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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243406/the-national-burden-of-influenza-associated-severe-acute-respiratory-illness-hospitalization-in-zambia-2011-2014
#1
Andros Theo, Stefano Tempia, Adam L Cohen, Paul Simusika, Edward Chentulo, Chikama Mukwangole Chikamukwa, Mwaka Monze
BACKGROUND: Estimates of influenza-associated hospitalization are limited in low- and middle-income countries, especially in Africa. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the national number of influenza-associated severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) hospitalization in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted active prospective hospital-based surveillance for SARI at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) situated in Lusaka Province during 2011-2014. Upper respiratory tract samples were tested for influenza virus using a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay...
December 15, 2017: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#2
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232913/pharmacoeconomic-analysis-of-drugs-used-in-the-treatment-of-pneumonia-in-paediatric-population-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india-a-cost-of-illness-study
#3
Lekha Saha, Sharonjeet Kaur, Pratibha Khosla, Sweta Kumari, Alka Rani
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cost of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pneumonia in the inpatient paediatric population can have a major impact on the healthcare expenditure. We planned to assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and medical treatment of paediatric patients with community acquired pneumonia who are hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS: 125 children with a diagnosis of pneumonia who were admitted to the inpatient department of a paediatric hospital receiving antibiotic treatment were observed...
December 11, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228363/testing-for-coccidioidomycosis-in-emergency-departments-in-arizona
#4
Mohammed A Khan, Shane Brady, Ken K Komatsu
Testing practices for coccidioidomycosis in the emergency department are poorly understood. We described characteristics of patients tested for coccidioidomycosis in emergency departments in Arizona and examined coccidioidomycosis testing among community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. Emergency department visit records for patients tested for coccidioidomycosis and CAP patients were extracted from the Arizona hospital discharge database. In sum, 2.8% of CAP patients were tested for coccidioidomycosis. The proportion of patients tested varied substantially by healthcare facility and provider...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227855/a-case-report-of-successful-management-of-clostridium-difficile-colitis-with-antegrade-fidaxomicin-through-a-mucous-fistula-obviating-the-need-for-subtotal-colectomy
#5
Suzanne Arnott, Matthew Skancke, Sheena Chen, Bruce Abell
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of healthcare-associated infections and can have devastating morbidity and mortality. Traditional treatment algorithms involve intravenous metronidazole and enteric metronidazole or vancomycin. Fidaxomicin (DificidR) targets "switch regions" within RNA polymerases and effectively kills clostridium difficile bacteria and is typically administered orally primarily or through a naso/oro-gastric conduit. PRESENTATION OF CASE: 55-year-old with a recent elective surgical procedure was hospitalized with multifocal pneumonia and subsequently developed clostridium difficile colitis...
November 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227744/molecular-epidemiology-of-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-causing-bloodstream-infections-in-adults
#6
Meritxell Cubero, Imma Grau, Fe Tubau, Román Pallarés, M Ángeles Domínguez, Josefina Liñares, Carmen Ardanuy
Molecular epidemiology of Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremic strains allows for a better understanding of preventive and therapeutic strategies. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of 348 K. pneumoniae bacteremia cases (2007-2009) were retrospectively characterized by multilocus sequence typing and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) production. Overall, 223 (64.08%) cases were nosocomial (NA), 58 (16.67%) healthcare associated, and 67 (19.25%) community acquired. The main infection origins were urinary tract (16...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226070/economic-burden-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-among-elderly-patients-a-japanese-perspective
#7
Keiko Konomura, Hideaki Nagai, Manabu Akazawa
Background: This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among elderly patients in Japan. In addition, the study evaluated the relationship between total treatment cost and CAP risk factors. Methods: An administrative database was searched for elderly patients (≥ 65 years old) who had pneumonia (ICD-10 code: J12-J18) and an antibiotic prescription between 1 June 2014 and 31 May 2015. The all-cause total healthcare costs of outpatient and inpatient CAP episodes were calculated...
