutagenic yielding GC to TA transversions upon incorporation of dAMP opposite this lesion by replicative DNA polymerases...
November 26, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895417/glycoproteins-and-glycoproteomics-in-pancreatic-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Sheng Pan, Teresa A Brentnall, Ru Chen
Aberrations in protein glycosylation and polysaccharides play a pivotal role in pancreatic tumorigenesis, influencing cancer progression, metastasis, immuno-response and chemoresistance. Abnormal expression in sugar moieties can impact the function of various glycoproteins, including mucins, surface receptors, adhesive proteins, proteoglycans, as well as their effectors and binding ligands, resulting in an increase in pancreatic cancer invasiveness and a cancer-favored microenvironment. Recent advance in glycoproteomics, glycomics and other chemical biology techniques have been employed to better understand the complex mechanism of glycosylation events and how they orchestrate molecular activities in genomics, proteomics and metabolomics implicated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891048/metabolic-signatures-of-lung-cancer-in-sputum-and-exhaled-breath-condensate-detected-by-1-h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-a-feasibility-study
#4
Naseer Ahmed, Tedros Bezabeh, Omkar B Ijare, Renelle Myers, Reem Alomran, Michel Aliani, Zoann Nugent, Shantanu Banerji, Julian Kim, Gefei Qing, Zoheir Bshouty
OBJECTIVES: Lung cancer is one of the most lethal cancers. Currently, there are no biomarkers for early detection, monitoring treatment response, and detecting recurrent lung cancer. We undertook this study to determine if (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of sputum and exhaled breath condensate (EBC), as a noninvasive tool, can identify metabolic biomarkers of lung cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sputum and EBC samples were collected from 20 patients, comprising patients with pathologically confirmed non-small cell lung cancer (n = 10) and patients with benign respiratory conditions (n = 10)...
2016: Magnetic Resonance Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890529/mass-spectrometry-analysis-shows-the-biosynthetic-pathways-supported-by-pyruvate-carboxylase-in-highly-invasive-breast-cancer-cells
#5
Phatchariya Phannasil, Israr-Ul H Ansari, Mahmoud El Azzouny, Melissa J Longacre, Khanti Rattanapornsompong, Charles F Burant, Sarawut Jitrapakdee, Michael J MacDonald
We recently showed that the anaplerotic enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) is up-regulated in human breast cancer tissue and its expression is correlated with the late stages of breast cancer and tumor size [Phannasil et al., PloS One 10, e0129848, 2015]. In the current study we showed that PC enzyme activity is much higher in the highly invasive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 than in less invasive breast cancer cell lines. We generated multiple stable PC knockdown cell lines from the MDA-MB-231 cell line and used mass spectrometry with (13)C6-glucose and (13)C5-glutamine to discern the pathways that use PC in support of cell growth...
November 23, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853646/hepatocellular-carcinoma-is-accelerated-by-nash-involving-m2-macrophage-polarization-mediated-by-hif-1%C3%AE-induced-il-10
#6
Aditya Ambade, Abhishek Satishchandran, Banishree Saha, Benedek Gyongyosi, Patrick Lowe, Karen Kodys, Donna Catalano, Gyongyi Szabo
Obesity-related inflammation promotes cancer development. Tissue resident macrophages affect tumor progression and the tumor micro-environment favors polarization into alternatively activated macrophages (M2) that facilitate tumor invasiveness. Here, we dissected the role of western diet-induced NASH in inducing macrophage polarization in a carcinogen initiated model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Adult C57BL/6 male mice received diethyl nitrosamine (DEN) followed by 24 weeks of high fat-high cholesterol-high sugar diet (HF-HC-HSD)...
2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851849/a-skin-cancer-prevention-campaign-spreading-the-word-on-sugar-packets
#7
Osvaldo Correia, Bernardo Correia, Ana Filipa Duarte
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848187/racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-diabetes-screening-between-asian-americans-and-other-adults-brfss-2012-2014
#8
Elizabeth L Tung, Arshiya A Baig, Elbert S Huang, Neda Laiteerapong, Kao-Ping Chua
BACKGROUND: Although Asian Americans are at high risk for type 2 diabetes, it is not known whether they are appropriately screened for this disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess racial and ethnic disparities in diabetes screening between Asian Americans and other adults. DESIGN: Analysis of pooled cross-sectional data from 45 U.S. states and territories using the 2012-2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We calculated the weighted proportions of adults in each racial and ethnic group who received recommended diabetes screening...
