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Mirror neurons

T G Adams, B Kelmendi, C A Brake, P Gruner, C L Badour, C Pittenger
Individuals with OCD often identify psychosocial stress as a factor that exacerbates their symptoms, and many trace the onset of symptoms to a stressful period of life or a discrete traumatic incident. However, the pathophysiological relationship between stress and OCD remains poorly characterized: it is unclear whether trauma or stress is an independent cause of OCD symptoms, a triggering factor that interacts with a preexisting diathesis, or simply a nonspecific factor that can exacerbate OCD along with other aspects of psychiatric symptomatology...
January 2018: Chronic Stress
Fabrizia Festante, Ross E Vanderwert, Valentina Sclafani, Annika Paukner, Elizabeth A Simpson, Stephen J Suomi, Nathan A Fox, Pier Francesco Ferrari
Previous developmental research suggests that motor experience supports the development of action perception across the lifespan. However, it is still unknown when the neural mechanisms underlying action-perception coupling emerge in infancy. The goal of this study was to examine the neural correlates of action perception during the emergence of grasping abilities in newborn rhesus macaques. Neural activity, recorded via electroencephalogram (EEG), while monkeys observed grasping actions, mimed actions and means-end movements during the first (W1) and second week (W2) of life was measured...
March 1, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
Ferdinand Binkofski, Giovanni Buccino
The picture of the human cortical motor system has fully changed in the last two decades. In the light of new data, the notion of a motor system devoted solely to action execution, strictly isolated from the sensory system, is not sustainable. There is evidence that parietal areas are strictly connected to frontal areas and these connections build up sensorimotor circuits aimed at interacting with objects in the environment, and at understanding actions. They are known as the canonic neuron system and mirror neuron system, respectively...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Arran T Reader, Ben P Royce, Jade E Marsh, Katy-Jayne Chivers, Nicholas P Holmes
Apraxia (a disorder of complex movement) suggests that the left inferior parietal lobule plays a role in kinematic or spatial aspects of imitation, which may be particularly important for meaningless (i.e., unfamiliar intransitive) actions. Mirror neuron theories indicate that the inferior parietal lobule is part of a frontoparietal system that can support imitation by linking observed and stored actions through visuomotor matching, and have less to say about different subregions of the left inferior parietal lobule, or how different types of action (i...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ana Deligiannis
This article explores how the body and imagination operate as pathways of knowledge through the use of Movement as Active Imagination in clinical practice. This method activates the transcendent function, thus encouraging new therapeutic responses. A philosophical perspective (Spinoza, Nietzsche, Merleau-Ponty) and some concepts from neuroscience (embodied cognition, somatic markers, image schema, mirror neurons, neuronal plasticity) will accompany us throughout this work, illustrated with a clinical vignette...
April 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Paul Shapshak
From the start, Kurt Godel observed that computer and brain paradigms were considered on a par by researchers and that researchers had misunderstood his theorems. He hailed with displeasure that the brain transcends computers. In this brief article, we point out that Artificial Intelligence (AI) comprises multitudes of human-made methodologies, systems, and languages, and implemented with computer technology. These advances enhance development in the electron and quantum realms. In the biological realm, animal neurons function, also utilizing electron flow, and are products of evolution...
2018: Bioinformation
Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura, Minoru Hoshiyama
Brain activity was recorded using a whole-head magnetoencephalography system followed by coherence analysis to assess neural connectivity in 10 healthy right-handed adults to clarify differences in neural connectivity in brain regions during action observation from several perspectives. The subjects were instructed to observe and memorize or imitate the hand action from a first-person or second-person visual perspective. The brain activity in coherence was modified among frontal and central, sensorimotor, and mirror neuron system-related regions based on the visual perspectives of finger movements...