2017: Pneumonia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225047/maldi-tof-ms-analysis-as-a-useful-tool-for-an-identification-of-legionella-pneumophila-a-facultatively-pathogenic-bacterium-interacting-with-free-living-amoebae-a-case-study-from-water-supply-system-of-hospitals-in-bratislava-slovakia
#8
Katarína Trnková, Martina Kotrbancová, Margita Špaleková, Miriam Fulová, Jana Boledovičová, Matej Vesteg
Legionellae, i.e. Legionella pneumophila, are human bacterial hydrophilic facultative pathogens causing pneumonia (Legionnaires' disease). Free-living amoebae (FLA) can serve as natural hosts and thus as reservoirs of many amoebae-resistant bacteria. An encysted amoeba can contribute to the resistance of intracellular L. pneumophila to various chemical and physical treatments. Humans can be infected by droplets containing bacteria from an environmental source or human-made devices such as shower heads, bathtubs, air-conditioning units or whirlpools...
December 7, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222217/necrotising-pneumonia-caused-by-non-pvl-staphylococcus-aureus-with-2-year-follow-up
#9
Bryn Hilton, Aniket N Tavare, Dean Creer
Necrotising pneumonia (NP) is a rare but life-threatening complication of pulmonary infection. It is characterised by progressive necrosis of lung parenchyma with cavitating foci evident upon radiological investigation. This article reports the case of a 52-year-old woman, immunocompetent healthcare professional presenting to Accident and Emergency with NP and Staphylococcus aureus septicaemia. The cavitating lesion was not identified on initial chest X-ray leading to a delay in antimicrobial optimisation. However, the patient went on to achieve a full symptomatic recovery in 1 month and complete radiological recovery at 2-year follow-up...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222105/the-emergency-medical-service-microbiome
#10
Andrew J Hudson, Graeme D Glaister, Hans-Joachim Wieden
Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are an integral component of the healthcare framework and function to transport patients from various locations to and between care facilities. In addition to physical injury, EMS personnel are expected to be at high risk to acquire and transmit healthcare associated infections (HAIs) in the workplace. However, currently little is known about EMS biosafety risk factors and the epidemiological contribution of EMS to pathogen transmission within and outside of the healthcare sector...
December 8, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207958/bloodstream-infections-at-a-tertiary-level-paediatric-hospital-in-south-africa
#11
Harsha Lochan, Vashini Pillay, Colleen Bamford, James Nuttall, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) in children causes significant morbidity and mortality. There are few studies describing the epidemiology of BSI in South African children. METHODS: A retrospective descriptive cohort study was conducted at a paediatric referral hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. The National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) microbiology database was accessed to identify positive blood culture specimens during the period 2011-2012. Demographic and clinical details, antimicrobial management and patient outcome information were extracted from medical and laboratory records...
December 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204285/molecular-characterization-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-iraqi-hospital-environment
#12
I M S Al-Kadmy, A N M Ali, I M A Salman, S S Khazaal
Healthcare-associated items are a common source of acquired infections, and hospital-acquired infections cause significant mortality and morbidity worldwide. Acinetobacter baumannii is the most prevalent infection-causing organism in the hospital environment. Hospital articles and objects are the main sources of infection with the ability to transmit some of the pathogenic microorganisms such as A. baumannii, which is considered a serious problem in therapeutic treatments. In the current study, we isolated A...
January 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201922/immunization-with-bivalent-flagellin-protects-mice-against-fatal-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#13
Bahador Behrouz, Farhad B Hashemi, Mohammad Javad Fatemi, Sara Naghavi, Gholamreza Irajian, Raheleh Halabian, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infections present a major challenge to healthcare systems worldwide because they are commonly associated with high morbidity and mortality. Here, we demonstrate the protective efficacy of type a and b flagellins (bivalent flagellin) against acute fatal pneumonia in mice. Mice immunized intranasally with a bivalent flagellin vaccine were challenged by different flagellated strains of P. aeruginosa in an acute pneumonia model. Besides the protective effect of the vaccine, we further measured the host innate and cellular immunity responses...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200209/-nursing-sensitive-outcomes-and-staffing-a-review-on-healthcare-associated-infection
#14
Matteo Seligardi, Erika Bassi, Maria Mongardi
. Nursing sensitive outcomes and staffing: a review on healthcare associated infection. INTRODUCTION: Healthcare associated infections (HAI) continue to be an unresolved problem in hospital settings. AIM: To assess the relationship between nurse staffing and healthcare associated infections in different settings. METHODS: From April to May 2015 a review of literature was conducted consulting PubMed, CINAHL and Cochrane Library. RESULTS: An increased amount of Registered Nurse Hours Per Patient Day (RNHPPD) and nurse-to-patient ratio was associated to a decreased occurrence of HAI...
