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Sugar and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161267/sugar-industry-sponsorship-of-germ-free-rodent-studies-linking-sucrose-to-hyperlipidemia-and-cancer-an-historical-analysis-of-internal-documents
#1
Cristin E Kearns, Dorie Apollonio, Stanton A Glantz
In 1965, the Sugar Research Foundation (SRF) secretly funded a review in the New England Journal of Medicine that discounted evidence linking sucrose consumption to blood lipid levels and hence coronary heart disease (CHD). SRF subsequently funded animal research to evaluate sucrose's CHD risks. The objective of this study was to examine the planning, funding, and internal evaluation of an SRF-funded research project titled "Project 259: Dietary Carbohydrate and Blood Lipids in Germ-Free Rats," led by Dr. W...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160955/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-pyrrolo-2-1-f-1-2-4-triazine-c-nucleosides-with-a-ribose-2-deoxyribose-and-2-3-dideoxyribose-sugar-moiety
#2
Qingfeng Li, Eveline Lescrinier, Elisabetta Groaz, Leentje Persoons, Dirk Daelemans, Piet Herdewijn, Steven De Jonghe
The synthesis of hitherto unknown pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine C-nucleosides is described. Structural variations (chlorine, bromine, iodine, and cyano) were introduced at position 7 of 4-aza-7,9-dideazaadenine. In addition, pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine C-nucleosides bearing a 2'-deoxy-, 2',3'-dideoxy-, and 2',3'-dehydrodideoxyribose moiety were also prepared. Among these analogues, the pyrrolo[2,1-f][1,2,4]triazine C-ribonucleosides with either a proton or cyano at position 7 of the nucleobase displayed potent cytotoxic activity in a panel of different cancer cell lines...
November 21, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155028/chitosan-oligosaccharides-with-degree-of-polymerization-2-6-induces-apoptosis-in-human-colon-carcinoma-hct116%C3%A2-cells
#3
Pan Zou, Shoujun Yuan, Xin Yang, Xingchen Zhai, Jing Wang
Colon cancer is the third most common cancer, and yet there is a lack of effective therapeutic methods with low side effects. Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) is derived from chitosan after chitin deacetylation, and attracts more interests due to smaller molecular weight and soluble property. Previously, COS, mainly absorbed through intestinal epithelia, has been reported to exhibit many bioactivities, especially its anti-tumor effect. Recent references pay little attention to molecular weight distribution which is crucial for understanding its biological behavior...
November 16, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154940/ebulin-rp-a-novel-member-of-the-ebulin-gene-family-with-low-cytotoxicity-as-a-result-of-deficient-sugar-binding-domains
#4
Rosario Iglesias, J Miguel Ferreras, Antimo Di Maro, Lucía Citores
BACKGROUND: Sambucus ebulus is a rich source of ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) and RIP-related lectins generated from multiple genes. These proteins differ in their structure, enzymatic activity and sugar binding specificity. METHODS: We have purified and characterized ebulin-RP from S. ebulus leaves and determined the amino acid sequence by cDNA cloning. Cytotoxicity was studied in a variety of cancer cells and a comparative study of the ability of ebulin-RP to bind sugars using "in vitro" and "in silico" approaches was performed...
November 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147907/protein-repair-from-glycation-by-glyoxals-by-the-dj-1-family-maillard-deglycases
#5
Mouadh Mihoub, Jad Abdallah, Gilbert Richarme
DJ-1 and its prokaryotic homologs, Hsp31, YhbO and YajL from Escherichia coli and PfpI from Pyrococcus furiosus, repair proteins from glycation by glyoxals (R-CO-CHO), which constitute their major glycating agents. Glycation is a non-enzymatic covalent reaction discovered by Louis Camille Maillard in 1912, between reactive carbonyls (reducing sugars and glyoxals) and amino acids (cysteine, arginine and lysine), which inactivates proteins. By degrading Maillard adducts formed between carbonyls and thiols or amino groups, the DJ-1 family Maillard deglycases prevent the formation of the so-called advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that arise from Maillard adducts after dehydrations, oxidations and rearrangements...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144773/cancer-chemopreventive-antiproliferative-and-superoxide-anion-scavenging-properties-of-kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-var-boulardii-cell-wall-components
#6
Olivier Fortin, Blanca Aguilar-Uscanga, Khanh Dang Vu, Stephane Salmieri, Monique Lacroix
This study investigated the cancer chemopreventive, the antiradical, and the antiproliferative properties of polysaccharides extracts from cell wall of Saccharomyces boulardii and Kluyveromyces marxianus. β-glucan, mannan, and chitin were also quantified to identify the most important extract responsible for these biological properties. Soluble and insoluble glucans as well as mannoprotein were extracted from cell wall using single hot-alkaline method. Superoxide anion scavenging (antiradical capacity), NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) (EC 1...
