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pneumonia healthcare

Kahoru Fukuoka, Mihoko Furuichi, Kenta Ito, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Ichiro Watanabe, Naoki Shimizu, Yuho Horikoshi
OBJECTIVES: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Andras Farkas, Joseph Sassine, Joseph P Mathew, Christine Stavropoulos, Ron Stern, George Mckinley
Objectives: There is growing evidence that patients with community-onset pneumonia and recent healthcare exposure are not at equally high risk of infection with MDR organisms. An individualized approach is necessary with regard to risk assessment and choice of antibiotics. Methods: We reviewed the records of 102 patients admitted for community-onset pneumonia, before and after the implementation of a revised risk assessment programme for MDR organisms using the drug resistance in pneumonia (DRIP) score...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Alvaro J Ruiz, Giancarlo Buitrago, Nelcy Rodríguez, Gabriel Gómez, Suela Sulo, Carlos Gómez, Jamie Partridge, Juan Misas, Rodolfo Dennis, Magda Jeannette Alba, Walter Chaves-Santiago, Carolina Araque
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hospitalized patients show a high rate of malnutrition, which is associated with poor patient outcomes and high healthcare costs. However, relatively few studies have investigated the association between clinical and economic outcomes and malnutrition in hospitalized patients, particularly those with cardiac and pulmonary conditions. METHODS: This multicenter prospective observational cohort study included 800 patients hospitalized at four Colombian hospitals with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, community-acquired pneumonia, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Marisa A Bittoni, Ashwini Arunachalam, Haojie Li, Ramon Camacho, Jinghua He, Yichen Zhong, Gregory M Lubiniecki, David P Carbone
PURPOSE: This study sought to better understand real-world treatment patterns, overall and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)-specific survival, adverse event (AE) occurrence, and economic impact of first-line cancer therapies in Medicare patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study identified patients ≥ 65 years in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database who received a first-time advanced (stage IV) NSCLC diagnosis from 2007 to 2011, and who received first-line platinum-based chemotherapy from 2007 through mid-2013...
May 7, 2018: Clinical Lung Cancer
J Mason DePasse, Wesley Durand, Adam E M Eltorai, Mark A Palumbo, Alan H Daniels
Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Objective: To characterize the timing of complications after posterior cervical fusion. Summary of background data: Understanding the expected timing of postoperative complications facilitates early diagnosis of potential adverse events and is important for optimizing postoperative care. Though studies have examined the incidence of complications after posterior cervical fusion, no study has characterized the timing of these complications...
June 2018: Journal of Orthopaedics
S Haresaku, M Monji, M Miyoshi, K Kubota, M Kuroki, H Aoki, R Yoshida, K Machishima, M Makino, T Naito
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to identify the weak points in the knowledge and attitudes of first-year oral health care and nursing students towards oral health care and to identify the factors associated with their positive willingness to practise oral health care after becoming a health professional in order to develop oral healthcare curricula. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects were 88 first-year dental students (DSs), 64 dental hygiene students (DHSs) and 119 nursing students (NSs) enrolled in schools in Japan, as of April 2017...
June 6, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
Gurmeet Singh, Stephanie Gita Wulansari
Introduction: In critically ill patients, there is a defect in host defense mechanism resulting in increased susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infection. The pattern of organisms causing infections varies between different countries and hospitals; therefore it is important that every hospital generates antibiograms to guide healthcare professionals during treatment with optimal choice of antibiotics. Our study aimed to described the pattern of fungal and bacterial pathogen in patients with high risk for invasive fungal disease (IFD)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Farzana Ferdous, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Sumon Kumar Das, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Dilruba Nasrin, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, James P Nataro, Enbo Ma, Khitam Muhsen, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Tahmeed Ahmed, Abu Syed Golam Faruque
Background: The present study aimed to examine the risk factors for death due to pneumonia in young children and healthcare behaviors of the guardians for children in rural Bangladesh. A prospective autopsy study was conducted among guardians of children aged 4 weeks to 59 months in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, from 2008 to 2012. Results: Pneumonia was the primary cause of death, accounting for 26.4% ( n  = 81) of all 307 deaths. Of the pneumonia deaths, 58% ( n  = 47) deaths occurred in younger infants (aged 4 weeks to < 6 months) and 24...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Chih-Ming Chen, Ming-Kai Guo, Se-Chin Ke, Yi-Pei Lin, Chia-Ru Li, Hong Thuy Vy Nguyen, Lii-Tzu Wu
PURPOSE: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has emerged as a major challenge for global healthcare systems. The objectives of this study were to determine the nosocomial spread of CRKP clones and analyse the molecular characteristics of CRKP in our hospital. METHODOLOGY: Ninety-eight non-duplicated clinical CRKP isolates were collected from March 2014-June 2015. Clinical, demographic and microbiological data of patients with CRKP were reviewed. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing were applied to investigate the genetic relationship between the 98 isolates...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mark G J de Boer, Peter Walzer, Shunsuke Mori
In at risk populations, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) may occur as a solitary event as well as in a cluster- or outbreak setting due to interpatient transmission of P. jirovecii. Despite the data and insights obtained from studies of outbreaks of PCP, the development and implementation of comprehensive recommendations for the prevention of healthcare related transmission of P. jirovecii have been delayed. Both optimization of chemoprophylaxis strategies as well as combination with prudent use of isolation precautions are warranted to achieve this goal...