October 2017: Assistenza Infermieristica e Ricerca: AIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188069/simultaneous-isolation-of-chryseobacterium-gleum-from-bloodstream-and-respiratory-tract-first-case-report-from-india
#15
Vidhi Jain, Nayani Amrin Fatema Afzal Hussain, Tasneem Siddiqui, Chinmoy Sahu, Malay Ghar, Kashi Nath Prasad
Introduction. Species of the genus Chryseobacterium are emerging healthcare-associated pathogens, often colonizing the hospital environment. There are no clear guidelines available for antimicrobial susceptibility of this organism. In this report we present the first case, to our knowledge, of simultaneous central-line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to Chryseobacterium gleum from India. Case presentation. A 62 years old man with a history of a road traffic accident 1 month previously was referred to our center for further management...
October 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186953/direct-detection-of-oxa-48-carbapenemase-gene-in-lysate-samples-through-changes-in-mechanical-properties-of-dna-monolayers-upon-hybridization
#16
Carmen M Domínguez, Daniel Ramos, Jesús Mingorance, Jose Luis Garcia Fierro, Javier Tamayo, Montserrat Calleja
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae have become recently an important cause of morbidity and mortality due to healthcare-associated infections. Most commonly used diagnostic methods present time-to-result incompatible with fast and accurate directed therapy. We report here the direct identification of the blaOXA48 gene, which codes for the car-bapenemase OXA-48, in lysate samples from Klebsiella pneumoniae. The method is PCR-free and label-free. It is based on the measurement of changes in the stiffness of DNA self-assembled monolayers anchored to microcantilevers that occur as a consequence of the hybridization...
November 30, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186213/returns-to-emergency-department-observation-or-inpatient-care-within-30-days-after-hospitalization-in-4-states-2009-and-2010-versus-2013-and-2014
#17
Teryl K Nuckols, Kathryn R Fingar, Marguerite L Barrett, Grant Martsolf, Claudia A Steiner, Carol Stocks, Pamela L Owens
BACKGROUND: Nationally, readmissions have declined for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF) and risen slightly for pneumonia, but less is known about returns to the hospital for observation stays and emergency department (ED) visits. OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in rates of 30-day, all-cause, unplanned returns to the hospital, including returns for observation stays and ED visits. DESIGN: By using Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project data, we compared 210,007 index hospitalizations in 2009 and 2010 with 212,833 matched hospitalizations in 2013 and 2014...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184589/comparing-the-effect-of-echinacea-and-chlorhexidine-mouthwash-on-the-microbial-flora-of-intubated-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit
#18
Mehdi Safarabadi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Abdolghader Pakniyat, Korosh Rezaie, Ali Jadidi
Background: Providing intubated patients admitted to the intensive care units with oral healthcare is one of the main tasks of nurses in order to prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP). This study aimed at comparing the effects of two mouthwash solutions (echinacea and chlorhexidine) on the oral microbial flora of patients hospitalized in the intensive care units. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 70 patients aged between18 and 65 years undergoing tracheal intubation through the mouth in three hospitals in Arak, were selected using simple random sampling and were randomly divided into two groups: the intervention group and the control group...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181890/acute-kidney-injury-induced-by-concomitant-use-of-vancomycin-and-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-pediatrics
#19
Manal Abouelkheir, Sarah Alsubaie
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is very commonly used in combination with piperacillin-tazobactam (PTZ) as an initial empiric therapy for moderate to severe infections, whenever coverage for both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is required. The combination of vancomycin and PTZ in adults has recently been reported to significantly increase the risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) relative to vancomycin monotherapy; such reports in pediatrics are sparse...
November 27, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177489/disease-based-antimicrobial-stewardship-a-review-of-active-and-passive-approaches-to-patient-management
#20
Farnaz Foolad, Jerod L Nagel, Gregory Eschenauer, Twisha S Patel, Cynthia T Nguyen
Although new antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) often begin by targeting the reduction of antimicrobial use, an increasing focus of ASPs is to improve the management of specific infectious diseases. Disease-based antimicrobial stewardship emphasizes improving patient outcomes by optimizing antimicrobial use and increasing compliance with performance measures. Directing efforts towards the comprehensive management of specific infections allows ASPs to promote the shift in healthcare towards improving quality, safety and patient outcome metrics for specific diseases...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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