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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545086/cancer-cell-spheroids-are-a-better-screen-for-the-photodynamic-efficiency-of-glycosylated-photosensitizers
#1
Patrícia M R Pereira, Naxhije Berisha, N V S Dinesh K Bhupathiraju, Rosa Fernandes, João P C Tomé, Charles Michael Drain
Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) relies on the use of non-toxic photosensitizers that are locally and selectively activated by light to induce cell death or apoptosis through reactive oxygen species generation. The conjugation of porphyrinoids with sugars that target cancer is increasingly viewed as an effective way to increase the selectivity of PDT. To date, in vitro PDT efficacy is mostly screened using two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Compared to monolayer cultures, three-dimensional spheroid cultures have unique spatial distributions of nutrients, metabolites, oxygen and signalling molecules; therefore better mimic in vivo conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540940/modelling-charge-transfer-processes-in-c-2-tetrahydrofuran-collision-for-ion-induced-radiation-damage-in-dna-building-blocks
#2
Ewa Erdmann, Marie-Christine Bacchus-Montabonel, Marta Łabuda
Investigations of collision-induced processes involving carbon ions and molecules of biological interest, in particular DNA building blocks, are crucial to model the effect of radiation on cells in order to improve medical treatments for cancer therapy. Using carbon ions appears to be one of the most efficient ways to increase biological effectiveness to damage cancerous cells by irradiating deep-seated tumors. Therefore, interest in accurate calculations to understand fundamental processes occurring in ion-molecule collision systems has been growing recently...
May 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531327/interstrand-cross-links-arising-from-strand-breaks-at-true-abasic-sites-in-duplex-dna
#3
Zhiyu Yang, Nathan E Price, Kevin M Johnson, Yinsheng Wang, Kent S Gates
Interstrand cross-links are exceptionally bioactive DNA lesions. Endogenous generation of interstrand cross-links in genomic DNA may contribute to aging, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Abasic (Ap) sites are common lesions in genomic DNA that readily undergo spontaneous and amine-catalyzed strand cleavage reactions that generate a 2,3-didehydro-2,3-dideoxyribose sugar remnant (3'ddR5p) at the 3'-terminus of the strand break. Interestingly, this strand scission process leaves an electrophilic α,β-unsaturated aldehyde residue embedded within the resulting nicked duplex...
May 22, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526362/using-secondary-24-hour-dietary-recall-data-to-estimate-daily-dietary-factor-intake-from-the-flashe-study-dietary-screener
#4
Teresa M Smith, Eric E Calloway, Courtney A Pinard, Erin Hennessy, April Y Oh, Linda C Nebeling, Amy L Yaroch
INTRODUCTION: The National Cancer Institute's 2014 Family Life, Activity, Sun, Health, and Eating Study utilized a 27-item Dietary Screener tailored to adolescent eating patterns that assessed the frequency of intake of several foods and beverages in parent-adolescent dyads. This study estimated intake of fruits and vegetables (FVs), dairy, added sugars, and whole grains for screener respondents using existing, nationally representative, 24-hour dietary recall data. METHODS: Dietary Screener items were converted from frequency responses to daily intake...