November 16, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143540/association-between-nutrition-resource-stress-and-dietary-consumption-results-from-a-u-s-nationally-representative-survey
#7
Emily Grenen, Erin E Kent, Erin Hennessy, Jada G Hamilton, Rebecca A Ferrer
BACKGROUND: There is little research on how affective reactions (e.g., stress) to perceptions of nutritious food accessibility contribute to dietary behaviors. AIMS: This study explores whether stress associated with limited access to nutritious foods-termed nutrition resource stress (NRS)-contributes to diet outcomes, and whether these associations are mediated by health-related self-efficacy. METHOD: Using data from the cross-sectional National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey, analyses were conducted to examine whether reported NRS was associated with specific dietary behaviors (i...
November 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137866/development-of-noviomimetics-that-modulate-molecular-chaperones-and-manifest-neuroprotective-effects
#8
Leah K Forsberg, Mercy Anyika, Zhenyuan You, Sean Emery, Mason McMullen, Rick T Dobrowsky, Brian S J Blagg
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a chaperone under investigation for the treatment of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroprotective Hsp90 C-terminal inhibitors derived from novobiocin (novologues) include KU-32 and KU-596. These novologues modulate molecular chaperones and result in an induction of Heat Shock Protein 70 (Hsp70). "Noviomimetics" replace the synthetically complex noviose sugar with a simple cyclohexyl moiety to maintain biological efficacy as compared to novologues KU-596 and KU-32...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137479/the-role-of-the-carbohydrates-in-plasmatic-membrane
#9
P Sprovieri, G Martino
In the following paper, authors describe glycans present on cell membranes as they affect the folding, the spatial arrangement, the behavior and the interaction with the substrate of some membrane proteins. Authors describe the synthesis and assembly of a glycan on a protein, the formation of N-glycans, the maturation of an N-glycan in different cellular compartments, the structure of the glycocalyx and how it interacts with any pathogens. The study of the E-cadherin and the potassium channel to demonstrate how glycans affect the spatial arrangement, the stability and activity of the glycoproteins on the membranes...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129015/melanoma-inhibition-by-anthocyanins-is-associated-with-the-reduction-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-and-changes-in-mitochondrial-membrane-potential
#10
Zoriţa Diaconeasa, Huseyin Ayvaz, Dumitriţa Ruginǎ, Loredana Leopold, Andreea Stǎnilǎ, Carmen Socaciu, Flaviu Tăbăran, Lavinia Luput, Diana Carla Mada, Adela Pintea, Andrew Jefferson
Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments which have been proved to exhibit health benefits. Several studies have investigated their effects on several types of cancer, but little attention has been given to melanoma. The phytochemical content of nine different berry samples was assessed by liquid chromatography followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI(+)-MS). Twenty-six anthocyanins were identified, after a previous C18 Sep-pak clean-up procedure. Chokeberry and red grape anthocyanins rich extracts (C-ARE and RG-ARE) were selected to be tested on normal and melanoma cell lines, due to their different chemical pattern...
November 11, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119938/adenosine-receptor-ligands-on-cancer-therapy-a-review-of-patent-literature
#11
Carmen Diniz, Joana Beatriz Sousa, Paula Fresco, Jorge Goncalves
BACKGROUND: Adenosine is a purine, with an adenine group and a ribose sugar, formed endogenously by ATP catabolism both intracellularly and extracellularly. Among the medicinal features of adenosine and of its receptors (A1, A2A, A2B and A3), anticancer activity has been an intense field of research. The anticancer potential of adenosine receptor ligands has been brought forefront of research and evidenced in innumerous research articles and patents. OBJECTIVE: The present review focuses on the patent literature from 2002 onwards (2002-2017)...
November 7, 2017: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115822/single-quantum-dot-based-nanosensor-for-sensitive-detection-of-o-glcnac-transferase-activity
#12
Juan Hu, Yueying Li, Ying Li, Bo Tang, Chun-Yang Zhang
Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification that plays crucial roles in modulating biological recognition events in development and physiology. Human O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is an intracellular enzyme responsible for O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation, and the deregulation of OGT activity occurs in cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disease. Here we develop a single quantum dot (QD)-based nanosensor for sensitive OGT assay. We design a Cy5/biotin-modified peptide with a serine hydroxyl group for sensing OGT and a protease site adjacent to the glycosylation site for proteinase cleavage, with a universal nonradioactive UDP-GlcNAc as the sugar donor and a Cy5/biotin-modified peptide as the substrate...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113952/do-all-roads-lead-to-the-rome-the-glycation-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Saheem Ahmad, Firoz Akhter, Uzma Shahab, Zeeshan Rafi, Mohd Sajid Khan, Rabia Nabi, Mohd Salman Khan, Khurshid Ahmad, Jalaluddin Mohammad Ashraf, Moinuddin
Oxidative, carbonyl, and glycative stress have gained substantial attention recently for their alleged influence on cancer progression. Oxidative stress can trigger variable transcription factors, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor (Nrf2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), protein-53 (p-53), activating protein-1 (AP-1), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), β-catenin/Wnt and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ). Activated transcription factors can lead to approximately 500 different alterations in gene expression, and can alter expression patterns of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors, regulatory cell cycle molecules, and anti-inflammatory molecules...
