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Sugar and cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931505/are-you-what-you-eat-or-what-your-mother-ate-or-both
#1
EDITORIAL
Stephen J Freedland
A high-fat high-sugar (HF-HS) diet promotes cancer development and progression. However, does the timing of diet matter? This is an important question with profound public health relevance. By exposing mice to a HF-HS diet either through feeding to a pregnant mother or nursing mother or after weaning and then chemically inducing breast cancer, the authors found the most crucial time for breast cancer risk was after weaning, while a HF-HS in utero diet actually slowed tumor development. Understanding early-life events provides valuable insight for later life events and proves it is never too early to start preventing disease...
September 20, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929346/o-glcnac-dependent-regulation-of-progesterone-receptor-function-in-breast-cancer
#2
Gloria M Trinca, Merit L Goodman, Evangelia K Papachristou, Clive S D'Santos, Prabhakar Chalise, Rashna Madan, Chad Slawson, Christy R Hagan
Emerging clinical trial data implicate progestins in the development of breast cancer. While the role for the progesterone receptor (PR) in this process remains controversial, it is clear that PR, a steroid-activated nuclear receptor, alters the transcriptional landscape of breast cancer. PR interacts with many different types of proteins, including transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and proteins that post-translationally modify PR (i.e., kinases and phosphatases)...
September 19, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927141/catalpol-promotes-cellular-apoptosis-in-human-hct116-colorectal-cancer-cells-via-microrna-200-and-the-downregulation-of-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#3
Lan Liu, Hongwei Gao, Hongbo Wang, Yuan Zhang, Weihua Xu, Sen Lin, Hongjuan Wang, Qiong Wu, Jianqiang Guo
Catalpol is an effective active ingredient that functions as a diuretic and laxative, and exhibits blood sugar-lowering, liver protective, anti-aging and anticancer effects. In traditional Chinese medicine, catalpol is believed to be Yin nourishing. The anticancer effect of catalpol on human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells were investigated and the mechanism of action was evaluated. Cellular viability was detected using an MTT assay. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity, cellular apoptosis and nucleic morphology were analyzed using caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assay kits, flow cytometric assays and DAPI staining assay, respectively...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923859/upregulation-of-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-in-colonic-epithelia-reprograms-metabolism-and-promotes-carcinogenesis
#4
Ches'Nique M Phillips, John Zatarain, Michael E Nicholls, Craig Porter, Steve G Widen, Ketan Thanki, Paul Johnson, Muhammad U Jawad, Mary Pat Moyer, James W Randall, Judith L Hellmich, Manjit Maskey, Suimin Qiu, Thomas Wood, Nadiya Druzhyna, Bartosz Szczesny, Katalin Modis, Csaba Szabo, Celia Chao, Mark R Hellmich
The transsulfuration enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and its product hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are aberrantly upregulated in colorectal cancers, where they contribute to tumor growth and progression by both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms. However, it is unknown whether the CBS/H2S axis plays a role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Here, we report upregulation of CBS in human biopsies of precancerous adenomatous polyps and show that forced upregulation of CBS in an adenoma-like colonic epithelial cell line is sufficient to induce metabolic and gene expression profiles characteristic of colorectal cancer cells...
September 18, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922722/molecular-mechanisms-of-anticancer-effects-of-glucosamine
#5
REVIEW
Fatemeh Zahedipour, Razieh Dalirfardouei, Gholamreza Karimi, Khadijeh Jamialahmadi
Glucosamine is an amino sugar that is produced naturally in human body. It is an essential carbohydrate component of many cellular glycoproteins, glycolipids, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). This popular over-the-counter supplement is also found in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. Glucosamine and its derivatives have a long history in medicine for inflammatory conditions specially to relieve arthritis. This dietary supplement has numerous biological and pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-fibrotic, neuroprotective and cardioprotective activities...
September 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911982/upper-aerodigestive-tract-cancer-and-oral-health-status-before-radiotherapy-a-cross-sectional-study-of-154-patients
#6
A Raskin, M Ruquet, L Weiss-Pelletier, J Mancini, O Boulogne, J Michel, N Fakhry, J M Foletti, C Chossegros, R Giorgi
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine primarily the oral health status of patients with upper aerodigestive tract cancer before radiotherapy, and secondarily the prevalence of risk factors for poor oral status. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Marseille University hospital. Assessment criteria were the Decay, Missing and Filled (DMF) index and periodontal status. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-four patients, mean age 60.9 years, were included...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904332/identification-of-sites-of-2-o-methylation-vulnerability-in-human-ribosomal-rnas-by-systematic-mapping
#7
Sunny Sharma, Virginie Marchand, Yuri Motorin, Denis L J Lafontaine
Ribosomal RNA modifications are important in optimizing ribosome function. Sugar 2'-O-methylation performed by fibrillarin-associated box C/D antisense guide snoRNAs impacts all steps of translation, playing a role in disease etiology (cancer). As it renders adjacent phosphodiester bonds resistant to alkaline treatment, 2'-O-methylation can be monitored qualitatively and quantitatively by applying next-generation sequencing to fragments of randomly cleaved RNA. We remapped all sites of 2'-O-methylation in human rRNAs in two isogenic diploid cell lines, one producing and one not producing the antitumor protein p53...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904060/early-exposure-to-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-increases-the-mammary-stem-cell-compartment-and-mammary-tumor-risk-in-female-mice
#8
Isabel U Lambertz, Linjie Luo, Thomas R Berton, Scott L Schwartz, Stephen D Hursting, Claudio J Conti, Robin Fuchs-Young
Obesity and alterations in metabolic programming from early diet exposures can affect the propensity to disease in later life. Through dietary manipulation, developing mouse pups were exposed to a hyperinsulinemic, hyperglycemic milieu during three developmental phases: gestation, lactation and post-weaning. Analyses showed that a post-weaning high fat/high sugar (HF/HS) diet had the main negative effect on adult body weight, glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. However, dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced carcinogenesis revealed that animals born to a mother fed a HF/HS gestation diet, nursed by a mother on a mildly diet-restricted, low fat/low sugar diet (DR) and weaned onto a HF/HS diet (HF/DR/HF) had the highest mammary tumor incidence, while HF/HF/DR had the lowest tumor incidence...