June 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526132/old-and-novel-functions-of-caspase-2
#5
M A Miles, T Kitevska-Ilioski, C J Hawkins
Although caspase-2 is a highly conserved protease that has received a lot of research attention, consensus about its roles and the molecular mechanisms that underpin them has been elusive. Recent improvements to our understanding of the activities of caspase-2 have been facilitated by the development and refinement of techniques allowing identification of cellular processes instigated by this caspase. Following DNA damage, caspase-2 can be activated in a molecular complex called the "PIDDosome"; however, other stimuli provoke caspase-2-dependent activities that do not appear to involve this complex...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511796/attenuation-of-deregulated-mir-369-3p-expression-sensitizes-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-to-cisplatin-via-modulation-of-the-nucleotide-sugar-transporter-slc35f5
#6
Guang-Jun Hao, Yan-Hui Ding, Hui Wen, Xiao-Feng Li, Wei Zhang, Hu-Yan Su, Dong-Mei Liu, Nian-Lin Xie
Deregulation of the microRNAs (miRNAs), a cluster of important posttranscriptional regulators, has been frequently associated with lung cancer (LCa). However, the emerging mechanism for how miRNAs is linked causally in the development of LCa chemoresistance is poorly understood. Herein, we established for the time the up-regulation of miR-369-3p in cisplatin (DDP)-resistant nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissues and cells. Its deregulation was found to be correlated to the magnitude of malignancy in well-characterized LCa cells...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511371/study-of-serum-total-psa-and-free-psa-as-an-oncological-marker-in-breast-tumour
#7
Elteza Tahjiba Jahir, Runi Devi, Bibhuti Bhushan Borthakur
INTRODUCTION: Breast Cancer (BC) cases are rising alarmingly all over the world and India is not an exception. This rising trend is due to an increased age at first child birth, decreased breast feeding, and the changing lifestyle mostly in urban India. With the advent of more sensitive methodologies and research works in this field, it has been suggested that Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer besides other established tumour markers...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490673/development-and-evaluation-of-the-national-cancer-institute-s-dietary-screener-questionnaire-scoring-algorithms
#8
Frances E Thompson, Douglas Midthune, Lisa Kahle, Kevin W Dodd
Background: Methods for improving the utility of short dietary assessment instruments are needed.Objective: We sought to describe the development of the NHANES Dietary Screener Questionnaire (DSQ) and its scoring algorithms and performance.Methods: The 19-item DSQ assesses intakes of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, added sugars, dairy, fiber, and calcium. Two nonconsecutive 24-h dietary recalls and the DSQ were administered in NHANES 2009-2010 to respondents aged 2-69 y (n = 7588). The DSQ frequency responses, coupled with sex- and age-specific portion size information, were regressed on intake from 24-h recalls by using the National Cancer Institute usual intake method to obtain scoring algorithms to estimate mean and prevalences of reaching 2 a priori threshold levels...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489892/exposure-to-maternal-obesogenic-diet-worsens-some-but-not-all-pre-cancer-phenotypes-in-a-murine-genetic-model-of-prostate-cancer
#9
Theresa Okeyo-Owuor, Emily Benesh, Scott Bibbey, Michaela Reid, Jacques Halabi, Siobhan Sutcliffe, Kelle Moley
Prostate cancer research has been predominantly focused on adult exposures and risk factors. However, because the prostate develops during gestation and early life, exposure to external factors, such as obesity, during development could affect the prostate cancer progression in adults. Our previous work demonstrated that exposure to a high fat/high sugar (HF/HS) diet during gestation and until weaning stimulated prostate hyperplasia and altered the Pten/Akt pathway in adult mice fed a normal diet after weaning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489474/global-burden-of-sugar-related-dental-diseases-in-168-countries-and-corresponding-health-care-costs
#10
T Meier, P Deumelandt, O Christen, G I Stangl, K Riedel, M Langer
Oral diseases such as dental caries, edentulism (tooth loss), periodontal disease (PD), and oral cancer currently constitute an increased major public health burden across the globe, with significant differences between countries. One of the main drivers of caries, edentulism, and PD is the excessive intake of sugars. Here, we aimed to quantify the global sugar-related dental health and cost burden in the year 2010. This study used a health-econometrical model to calculate the disease burden as well as the direct and indirect costs attributable to the intake of free sugars (mono- and disaccharides [MDS])...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486743/production-of-the-cytotoxic-cardenolide-glucoevatromonoside-by-semisynthesis-and-biotransformation-of-evatromonoside-by-a-digitalis-lanata-cell-culture
#11
Jennifer Munkert, Marina Santiago Franco, Elke Nolte, Izabella Thaís Silva, Rachel Oliveira Castilho, Flaviano Melo Ottoni, Naira F Z Schneider, Mônica C Oliveira, Helge Taubert, Walter Bauer, Saulo F Andrade, Ricardo J Alves, Cláudia M O Simões, Fernão C Braga, Wolfgang Kreis, Rodrigo Maia de Pádua
Recent studies demonstrate that cardiac glycosides, known to inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase in humans, have increased susceptibility to cancer cells that can be used in tumor therapy. One of the most promising candidates identified so far is glucoevatromonoside, which can be isolated from the endangered species Digitalis mariana ssp. heywoodii. Due to its complex structure, glucoevatromonoside cannot be obtained economically by total chemical synthesis. Here we describe two methods for glucoevatromonoside production, both using evatromonoside obtained by chemical degradation of digitoxin as the precursor...
