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Mirror neurons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779671/resting-state-connectivity-biomarkers-of-cognitive-performance-and-social-function-in-individuals-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-and-healthy-control-subjects
#1
Joseph D Viviano, Robert W Buchanan, Navona Calarco, James M Gold, George Foussias, Nikhil Bhagwat, Laura Stefanik, Colin Hawco, Pamela DeRosse, Miklos Argyelan, Jessica Turner, Sofia Chavez, Peter Kochunov, Peter Kingsley, Xiangzhi Zhou, Anil K Malhotra, Aristotle N Voineskos
BACKGROUND: Deficits in neurocognition and social cognition are drivers of reduced functioning in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, with potentially shared neurobiological underpinnings. Many studies have sought to identify brain-based biomarkers of these clinical variables using a priori dichotomies (e.g., good vs. poor cognition, deficit vs. nondeficit syndrome). METHODS: We evaluated a fully data-driven approach to do the same by building and validating a brain connectivity-based biomarker of social cognitive and neurocognitive performance in a sample using resting-state and task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (n = 74 healthy control participants, n = 114 persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 188 total)...
April 13, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778628/environmentally-enriched-pigs-have-transcriptional-profiles-consistent-with-neuroprotective-effects-and-reduced-microglial-activity
#2
S M Brown, S J Bush, K M Summers, D A Hume, A B Lawrence
Environmental enrichment (EE) is widely used to study the effects of external factors on brain development, function and health in rodent models, but very little is known of the effects of EE on the brain in a large animal model such as the pig. Twenty-four young pigs (aged 5 weeks at start of study, 1:1 male: female ratio) were housed in environmentally enriched (EE) pens and provided with additional enrichment stimulation (a bag filled with straw) once daily. Litter, weight and sex matched controls n= (24) were housed in barren (B) conditions...
May 17, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764475/a-potential-gliovascular-mechanism-for-microglial-activation-differential-phenotypic-switching-of-microglia-by-endothelium-versus-astrocytes
#3
Changhong Xing, Wenlu Li, Wenjun Deng, MingMing Ning, Eng H Lo
BACKGROUND: Activation of microglia can result in phenotypic and functional diversity. However, the pathways that trigger different states of microglial activation remain to be fully understood. Here, we hypothesized that after injury, astrocytes and endothelium may contribute to a gliovascular switch for microglial activation. METHODS: Astrocytes or cerebral endothelial cells were subjected to oxygen glucose deprivation, then conditioned media were transferred to microglia...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760977/fast-volume-scanning-light-sheet-microscopy-reveals-transient-neuronal-events
#4
Peter Haslehurst, Zhengyi Yang, Kishan Dholakia, Nigel Emptage
Light sheet fluorescence microscopy offers considerable potential to the cellular neuroscience community as it makes it possible to image extensive areas of neuronal structures, such as axons or dendrites, with a low light budget, thereby minimizing phototoxicity. However, the shallow depth of a light sheet, which is critical for achieving high contrast, well resolved images, adds a significant challenge if fast functional imaging is also required, as multiple images need to be collected across several image planes...
May 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751998/does-somatostatin-have-a-role-to-play-in-migraine-headache
#5
REVIEW
Geoffrey A Lambert, Alessandro S Zagami
Migraine is a condition without apparent pathology. Its cardinal symptom is the prolonged excruciating headache. Theories about this pain have posited pathologies which run the gamut from neural to vascular to neurovascular, but no observations have detected a plausible pathology. We believe that no pathology can be found for migraine headache because none exists. Migraine is not driven by pathology - it is driven by neural events produced by triggers - or simply by neural noise- noise that has crossed a critical threshold...
April 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746089/physiological-a%C3%AE-concentrations-produce-a-more-biomimetic-representation-of-the-alzheimer-s-disease-phenotype-in-ipsc-derived-human-neurons
#6
Bonnie J Berry, Alec S T Smith, Christopher J Long, Candace C Martin, James J Hickman
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by slow, progressive neurodegeneration leading to severe neurological impairment, but current drug development efforts are limited by the lack of robust, human-based disease models. Amyloid-β (Aβ) is known to play an integral role in AD progression as it has been shown to interfere with neurological function. However, studies into AD pathology commonly apply Aβ to neurons for short durations at non-physiological concentrations to induce an exaggerated dysfunctional phenotype...
May 10, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734039/what-neuromodulation-and-lesion-studies-tell-us-about-the-function-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-embodied-cognition
#7
REVIEW
Christian Keysers, Riccardo Paracampo, Valeria Gazzola
We review neuromodulation and lesion studies that address how activations in the mirror neuron system contribute to our perception of observed actions. Past reviews showed disruptions of this parieto-premotor network impair imitation and goal and kinematic processing. Recent studies bring five new themes. First, focal perturbations of a node of that circuit lead to changes across all nodes. Second, primary somatosensory cortex is an integral part of this network suggesting embodied representations are somatosensory-motor...
April 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722797/action-observation-areas-represent-intentions-from-subtle-kinematic-features
#8
Atesh Koul, Andrea Cavallo, Franco Cauda, Tommaso Costa, Matteo Diano, Massimiliano Pontil, Cristina Becchio
Mirror neurons have been proposed to underlie humans' ability to understand others' actions and intentions. Despite 2 decades of research, however, the exact computational and neuronal mechanisms implied in this ability remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated whether, in the absence of contextual cues, regions considered to be part of the human mirror neuron system represent intention from movement kinematics. A total of 21 participants observed reach-to-grasp movements, performed with either the intention to drink or to pour while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
May 2, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715510/hierarchical-organization-within-the-ventral-premotor-cortex-of-the-macaque-monkey
#9
REVIEW
Kiyoshi Kurata
Recent studies have revealed that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of nonhuman primates plays a pivotal role in various behaviors that require the transformation of sensory cues to appropriate actions. Examples include decision-making based on various sensory cues, preparation for upcoming motor behavior, adaptive sensorimotor transformation, and the generation of motor commands using rapid sensory feedback. Although the PMv has frequently been regarded as a single entity, it can be divided into at least five functionally distinct regions: F4, a dorsal convexity region immediately rostral to the primary motor cortex (M1); F5p, a cortical region immediately rostral to F4, lying within the arcuate sulcus; F5c, a ventral convexity region rostral to F4; and F5a, located in the caudal bank of the arcuate sulcus inferior limb lateral to F5p...