November 4, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113040/%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-attenuates-perfluorooctanoic-acid-toxicity-in-the-zebrafish-embryo-model
#14
Mary Jo Weiss-Errico, John P Berry, Kevin E O'Shea
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been linked to negative health outcomes including cancer, thyroid disease, infertility, and developmental delays. β-Cyclodextrin (β-CD), a cyclic sugar, has been previously shown to form strong host-guest complexes with PFOA, and is proposed as a means of environmental remediation with respect to this widespread contaminant. In the present study, β-CD was directly examined with regards to possible attenuation of the toxicity of PFOA specifically employing the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model...
November 4, 2017: Toxics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104517/lifestyle-after-colorectal-cancer-diagnosis-in-relation-to-survival-and-recurrence-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
REVIEW
Moniek van Zutphen, Ellen Kampman, Edward L Giovannucci, Fränzel J B van Duijnhoven
Purpose of Review: This review summarizes the evidence regarding diet, physical activity, smoking, and body composition after colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis in relation to all-cause and CRC-specific mortality and disease recurrence and gives suggestions for future research directions. Recent Findings: Overall, this review suggests that some, albeit not all, of the well-known modifiable risk factors for cancer incidence might also be associated with CRC survival...
2017: Current Colorectal Cancer Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103827/hybrid-drug-combination-anti-diabetic-treatment-of-type-2-diabetic-wistar-rats-with-combination-of-ellagic-acid-and-pioglitazone
#16
Rakesh P Nankar, Mukesh Doble
BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone is an effective drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The drug was suspended from Indian market in June 2013 due to the risk of bladder cancer but was reintroduced in July 2013 because its benefits outweighed the risks. The risks associated with pioglitazone can be minimized if its dose is reduced. HYPOTHESIS: Ellagic acid, a polyphenolic antioxidant, is reported to reduce blood sugar in diabetic rats. The mechanism of anti-diabetic action of ellagic acid is not known...
October 24, 2017: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103184/in-silico-evaluation-of-variable-ph-on-the-binding-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-ectodomain-to-its-ligand-through-molecular-dynamics-simulation-in-tumors
#17
Inderpal Singh, Gurvinder Singh, Vijeshwar Verma, Shashank Singh, Ratna Chandra
Many aggressive and metastatic cancer cell types show Warburg Effect; therefore, it is a possible adaptation helping cancer cells to rapidly divide and utilize the glycolytic intermediates for biosynthesis of ribose sugars (for nucleotide biosynthesis), fatty acid synthesis (lipids for membrane synthesis), NADPH (cellular currency for reductive biosynthesis) and lactate. This in due course results in decrease of extracellular pH, leading to acidic tumor micro-environment. EGFR is a crucial cell surface signaling receptor implicated in cancer cell survival and progression...
November 4, 2017: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076414/substrate-spectra-of-nucleoside-phosphorylases-and-their-potential-in-the-production-of-pharmaceutically-active-compounds
#18
Heba Yehia, Sarah Kamel, Katharina Paulick, Anke Wagner, Peter Neubauer
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of pyrimidine and purine nucleosides in the presence of phosphate. They are relevant to the appropriate function of the immune system in mammals and interesting drug targets for cancer treatment. Next to their role as drug targets nucleoside phosphorylases are used as catalysts in the synthesis of nucleosides and their analogs that are widely applied as pharmaceuticals. METHODS: Based on their substrates nucleoside phosphorylases are classified as pyrimidine and purine nucleoside phosphorylases...
October 24, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053604/nutritional-and-acquired-deficiencies-in-inositol-bioavailability-correlations-with-metabolic-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Simona Dinicola, Mirko Minini, Vittorio Unfer, Roberto Verna, Alessandra Cucina, Mariano Bizzarri
Communities eating a western-like diet, rich in fat, sugar and significantly deprived of fibers, share a relevant increased risk of both metabolic and cancerous diseases. Even more remarkable is that a low-fiber diet lacks some key components-as phytates and inositols-for which a mechanistic link has been clearly established in the pathogenesis of both cancer and metabolic illness. Reduced bioavailability of inositol in living organisms could arise from reduced food supply or from metabolism deregulation. Inositol deregulation has been found in a number of conditions mechanistically and epidemiologically associated to high-glucose diets or altered glucose metabolism...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050588/sequential-one-pot-multienzyme-synthesis-of-hyaluronan-and-its-derivative
#20
Shuang Li, Shuaishuai Wang, Xuan Fu, Xian-Wei Liu, Peng George Wang, Junqiang Fang
Hyaluronan (HA) is a linear polysaccharide composed of repeating disaccharide units. It has been well documented to play an array of biological functions in cancer events. Here, we reported a sequential one-pot multienzyme (OPME) strategy for in vitro synthesis of HA and its derivatives. The strategy, which combined in situ sugar nucleotides generation with HA chain polymerization, could convert cheap monosaccharides into HA polymers without consuming exogenous sugar nucleotide donors. HA polymers (number-average molecular weight ranged from 1...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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