June 5, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Nguyen Viet Hung, Phan Thi Hang, Victor D Rosenthal, Le Thi Anh Thu, Le Thi Thu Nguyet, Ngo Quy Chau, Truong Anh Thu, Dinh Pham Phuong Anh, Tran Thi My Hanh, Tran Thi Thuy Hang, Dang Thi Van Trang, Nguyen Phuc Tien, Vo Thi Hong Thoa, Đao Quang Minh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to report the results of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) study conducted from May 2008 to March 2015. METHODS: A device-associated healthcare-acquired infection surveillance study in three adult intensive care units (ICUs) and 1 neonatal ICU from 4 hospitals in Vietnam using U.S. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC/NHSN) definitions and criteria as well as INICC methods...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Patient Safety
Hossein Fazeli, Sharareh Moghim, Donya Zare
Background: Nosocomial infections are one of the most leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with cancer. The emergence of multiple-drug-resistant (MDR) strains of Gram-negative bacteria causing nosocomial infection has become a serious concern in cancer patients. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the spectrum and antibiotic resistance pattern of Gram-negative bacteria related nosocomial infections among Iranian cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted during the 6 months from December 2015 to May 2016 in two tertiary care centers located in Isfahan and Arak Province...
2018: Advanced Biomedical Research
Chikul Mittal, Hsien Chieh Daniel Lee, Kiat Sern Goh, Cheng Kiang Adrian Lau, Leeanna Tay, Chuin Siau, Yik Hin Loh, Teck Kheng Edward Goh, Chit Lwin Sandi, Chien Earn Lee
BACKGROUND: To test a population health program which could, through the application of process redesign, implement multiple evidence-based practices across the continuum of care in a functionally integrated health delivery system and deliver highly reliable and consistent evidence-based surgical care for patients with fragility hip fractures in an acute tertiary general hospital. METHODS: The ValuedCare (VC) program was developed in three distinct phases as an ongoing collaboration between the Geisinger Health System (GHS), USA, and Changi General Hospital (CGH), Singapore, modelled after the GHS ProvenCare® Fragile Hip Fracture Program...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
Sonja Hansen, Frank Schwab, Walter Zingg, Petra Gastmeier, The Prohibit Study Group
IntroductionHospitals from 24 European countries were asked for information on infection prevention and control (IPC) indicators as part of the Prevention of Hospital Infections by Intervention and Training (PROHIBIT) survey. Methods: Leading IPC personnel of 297 hospitals with established healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) surveillance provided information on local surveillance and feedback by using a questionnaire. Results: Most hospitals focused on bloodstream infection (BSI) (n = 251) and surgical site infection (SSI) (n = 254), with a SSI post-discharge surveillance in 148 hospitals...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
C Olivier, H Kunneke, N O'Connell, E Von Delft, M Wates, A Dramowski
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) cause substantial morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. The prevalence of neonatal/paediatric HAI at South African (SA) district and regional hospitals is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To document HAI rates, antimicrobial use for HAI, infection prevention staffing, hand hygiene (HH) provisions and HH compliance rates in neonatal and paediatric wards in two district and two regional hospitals in the Western Cape Province, SA...
April 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Sarah E Posillico, Joseph F Golob, Brenda M Zosa, Nitin Sajankila, Laura A Kreiner, Jeffrey A Claridge
BACKGROUND: Blood cultures (BCx) are the gold standard for diagnosing blood stream infections. However, contamination remains a challenge and can increase cost, hospital days, and unnecessary antibiotic use. National goals are to keep overall BCx contamination rates to ≤3%. Our healthcare system recently moved to a BCx system with better organism recovery, especially for gram-negative, fastidious, and anaerobic bacteria. The study objectives were to determine the benefits/consequences of implementing a more sensitive blood culture system, specifically on contamination rates...
May 29, 2018: Surgical Infections
Cristina Roman, Gail Edwards, Michael Dooley, Biswadev Mitra
PURPOSE: Results of a systematic literature review to identify roles for emergency medicine (EM) pharmacists beyond traditionally reported activities and to quantify the benefits of these roles in terms of patient outcomes are reported. SUMMARY: Emergency department (ED)-based clinical pharmacy is a rapidly growing practice area that has gained support in a number of countries globally, particularly over the last 5-10 years. A systematic literature search covering the period 1995-2016 was conducted to characterize emerging EM pharmacist roles and the impact on patient outcomes...
June 1, 2018: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Eiman Gaid, Abdullah Assiri, Scott McNabb, Weam Banjar
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) including device-associated HAI (DA-HAI) are a serious patient safety issue in hospitals worldwide, affecting 5-10% of hospitalized patients and deadly for patients in intensive care units (ICUs). (Vincent, 2003; Al-Tawfiq et al., 2013; Hu et al., 2013). DA-HAIs account for up to 23% of HAIs in ICUs and about 40% of all hospital infections (i.e. central line-associated blood stream infections [CLABSI], ventilator-associated pneumonia [VAP], and catheter-associated urinary tract infections [CAUTI])...
March 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
Heyman Luckraz, Na'ngono Manga, Eshan L Senanayake, Mahmoud Abdelaziz, Shameer Gopal, Susan C Charman, Ramesh Giri, Raymond Oppong, Lazaros Andronis
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Most of the cost data that are available relate to general intensive care patients in privately remunerated institutions. This study assessed the cost of managing ventilator-associated pneumonia in a cardiac intensive care unit in the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. Methods: Propensity-matched study of prospectively collected data from the cardiac surgical database between April 2011 and December 2014 in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery (n = 3416)...
May 2018: Journal of the Intensive Care Society
Shoshana Hahn-Goldberg, Lianne Jeffs, Amy Troup, Rasha Kubba, Karen Okrainec
BACKGROUND: An admission to hospital for acute illness can be difficult for patients and lead to high levels of anxiety. Patients are given a lot of information throughout their hospital stay and instructions at discharge to follow when they get home. For complex medical patients, the ability to retain, understand, and adhere to these instructions is a critical marker of a successful transition. This study was undertaken to explore factors impacting the ability of patients to understand and adhere to instructions...
2018: PloS One
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