February 28, 2018: Motor Control
Gillian K Maxwell, Eva Szunyogova, Hannah K Shorrock, Thomas H Gillingwater, Simon H Parson
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive disease caused by a decrease in levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, is the most common genetic cause of infant mortality. Although neuromuscular pathology is the most severe feature of SMA, other organs and tissues, including the heart, are also known to be affected in both patients and animal models. Here, we provide new insights into changes occurring in the heart, predominantly at pre- and early symptomatic ages, in the Taiwanese mouse model of severe SMA...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
Krystyna Rymarczyk, Łukasz Żurawski, Kamila Jankowiak-Siuda, Iwona Szatkowska
Facial mimicry (FM) is an automatic response to imitate the facial expressions of others. However, neural correlates of the phenomenon are as yet not well established. We investigated this issue using simultaneously recorded EMG and BOLD signals during perception of dynamic and static emotional facial expressions of happiness and anger. During display presentations, BOLD signals and zygomaticus major (ZM), corrugator supercilii (CS) and orbicularis oculi (OO) EMG responses were recorded simultaneously from 46 healthy individuals...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Baojin Ding, Paul R Dobner, Debra Mullikin-Kilpatrick, Wei Wang, Hong Zhu, Chi-Wing Chow, John W Cave, Richard M Gronostajski, Daniel L Kilpatrick
How intrinsic and extrinsic signals are coordinated to regulate synaptic maturation and its timing is an important question for neurodevelopment and its disorders. Here, we investigated the influence of the neurotrophin BDNF on the developmental timing of a dendrite/synapse-related gene program controlled by Nuclear Factor One (NFI) in maturing cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). BDNF accelerated the onset of NFI-regulated late-gene expression and NFI temporal occupancy in CGN cultures in a MEK5/ERK5-dependent manner...
February 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Kirsten Arnett, Alexandra Roach, Meredith Elzy, Laura Jelsone-Swain
Empathy is a critical aspect of social behavior, and impairment in empathic processing is linked to hindered social interactions and several disorders. Despite much interest in this topic, our understanding of the developmental and neural involvement for empathic processing is limited. Recent evidence suggests the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) may play a role in this behavior, and that mu rhythm suppression found over the sensorimotor cortices may be a proxy for the MNS. Therefore, we aimed to measure mu rhythm oscillations in response to empathic processing during observation of painful action-based situations using electroencephalogram (EEG)...
February 16, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Brianne M Bettcher, Sterling C Johnson, Ryan Fitch, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Kate S Heffernan, Sanjay Asthana, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Cynthia M Carlsson, John Neuhaus, Barbara B Bendlin, Joel H Kramer
Inflammatory markers have been shown to predict neurocognitive outcomes in aging adults; however, the degree to which peripheral markers mirror the central nervous system remains unknown. We investigated the association between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers of inflammation, and explored whether these markers independently predict CSF indicators of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology or neuronal damage. Plasma and CSF samples were analyzed for inflammatory markers in a cohort of asymptomatic older adults (n = 173)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Zhihui Zhu, Georg Reiser
Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are a group of proteins with molecular mass between 12 and 43 kDa. Currently, 11 members of this family have been classified, namely HspB1 to HspB11. HspB1, HspB2, HspB5, HspB6, HspB7, and HspB8, which are expressed in brain have been observed to be related to the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Alexander's disease, multiple sclerosis, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia. Specifically, sHsps interact with misfolding and damaging protein aggregates, like Glial fibrillary acidic protein in AxD, β-amyloid peptides aggregates in Alzheimer's disease, Superoxide dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cytosine-adenine-guanine/polyglutamine (CAG/PolyQ) in Huntington's disease, Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, Spinal-bulbar muscular atrophy, to reduce the toxicity or increase the clearance of these protein aggregates...
February 6, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jeffanie Wu, Rakesh K Chandra, Ping Li, Benjamin P Hull, Justin H Turner
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The etiology of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS)-associated olfactory loss is unclear, but may result from inflammatory changes in the olfactory epithelium that result in signaling dysfunction or loss of olfactory neurons. Several proinflammatory cytokines have been associated with CRS, but their expression within the olfactory cleft microenvironment and association with olfactory function is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case-control study...
