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pneumonia healthcare

David A Etzioni, Cynthia L Lessow, Heather D Lucas, Amit Merchea, James A Madura, Raman Mahabir, Nitin Mishra, Nabil Wasif, Amit K Mathur, Yu-Hui H Chang, Robert R Cima, Elizabeth B Habermann
OBJECTIVE: To characterize reasons for discordance between administrative data and registry data in the determination of postoperative infectious complications. BACKGROUND: Data regarding the occurrence of postoperative surgical complications are identified through either administrative or registry data. Rates of complications vary significantly between these two types of data; the reasons for this are not well-understood. METHODS: The occurrence of 30-day inpatient infectious complications (pneumonia, sepsis, surgical site infection, and urinary tract infection) was compared between the NSQIP and administrative mechanisms at 4 academic hospitals between 2012 and 2014...
October 17, 2016: Annals of Surgery
Heloise Buys, Rudzani Muloiwa, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is a significant paediatric bloodstream pathogen in children. There is little data from Africa. In this study we describe the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (KPBSI) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of KPBSI from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011 using conventional descriptive and inferential statistical methods...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Seshasailam Venkateswaran, Orlando David Henrique Dos Santos, Emma Scholefield, Annamaria Lilienkampf, Peter J Gwynne, David G Swann, Kevin Dhaliwal, Maurice P Gallagher, Mark Bradley
Infections arising from contaminated medical devices are a serious global issue, contributing to antibiotic resistance and imposing significant strain on healthcare systems. Since the majority of medical device-associated infections are biofilm related, efforts are being made to generate either bacteria-repellent or antibacterial coatings aimed at preventing bacterial colonisation. Here, we utilise a nanocapsule mediated slow release of a natural antimicrobial to improve the performance of a bacteria repellent polymer coating...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
Víctor Daniel Rosenthal, Hail M Al-Abdely, Amani Ali El-Kholy, Safa A Aziz AlKhawaja, Hakan Leblebicioglu, Yatin Mehta, Vineya Rai, Nguyen Viet Hung, Souha Sami Kanj, Mona Foda Salama, Estuardo Salgado-Yepez, Naheed Elahi, Rayo Morfin Otero, Anucha Apisarnthanarak, Braulio Matias De Carvalho, Bat Erdene Ider, Dale Fisher, Maria Carmen S G Buenaflor, Michael M Petrov, Ana Marcela Quesada-Mora, Farid Zand, Vaidotas Gurskis, Tanja Anguseva, Aamer Ikram, Daisy Aguilar de Moros, Wieslawa Duszynska, Nepomuceno Mejia, Florin George Horhat, Vladislav Belskiy, Vesna Mioljevic, Gabriela Di Silvestre, Katarina Furova, Gloria Y Ramos-Ortiz, May Osman Gamar Elanbya, Hindra Irawan Satari, Umesh Gupta, Tarek Dendane, Lul Raka, Humberto Guanche-Garcell, Bijie Hu, Denis Padgett, Kushlani Jayatilleke, Najla Ben Jaballah, Eleni Apostolopoulou, Walter Enrique Prudencio Leon, Alejandra Sepulveda-Chavez, Hector Miguel Telechea, Andrew Trotter, Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Luis Kushner-Davalos
BACKGROUND: We report the results of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2010-December 2015 in 703 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific. METHODS: During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 861,284 patients hospitalized in INICC hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 3,506,562 days...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
Tsai-Wen Wan, Olga E Khokhlova, Yasuhisa Iwao, Wataru Higuchi, Wei-Chun Hung, Ivan V Reva, Olga A Singur, Vladimir V Gostev, Sergey V Sidorenko, Olga V Peryanova, Alla B Salmina, Galina V Reva, Lee-Jene Teng, Tatsuo Yamamoto
ST8/SCCmecIV community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has been a common threat, with large USA300 epidemics in the United States. The global geographical structure of ST8/SCCmecIV has not yet been fully elucidated. We herein determined the complete circular genome sequence of ST8/SCCmecIVc strain OC8 from Siberian Russia. We found that 36.0% of the genome was inverted relative to USA300. Two IS256, oppositely oriented, at IS256-enriched hot spots were implicated with the one-megabase genomic inversion (MbIN) and vSaβ split...