September 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903359/expression-of-sialyl-tn-sugar-antigen-in-bladder-cancer-cells-affects-response-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-bcg-and-to-oxidative-damage
#9
Paulo F Severino, Mariana Silva, Mylene Carrascal, Nadia Malagolini, Mariella Chiricolo, Giulia Venturi, Annalisa Astolfi, Mariangela Catera, Paula A Videira, Fabio Dall'Olio
The sialyl-Tn (sTn) antigen is an O-linked carbohydrate chain aberrantly expressed in bladder cancer (BC), whose biosynthesis is mainly controlled by the sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC1. Treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most effective adjuvant immunotherapy for superficial BC but one third of the patients fail to respond. A poorly understood correlation between the expression of sTn and BC patient's response to BCG was previously observed. By analyzing tumor tissues, we showed that patients with high ST6GALNAC1 and IL-6 mRNA expression were BCG responders...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895669/glycemic-load-and-carbohydrates-content-in-the-diets-of-cancer-patients
#10
Anna Czekajło, Dorota Różańska, Anna Mandecka, Klaudia Konikowska, Malwina Madalińska, Andrzej Szuba, Bożena Regulska-Ilow
Background: Glycemic load (GL) is used to evaluate how various food products affect blood sugar level. According to some studies, high dietary GL may increase the risk of cancer development and recurrence. Objective: The aim of the study was to assess dietary glycemic load and intake of carbohydrates derived from various food products by patients staying on an oncological ward. Material and methods: The study group included 100 cancer patients aged 19-83 years (59...
2017: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887379/a-comprehensive-open-source-platform-for-mass-spectrometry-based-glycoproteomics-data-analysis
#11
Gang Liu, Kai Cheng, Chi Y Lo, Jun Li, Jun Qu, Sriram Neelamegham
Glycosylation is among the most abundant and diverse protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) identified to date. The structural analysis of this PTM is challenging due to the diverse monosaccharides which are not conserved among organisms, the branched nature of glycans, their isomeric structures, and heterogeneity in the glycan distribution at a given site. Glycoproteomics experiments have adopted the traditional high-throughput LC-MS(n) proteomics workflow to analyze site-specific glycosylation. However, comprehensive computational platforms for data analyses are scarce...
September 8, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886707/health-outcomes-of-non-nutritive-sweeteners-analysis-of-the-research-landscape
#12
REVIEW
Szimonetta Lohner, Ingrid Toews, Joerg J Meerpohl
BACKGROUND: Food products containing non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) instead of sugar have become increasingly popular in the last decades. Their appeal is obviously related to their calorie-free sweet taste. However, with the dramatic increase in their consumption, it is reasonable and timely to evaluate their potential health benefits and, more importantly, potential adverse effects. The main aim of this scoping review was to map the evidence about health outcomes possibly associated with regular NNS consumption by examining the extent, range, and nature of research activity in this area...
September 8, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881197/oleanane-type-triterpene-saponins-from-calendula-stellata
#13
Meryem Lehbili, Abdulmagid Alabdul Magid, Ahmed Kabouche, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Amin Abedini, Hamid Morjani, Thomas Sarazin, Sophie C Gangloff, Zahia Kabouche
Five previously undescribed bisdesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named calendustellatosides A-E, along with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol whole plant extract of Calendula stellata Cav. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as high resolution mass spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. The saponins comprised oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, morolic acid or mesembryanthemoidigenic acid as the aglycones and saccharide moieties at C-3 and C-28...
September 4, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880521/peptide-dendrons-as-thermal-stability-amplifiers-for-igg1-monoclonal-antibody-biotherapeutics
#14
Rohit Bansal, Sameer Dhawan, Soumili Chatterjee, Govind Maurya, V Haridas, Anurag Singh Rathore
Biotherapeutics such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have a major share of the pharmaceutical industry for treatment of life-threatening chronic diseases such as cancer, skin ailments and immune disorders. Instabilities such as aggregation, fragmentation, oxidation and reduction have resulted in the practice of storing these products at low temperatures (-80ºC to -20ºC). However, reliable storage at these temperatures can be a challenge, particularly in developing and underdeveloped countries and hence lately there has been a renewed interest in creating formulations that would offer stability at higher temperatures (25ºC to 55ºC)...