February 8, 2018: Laryngoscope
Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Leo, Margherita Russo, Demetrio Milardi, Antonino Cannavò, Alfredo Manuli, Antonio Buda, Carmela Casella, Placido Bramanti, Alberto Cacciola, Alessia Bramanti
Advanced functional neuroimaging approaches dealing with motor imagery have disclosed covert cognitive processes in patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC). However, motor impairment and cognitive-motor dissociation can bias such approaches. Fourteen patients with post-traumatic DoC and ten healthy controls (HC) were provided with three motor tasks related to mirror neuron system (MNS) activation (movement observation, movement execution, and passive motor imagery of a movement) while recording electroencephalographic (EEG) metrics [EEG power and Granger Casualty Index (GCI)] to detect residual signs of conscious awareness...
February 7, 2018: Brain Topography
Dunxin Han, Zhongwang Yu, Weili Liu, Dou Yin, Yingyan Pu, Jifeng Feng, Yimin Yuan, Aijun Huang, Li Cao, Cheng He
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating type of central nervous system (CNS) trauma with limited therapeutic treatments. The polarization of microglia into the M1 or M2 state has been documented to play important roles in the pathogenesis of SCI, although the complete repertoire of underlying factors has not been identified. Interestingly, the time point at which hematomyelia (intramedullary spinal cord hemorrhage) is alleviated coincides with a decrease in the number of M2 microglia. Here the function of Hemopexin (Hpx), a hematogenous glycoprotein, was examined in the crush model of SCI...
February 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Megan E J Campbell, Steve Mehrkanoon, Ross Cunnington
Perception and action are inextricably linked, down to the level of single cells which have both visual and motor response properties - dubbed 'mirror neurons'. The mirror neuron system is generally associated with direct-matching or resonance between observed and executed actions (and goals). Yet in everyday interactions responding to another's movements with matching actions (or goals) is not always appropriate. Here we examine processes associated with intentionally not imitating, as separable from merely detecting an observed action as mismatching one's own...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Hyeonjin Jeon, Seung-Hwan Lee
The mirror neuron system (MNS) is a brain network activated when we move our body parts and when we observe the actions of other agent. Since the mirror neuron's discovery in research on monkeys, several studies have examined its network and properties in both animals and humans. This review discusses MNS studies of animals and human MNS studies related to high-order social cognitions such as emotion and empathy, as well as relations between MNS dysfunction and mental disorders. Finally, these evidences are understood from an evolutionary perspective...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Gianfranca Carta, Laura Poddighe, Maria Pina Serra, Marianna Boi, Tiziana Melis, Sara Lisai, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni, Marina Quartu
This study aims to evaluate the putative roles of a single acute dose of resveratrol (RVT) in preventing cerebral oxidative stress induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion (BCCAO/R) and to investigate RVT's ability to preserve the neuronal structural integrity. Frontal and temporal-occipital cortices were examined in two groups of adult Wistar rats, sham-operated and submitted to BCCAO/R. In both groups, 6 h before surgery, half the rats were gavage-fed with a single dose of RVT (40 mg/per rat in 300 µL of sunflower oil as the vehicle), while the second half received the vehicle alone...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Franz Weber, Johnny Phong Hoang Do, Shinjae Chung, Kevin T Beier, Mike Bikov, Mohammad Saffari Doost, Yang Dan
Mammalian sleep consists of distinct rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) states. The midbrain region ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is known to be important for gating REM sleep, but the underlying neuronal mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show that activating vlPAG GABAergic neurons in mice suppresses the initiation and maintenance of REM sleep while consolidating NREM sleep, partly through their projection to the dorsolateral pons. Cell-type-specific recording and calcium imaging reveal that most vlPAG GABAergic neurons are strongly suppressed at REM sleep onset and activated at its termination...
January 24, 2018: Nature Communications
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