May 9, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482684/21st-century-diseases-commonly-rare-and-rarely-common
#12
Sylvia Daunert, Gurusingham Sitta Sittampalam, Pascal Joseph Goldschmidt-Clermont
Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers (https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-alzheimer-s-drugs-keep-failing/ 2014.). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity...
May 8, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481247/epigenetic-bases-of-aberrant-glycosylation-in-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Fabio Dall'Olio, Marco Trinchera
In this review, the sugar portions of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans constitute the glycome, and the genes involved in their biosynthesis, degradation, transport and recognition are referred to as "glycogenes". The extreme complexity of the glycome requires the regulatory layer to be provided by the epigenetic mechanisms. Almost all types of cancers present glycosylation aberrations, giving rise to phenotypic changes and to the expression of tumor markers. In this review, we discuss how cancer-associated alterations of promoter methylation, histone methylation/acetylation, and miRNAs determine glycomic changes associated with the malignant phenotype...
May 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476035/rewiring-carbohydrate-catabolism-differentially-affects-survival-of-pancreatic-cancer-cell-lines-with-diverse-metabolic-profiles
#14
Tiziana Tataranni, Francesca Agriesti, Vitalba Ruggieri, Carmela Mazzoccoli, Vittorio Simeon, Ilaria Laurenzana, Rosella Scrima, Valerio Pazienza, Nazzareno Capitanio, Claudia Piccoli
An increasing body of evidence suggests that targeting cellular metabolism represents a promising effective approach to treat pancreatic cancer, overcome chemoresistance and ameliorate patient's prognosis and survival. In this study, following whole-genome expression analysis, we selected two pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 and BXPC-3, hallmarked by distinct metabolic profiles with specific concern to carbohydrate metabolism. Functional comparative analysis showed that BXPC-3 displayed a marked deficit of the mitochondrial respiratory and oxidative phosphorylation activity and a higher production of reactive oxygen species and a reduced NAD+/NADH ratio, indicating their bioenergetic reliance on glycolysis and a different redox homeostasis as compared to PANC-1...
April 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472687/purification-characterization-and-biological-significance-of-mannose-binding-lectin-from-dioscorea-bulbifera-bulbils
#15
Mamta Sharma, Vishwanathreddy Hotpet, Sindhura B R, Kamalanathan A S, Bale M Swamy, Shashikala R Inamdar
Dioscorea bulbifera or air potato has been used as a folk remedy to treat cancer. A mannose binding lectin from bulbils of D. bulbifera was purified in a single step by affinity chromatography on mucin coupled Sepharose 4B column, determined by its fine sugar specificity by glycan array analysis and studied for its clinical potential in cancer and HIV research. SDS-PAGE showed that lectin is a monomer of Mr 24kDa. DBL agglutinated only rabbit erythrocytes and was inhibited by mucin, asialomucin, fetuin, asialofetuin and transferrin but not by any monosaccharides...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467974/expression-of-sialyl-tn-sugar-antigen-in-bladder-cancer-cells-affects-response-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-and-to-oxidative-damage
#16
Paulo F Severino, Mariana Silva, Mylene Carrascal, Nadia Malagolini, Mariella Chiricolo, Giulia Venturi, Annalisa Astolfi, Mariangela Catera, Paula A Videira, Fabio Dall'Olio
The sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is an O-linked carbohydrate chain aberrantly expressed in bladder cancer (BC), whose biosynthesis is mainly controlled by the sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC1. Treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective adjuvant immunotherapy for superficial BC but one third of the patients fail to respond. A poorly understood correlation between the expression of sTn and BC patient's response to BCG was previously observed. By analyzing tumor tissues, we showed that patients with high ST6GALNAC1 and IL-6 mRNA expression were BCG responders...