September 7, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874144/circadian-disruption-promotes-tumor-growth-by-anabolic-host-metabolism-experimental-evidence-in-a-rat-model
#15
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Raful Navarro-Espíndola, Mara A Guzmán-Ruíz, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ana López-Bago, Ricardo Lascurain, Cinthya Córdoba-Manilla, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND: Light at night creates a conflicting signal to the biological clock and disrupts circadian physiology. In rodents, light at night increases the risk to develop mood disorders, overweight, disrupted energy metabolism, immune dysfunction and cancer. We hypothesized that constant light (LL) in rats may facilitate tumor growth via disrupted metabolism and increased inflammatory response in the host, inducing a propitious microenvironment for tumor cells. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to LL or a regular light-dark cycle (LD) for 5 weeks...
September 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870325/gc-ms-based-metabolomics-of-colon-cancer-cells-using-different-extraction-solvents
#16
Clara Ibáñez, Carolina Simó, Mine Palazoglu, Alejandro Cifuentes
The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer enforces the development of novel methodologies and protocols to deepen in the molecular mechanisms that govern disease pathophysiological events. The aim of this work is to deepen in the optimum metabolite extraction protocol from adherent mammalian cells of colon cancer for high throughput metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). GC-MS results showed that metabolic information obtained from colon cancer cells was highly dependent on metabolite extraction selection, which at the same time is extremely influenced by the analytical platform...
September 15, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864851/dietary-sugar-starches-intake-and-barrett-s-esophagus-a-pooled-analysis
#17
Nan Li, Jessica Leigh Petrick, Susan Elizabeth Steck, Patrick Terrence Bradshaw, Kathleen Michele McClain, Nicole Michelle Niehoff, Lawrence Stuart Engel, Nicholas James Shaheen, Douglas Allen Corley, Thomas Leonard Vaughan, Marilie Denise Gammon
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the key precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma, a lethal cancer that has increased rapidly in westernized countries over the past four decades. Dietary sugar intake has also been increasing over time, and may be associated with these tumors by promoting hyperinsulinemia. The study goal was to examine multiple measures of sugar/starches intake in association with BE. This pooled analysis included 472 BE cases and 492 controls from two similarly conducted case-control studies in the United States...
September 1, 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857035/two-common-variants-of-human-papillomavirus-type-16-e6-differentially-deregulate-sugar-metabolism-and-hypoxia-signalling-in-permissive-human-keratinocytes
#18
Sean Cuninghame, Robert Jackson, Simon J Lees, Ingeborg Zehbe
Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) is responsible for most cancers attributable to HPV infection and naturally occurring variants of the HPV16 E6 oncoprotein predispose individuals to varying risk for developing cancer. Population studies by us and others have demonstrated that the common Asian-American E6 (AAE6) variant is a higher risk factor for cervical cancer than the E6 of another common variant, the European prototype (EPE6). However, a complete understanding of the molecular processes fundamental to these epidemiological findings is still lacking...
September 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856117/the-il-6-stat3-signaling-pathway-is-an-early-target-of-manuka-honey-induced-suppression-of-human-breast-cancer-cells
#19
Priyanka Aryappalli, Sarah S Al-Qubaisi, Samir Attoub, Junu A George, Kholoud Arafat, Khalil B Ramadi, Yassir A Mohamed, Mezoon M Al-Dhaheri, Ashraf Al-Sbiei, Maria J Fernandez-Cabezudo, Basel K Al-Ramadi
There is renewed interest in the potential use of natural compounds in cancer therapy. Previously, we demonstrated the anti-tumor properties of manuka honey (MH) against several cancers. However, the underlying mechanism and molecular targets of this activity remain unknown. For this study, the early targets of MH and its modulatory effects on proliferation, invasiveness, and angiogenic potential were investigated using two human breast cancer cell lines, the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 cells and estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 cells, and the non-neoplastic breast epithelial MCF-10A cell line...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843673/glycation-induced-conformational-alterations-in-caprine-brain-cystatin-cbc-leads-to-aggregation-via-passage-through-a-partially-folded-state
#20
Peerzada Shariq Shaheen Khaki, Anna Feroz, Azad Alam Siddiqui, Syed Mudasir Qadri, Fakhra Amin, Bilqees Bano
Glycation induced advanced glycation end products (AGEs) of proteins formed as a result of Maillard reaction is currently at the heart of a number of pathological conditions. The formation of chemically stable AGEs can permanently alter protein structure and function; hence can serve as an implication in long term complications. Cystatins with high amyloidogenic inclination are implicated in various diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative conditions. The aggregates of cystatin purified from caprine brain have been studied on addition of glucose and ribose using UV absorption, fluorescence emission, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
August 23, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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