November 15, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846386/an-alternative-sugar-fuels-aml
#9
Rob A Cairns, Tak W Mak
Although altered glucose metabolism is a well-studied feature of malignant cells, little is known about the direct metabolism of fructose. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Chen et al. report that AML cells consume fructose and use it to maintain viability, especially when glucose is scarce.
November 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836974/wzb117-inhibits-glut1-mediated-sugar-transport-by-binding-reversibly-at-the-exofacial-sugar-binding-site
#10
Ogooluwa A Ojelabi, Kenneth P Lloyd, Andrew H Simon, Julie K De Zutter, Anthony Carruthers
WZB117 (2-fluoro-6-(m-hydroxybenzoyloxy) phenyl m-hydroxybenzoate) inhibits passive sugar transport in human erythrocytes and cancer cell lines and, by limiting glycolysis, inhibits tumor growth in mice. This study explores how WZB117 inhibits the erythrocyte sugar transporter GLUT1 and examines the transporter isoform-specificity of inhibition. WZB117 reversibly and competitively inhibits erythrocyte 3-O-methylglucose (3MG) uptake with Ki(app) = 6 microM but is a noncompetitive inhibitor of sugar exit. Cytochalasin B (CB) is a reversible, noncompetitive inhibitor of 3MG uptake with Ki(app) = 0...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830840/searching-for-anti-glioma-activity-ribonucleoside-analogues-with-modifications-in-nucleobase-and-sugar-moieties
#11
Grzegorz Framski, Dariusz Wawrzyniak, Zofia Jahnz-Wechmann, Agnieszka Szymanska-Michalak, Adam Kraszewski, Jan Barciszewski, Jerzy Boryski, Jacek Stawinski
Several ribonucleoside analogues with modifications in the nucleobase and sugar moiety have been screened for anti-glioma activity in the T98G glioma cell line using cervical (HeLa) cell line as reference human malignant cells, and lung fibroblast (MCR-5) cell line as non-cancerous reference cells. Among the investigated compounds, ribonucleosides containing 6-chloropurine (3), 7-guanine (5) and a pyrrolopyrimidine (18) as nucleobases, show promising anti-glioma activity with good selectivity indices, and can be considered as lead structures for further anti-cancer studies...
November 10, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827899/relationship-between-added-sugars-consumption-and-chronic-disease-risk-factors-current-understanding
#12
REVIEW
James M Rippe, Theodore J Angelopoulos
Added sugars are a controversial and hotly debated topic. Consumption of added sugars has been implicated in increased risk of a variety of chronic diseases including obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as cognitive decline and even some cancers. Support for these putative associations has been challenged, however, on a variety of fronts. The purpose of the current review is to summarize high impact evidence including systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in an attempt to provide an overview of current evidence related to added sugars and health considerations...
November 4, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815965/ionizing-radiation-affects-profile-of-serum-metabolites-increased-level-of-3-hydroxybutyric-acid-in-serum-of-cancer-patients-treated-with-radiotherapy
#13
Małgorzata Roś-Mazurczyk, Anna Wojakowska, Łukasz Marczak, Krzysztof Polański, Monika Pietrowska, Karol Jelonek, Iwona Domińczyk, Agata Hajduk, Tomasz Rutkowski, Krzysztof Składowski, Piotr Widłak
Radiotherapy causes molecular changes observed at the level of body fluids, which are potential biomarker candidates for assessment of radiation exposure. Here we analyzed radiotherapy-induced changes in a profile of small metabolites detected in sera of head and neck cancer patients using the gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry approach. There were about 20 compounds, including carboxylic acids, sugars, amines and amino acids, whose levels significantly differed between pre-treatment and post-treatment samples...