April 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467806/glut1-mediated-selective-tumor-targeting-with-fluorine-containing-platinum-ii-glycoconjugates
#17
Ran Liu, Zheng Fu, Meng Zhao, Xiangqian Gao, Hong Li, Qian Mi, Pengxing Liu, Jinna Yang, Zhi Yao, Qingzhi Gao
Increased glycolysis and overexpression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) are physiological characteristics of human malignancies. Based on the so-called Warburg effect, 18flurodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has successfully developed as clinical modality for the diagnosis and staging of many cancers. To leverage this glucose transporter mediated metabolic disparity between normal and malignant cells, in the current report, we focus on the fluorine substituted series of glucose, mannose and galactose-conjugated (trans-R,R-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine)-2-flouromalonato-platinum(II) complexes for a comprehensive evaluation on their selective tumor targeting...
April 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465243/integrated-analysis-of-genome-wide-dna-methylation-and-gene-expression-data-provide-a-regulatory-network-in-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#18
Ying-Xue Ding, Hong Cui
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a serious complication of perinatal period, results in metabolic and brain disorders. However, the exact cause of IUGR remains unclear. Recently, some evidences indicated that epigenetic modification plays an important role in IUGR. Hence, in this study the methylation status and gene expression profiles of IUGR were compared to investigate the changes in epigenetic regulation and gene expression induced by IUGR. DNA samples extracted from blood samples of infants with IUGR and controls appropriate for gestational age (AGA) were analyzed with Illumina Human Methylation 450k array to identify differences in genome-wide DNA methylation, and results were verified by Mass ARRAY...
June 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462147/in-vitro-antioxidant-and-anticancer-activity-of-leea-indica-leaf-extracts-on-human-prostate-cancer-cell-lines
#19
REVIEW
Shridhar C Ghagane, Sridevi I Puranik, Vijay M Kumbar, Rajendra B Nerli, Sunil S Jalalpure, Murigendra B Hiremath, Shivayogeeswar Neelagund, Ravindranath Aladakatti
BACKGROUND: To determine the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Leea indica leaf extracts on DU-145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell lines. METHODS: Leaf sample was subjected to Soxhlet extraction method with increasing polarity of solvents, namely, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, and aqueous. Phytochemical screening was done using different biochemical tests. Quantitative analysis for phenol was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method...
March 2017: Integr Med Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433158/characterization-of-a-sulfated-galactoglucan-from-antrodia-cinnamomea-and-its-anticancer-mechanism-via-tgf%C3%AE-fak-slug-axis-suppression
#20
Mei-Kuang Lu, Tung-Yi Lin, Chun-Hao Hu, Chi-Hsein Chao, Chia-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Yeh Hsu
A sulfated 1,4-β-d-galactoglucan (B86-III) with 1,6-branches was isolated and identified from Antrodia cinnamomea. The repeating unit of B86-III was proposed based on one-dimensional 1D ((1)H, (13)C and DEPT-135) and 2D (DQF-COSY, TOCSY, HSQC and HMBC) NMR spectra. The conformation of the sugars was hypothesized to be a rare boat form instead of a (4)C1 chair form. The sulfate substitutions were suggested to be on the C-2 and C-3 positions, resulting in the following structure: B86-III inhibited the viability of H1975 lung cancer cells via cell apoptosis, including the activation of caspase 3 and PARP...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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