2016: PloS One
Jong Hoo Lee, Yee Hyung Kim
Although blood cultures (BCs) are an important component of diagnostic practice for antibiotic management in patients with pneumonia, several studies have questioned whether they should be performed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive factors of bacteremia and the role of BCs in patients with community-onset pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia and healthcare-associated pneumonia).This study was retrospectively conducted in patients with community-onset pneumonia who were hospitalized at Jeju National University Hospital between January 2012 and December 2014...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
O Perovic, E Britz, V Chetty, A Singh-Moodley
Molecular confirmation of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) was introduced in South Africa (SA) at the end of 2011. We report on the detection of these resistance genes based on referral isolates. Enterobacteriaceae with non-susceptibility to any of the carbapenems according to defined criteria for antimicrobial susceptibility testing results were sent to a reference laboratory. A proportion of isolates had limited demographic, epidemiological and clinical data available. Organism identification was reconfirmed using reference laboratory methods, and the presence of carbapenemases was confirmed with a real-time polymerase chain reaction...
September 6, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Tony S Brar, Neeka Akhavan
This is a 78 year old male with a past medical history of coronary artery disease (CAD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), hypertension (HTN), and gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD) who presented to the emergency room with worsening shortness of breath (SOB) and low-grade fevers for one week prior to admission. He was originally diagnosed with healthcare associated pneumonia (HCAP) and an acute on chronic COPD exacerbation and treated with prednisone, inhalers, ipratropium/albuterol, and broad-spectrum antibiotics...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Ö Ergönül, M Aydin, A Azap, S Başaran, S Tekin, Ş Kaya, S Gülsün, G Yörük, E Kurşun, A Yeşilkaya, F Şimşek, E Yılmaz, H Bilgin, Ç Hatipoğlu, H Cabadak, Y Tezer, T Togan, I Karaoğlan, A İnan, A Engin, H E Alışkan, S Ş Yavuz, Ş Erdinç, L Mulazimoglu, Ö Azap, F Can, H Akalın, F Timurkaynak
This article describes the prevalence of antibiotic resistance and predictors of mortality for healthcare-associated (HA) Gram-negative bloodstream infections (GN-BSI). In total, 831 cases of HA GN-BSI from 17 intensive care units in different centres in Turkey were included; the all-cause mortality rate was 44%. Carbapenem resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae was 38%, and the colistin resistance rate was 6%. Multi-variate analysis showed that age >70 years [odds ratio (OR) 2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1...
August 21, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Dramowski, A Whitelaw, M F Cotton
BACKGROUND: In most African countries the prevalence and effects of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are unknown. AIM: To investigate the burden, spectrum, risk factors, and impact of paediatric HCAI by prospective clinical surveillance at a South African referral hospital. METHODS: Continuous prospective clinical and laboratory HCAI surveillance using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions was conducted at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, South Africa, from May 1(st) to October 31(st) in 2014 and 2015...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
Luigi Principe, Paola Tomao, Paolo Visca
Legionellosis is the common name for two infections, Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF), both caused by Legionella bacteria. Although with low incidence, LD is an important cause of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among community-acquired cases, an increasing number was reported to be linked to the occupational setting, posing the need for better recognition of work activities at risk of legionellosis. In this work, we selected and reviewed relevant literature on cases of occupational legionellosis published between 1978 and 2016 in order to define the: i) etiology; ii) sources of infection, iii) work activities at risk, iv) infection rates, v) predisposing factors, vi) mortality and vii) country distribution...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Research
Ahmed AbdelKhalek, Charles R Ashby, Bhargav A Patel, Tanaji T Talele, Mohamed N Seleem
Bacterial infections present a serious challenge to healthcare practitioners due to the emergence of resistance to numerous conventional antibacterial drugs. Therefore, new bacterial targets and new antimicrobials are unmet medical needs. Rhodanine derivatives have been shown to possess potent antimicrobial activity via a novel mechanism. However, their potential use as antibacterials has not been fully examined. In this study, we determined the spectrum of activity of seven rhodanine derivatives (compounds Rh 1-7) against clinical isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains and Candida albicans...
2016: PloS One
Baek Nam Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Myoung Don Oh
Antibiotic stewardship is a key strategy for limiting antibiotic resistance. Over the last decade the South Korean government has implemented a series of healthcare policies directed to this end, consisting of legislative separation of drug prescribing and dispensing, antibiotic utilization reviews, healthcare quality assessment, and public reporting. As a result, the proportion of antibiotic prescriptions for acute upper respiratory tract infections in primary healthcare facilities decreased from 72.9% in 2002 to 42...