November 4, 2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812519/in-depth-medical-nutrition-therapy-for-a-woman-with-diabetes-from-pregnancy-to-delivery
#14
Miyoung Jang, Dal Lae Ju, MeeRa Kweon, Misun Park
Diabetes in pregnancy is associated with higher rates of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, preterm labor, and fetal malformation. To prevent these obstetric and perinatal complications, women with diabetes have to control levels of blood sugar, both prior to and during pregnancy. Thus, individualized medical nutrition therapy for each stage of pregnancy is essential. We provided in-depth medical nutrition therapy to a 38-year-old pregnant woman with diabetes at all stages of pregnancy up to delivery. She underwent radiation therapy after surgery for breast cancer and was diagnosed with diabetes...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804058/the-association-of-medication-use-with-clearance-or-persistence-of-oral-hpv-infection
#15
Jennifer O Lam, Elizabeth A Sugar, Ross D Cranston, Kathleen M Weber, Robert D Burk, Dorothy J Wiley, Susheel Reddy, Joseph B Margolick, Howard D Strickler, Alicia Wentz, Lisa Jacobson, Christian L Coles, Jay H Bream, Anne F Rositch, Yingshi Guo, Weihong Xiao, Maura L Gillison, Gypsyamber D'Souza
PURPOSE: Persistent oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection increases risk for oropharyngeal carcinoma, and people living with HIV have higher rates of oral HPV infection and related cancers. Some prescription medications have immunomodulatory effects, but the impact of medication use on oral HPV natural history is unknown. METHODS: Scope(®) oral rinse-and-gargle samples were collected semi-annually from 1,666 participants and tested for 37 types of oral HPV DNA using PCR; 594 HPV-infected participants with 1,358 type-specific oral HPV infections were identified...
November 1, 2016: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793783/cardenolides-from-calotropis-gigantea-as-potent-inhibitors-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-transcriptional-activity
#16
Supawadee Parhira, Guo-Yuan Zhu, Ming Chen, Li-Ping Bai, Zhi-Hong Jiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Calotropis gigantea (L.) Dryand (Apocynaceae) is a medicinal plant native to southern China, India and Southeast Asia. It has been traditionally used for the treatment of several diseases including cancers in these countries. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to isolate bioactive cardenolides from C. gigantea, to screen their hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-) 1 inhibitory activity, and to analyze the structure-activity relationship (SAR)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784241/a-review-on-the-pharmacology-and-toxicology-of-steviol-glycosides-extracted-from-stevia-rebaudiana
#17
Amir Abbas Momtazi-Borojeni, Seyed-Alireza Esmaeili, Elham Abdollahi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a sweet and nutrient-rich plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia leaves contain steviol glycosides including stevioside, rebaudioside (A to F), steviolbioside, and isosteviol, which are responsible for the plant's sweet taste, and have commercial value all over the world as a sugar substitute in foods, beverages and medicines. Among the various steviol glycosides, stevioside, rebaudioside A and rebaudioside C are the major metabolites and these compounds are on average 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose...
October 21, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782276/regioselective-synthesis-of-naphthoquinone-naphthoquinol-carbohydrate-hybrids-by-4-2-anionic-annulations-and-studies-on-their-cytotoxicity
#18
Soumen Chakraborty, Gaurav Das, Surajit Ghosh, Dipakranjan Mal
An efficient and regioselective synthetic route to naphthoquinone/naphthoquinol-carbohydrate hybrids has been developed. It is based upon anionic annulation of 3-nucleofugalphthalides with an acrylate appended sugar moiety. In each of the annulations studied, the arene-carbohydrate hybrids were obtained in good to excellent yields. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of the synthetic naphthoquinone/naphthonol-carbohydrate hybrids were evaluated against the human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), and a few of them were found to exhibit potent anticancer activity against the cell line...
December 7, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774913/association-between-sucrose-intake-and-acute-coronary-event-risk-and-effect-modification-by-lifestyle-factors-malm%C3%A3-diet-and-cancer-cohort-study
#19
K Warfa, I Drake, P Wallström, G Engström, E Sonestedt
Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables)...
October 24, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766462/sugar-modified-poly-propylene-imine-dendrimers-stimulate-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-in-a-myeloid-cell-line
#20
Izabela Jatczak-Pawlik, Michal Gorzkiewicz, Maciej Studzian, Dietmar Appelhans, Brigitte Voit, Lukasz Pulaski, Barbara Klajnert-Maculewicz
PURPOSE: Fourth-generation poly(propylene imine) dendrimers fully surface-modified by maltose (dense shell, PPI-m DS) were shown to be biocompatible in cellular models, which is important for their application in drug delivery. We decided to verify also their inherent bioactivity, including immunomodulatory activity, for potential clinical applications. We tested their effects on the THP-1 monocytic cell line model of innate immunity effectors. METHODS: To estimate the cytotoxicity of dendrimers the reasazurin assay was performed...
October 20, 2016: Pharmaceutical Research
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