September 2016: Infection & Chemotherapy
José Ramón Paño-Pardo, Beatriz López Quintana, Fernando Lázaro Perona, Guillermo Ruiz Carrascoso, María Pilar Romero-Gómez, Belén Loeches Yagüe, Beatriz Díaz-Pollán, Ana Martínez-Virto, Jesús Mingorance, Julio García Rodríguez, José Ramón Arribas, Rosa Gómez-Gil
Background.  Because most infections caused by carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) begin during hospitalization, there are limited data about community-onset (CO) infections caused by CPE. Our aim is to describe the frequency of CO infections caused by CPE as well as the clinical features of CO bloodstream infections (CO-BSIs). Methods.  This study includes retrospective case series of CO infections caused by CPE in a tertiary hospital from January 2010 to July 2014. Any clinical sample with a positive culture for CPE that had been ordered by primary care doctors or by doctors at the emergency room (ER) were classified as CO...
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Mojca Serdt, Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Aleš Korošec, Irena Klavs
INTRODUCTION: The second Slovenian national healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) prevalence survey (SNHPS) was conducted in acute-care hospitals in 2011. The objective was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the method used for the ascertainment of six types of HAIs (bloodstream infections, catheter-associated infections, lower respiratory tract infections, pneumoniae, surgical site infections, and urinary tract infections) in the University Medical Centre Ljubljana (UMCL)...
December 1, 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Irena Klavs, Jana Kolman, Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Božena Kotnik Kevorkijan, Aleš Korošec, Mojca Serdt
INTRODUCTION: In the second Slovenian national healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) prevalence survey, conducted within the European point prevalence survey of HAIs and antimicrobial use in acute-care hospitals, we estimated the prevalence of all types of HAIs and identified risk factors. METHODS: Patients from acute-care hospitals were enrolled into a one-day cross-sectional study in October 2011. Descriptive analyses were performed to describe the characteristics of patients, their exposure to invasive procedures and the prevalence of different types of HAIs...
December 1, 2016: Zdravstveno Varstvo
Salem Al-Tamemi, Shafiq Ur Rehman Naseem, Nabila Al-Siyabi, Ibtisam El-Nour, Abdulhakim Al-Rawas, David Dennison
PURPOSE: Primary immunodeficiency (PID) diseases are rare, complex medical disorders that often are overlooked in clinical settings. There are emerging reports of PID from Middle Eastern populations. This study describes the features of PID patients in a tertiary care setting in Oman and compares them with regional and worldwide reports. METHOD: Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH) is an academic tertiary care-level hospital for specialized healthcare, including PID patients...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Whitney R Buckel, Edward Stenehjem, Jeff Sorensen, Nathan Dean, Brandon Webb
RATIONALE: Guidelines recommend a switch from intravenous to oral antibiotics once patients who are hospitalized with pneumonia achieve clinical stability. However, little evidence guides the selection of an oral antibiotic for patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia, especially where no microbiological diagnosis is made. OBJECTIVES: To compare outcomes between patients who were transitioned to broad vs narrow spectrum oral antibiotics after initially receiving broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic coverage...
October 3, 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jun Hirai, Daisuke Sakanashi, Shusaku Haranaga, Takeshi Kinjo, Mao Hagihara, Hideo Kato, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Yuka Yamagishi, Jiro Fujita, Hiroshige Mikamo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In recent years, Streptococcus anginosus group (SAG) bacteria are becoming increasingly recognized as important pneumonia-causing pathogens. Although several small studies have been reported, the features of SAG pneumonia remain unclear, because the identification of SAG from sputum cultures is not routinely performed in most microbiology laboratories. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical characteristics of SAG pneumonia. PATIENT AND METHODS: This was a retrospective case-control study utilizing data obtained in our hospital between September 2009 and June 2016...
September 25, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Donald E Craven, Jana Hudcova, Yuxiu Lei, Kathleen A Craven, Ahsan Waqas
Mechanically ventilated, intubated patients are at increased risk for tracheal colonization with bacterial pathogens that may progress to heavy bacterial colonization, ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT), and/or ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Previous studies report that 10 to 30 % of patients with VAT progress to VAP, resulting in increased morbidity and significant acute and chronic healthcare costs. Several natural history studies, randomized, controlled trials, and a meta-analysis have reported antibiotic treatment for VAT can reduce VAP, ventilator days, length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and patient morbidity and mortality...
September 29, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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