April 28, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713276/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-and-adenosine-receptors
#10
REVIEW
Ana M Sebastião, Nádia Rei, Joaquim A Ribeiro
In the present review we discuss the potential involvement of adenosinergic signaling, in particular the role of adenosine receptors, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Though the literature on this topic is not abundant, the information so far available on adenosine receptors in animal models of ALS highlights the interest to continue to explore the role of these receptors in this neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, all motor neurons affected in ALS are responsive to adenosine receptor ligands but interestingly, there are alterations in pre-symptomatic or early symptomatic stages that mirror those in advanced disease stages...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700312/action-and-object-words-are-differentially-anchored-in-the-sensory-motor-system-a-perspective-on-cognitive-embodiment
#11
Houpand Horoufchin, Danilo Bzdok, Giovanni Buccino, Anna M Borghi, Ferdinand Binkofski
Embodied and grounded cognition theories have assumed that the sensorimotor system is causally involved in processing motor-related language content. Although a causal proof on a single-cell basis is ethically not possible today, the present fMRI study provides confirmation of this longstanding speculation, as far as it is possible with recent methods, employing a new computational approach. More specifically, we were looking for common activation of nouns and objects, and actions and verbs, representing the canonical and mirror neuron system, respectively...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693492/interpersonal-gargalesthesia
#12
Vilayanur Subramanian Ramachandran, Claudia Alyse Sellers
When someone touches, say, your upper arm, mirror neurons in your brain's area S2 fire. These neurons also fire when you merely watch another person being touched. However, you do not literally feel the touch from his arm on your own skin. Consistent with this view, we find when someone's arm is removed, he does start experiencing another's sensations [Ramachandran, V. S., & Brang, D. (2009)]. A congenital variant of this syndrome also exists, as in our subject TC. TC experienced referred touch, referred tickle in her axilla, and was able to tickle herself...
April 25, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677839/spiking-neural-networks-with-unsupervised-learning-based-on-stdp-using-resistive-synaptic-devices-and-analog-cmos-neuron-circuit
#13
Min-Woo Kwon, Myung-Hyun Baek, Sungmin Hwang, Sungjun Kim, Byung-Gook Park
We designed the CMOS analog integrate and fire (I&F) neuron circuit can drive resistive synaptic device. The neuron circuit consists of a current mirror for spatial integration, a capacitor for temporal integration, asymmetric negative and positive pulse generation part, a refractory part, and finally a back-propagation pulse generation part for learning of the synaptic devices. The resistive synaptic devices were fabricated using HfOx switching layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The resistive synaptic device had gradual set and reset characteristics and the conductance was adjusted by spike-timing-dependent-plasticity (STDP) learning rule...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674949/effect-of-different-movement-speed-modes-on-human-action-observation-an-eeg-study
#14
Tian-Jian Luo, Jitu Lv, Fei Chao, Changle Zhou
Action observation (AO) generates event-related desynchronization (ERD) suppressions in the human brain by activating partial regions of the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). The activation of the hMNS response to AO remains controversial for several reasons. Therefore, this study investigated the activation of the hMNS response to a speed factor of AO by controlling the movement speed modes of a humanoid robot's arm movements. Since hMNS activation is reflected by ERD suppressions, electroencephalography (EEG) with BCI analysis methods for ERD suppressions were used as the recording and analysis modalities...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672449/cortical-astrocytes-prime-the-induction-of-spine-plasticity-and-mirror-image-pain
#15
Tatsuya Ishikawa, Kei Eto, Sun Kwang Kim, Hiroaki Wake, Ikuko Takeda, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Andrew J Moorhouse, Hitoshi Ishibashi, Junichi Nabekura
Peripheral nerve injury causes maladaptive plasticity in the central nervous system and induces chronic pain. In addition to the injured limb, abnormal pain sensation can appear in the limb contralateral to the injury, called mirror image pain. Since synaptic remodeling in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has critical roles in the induction of chronic pain, cortical reorganization in the S1 ipsilateral to the injured limb may also accompany mirror image pain. To elucidate this, we conducted in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuron and astrocyte activity in the ipsilateral S1 following a peripheral nerve injury...
April 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668380/local-tuning-biases-in-mouse-primary-visual-cortex
#16
Luis O Jimenez, Elaine Tring, Joshua T Trachtenberg, Dario L Ringach
Neurons in primary visual cortex are selective to the orientation and spatial frequency of sinusoidal gratings. In the classic model of cortical organization, a population of neurons responding to the same region of the visual field, but tuned to all possible feature combinations, provides a detailed representation of the local image. Such a functional module is assumed to be replicated across primary visual cortex to provide a uniform representation of the image across the entire the visual field. In contrast, it has been hypothesized that the tiling properties of ON and OFF-center receptive fields in the retina, largely mirrored in the geniculate, may constrain cortical tuning at each location in the visual field...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665128/a-role-for-astrocyte-derived-amyloid-%C3%AE-peptides-in-the-degeneration-of-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#17
A Kodam, D Ourdev, M Maulik, J Hariharakrishnan, M Banerjee, Y Wang, S Kar
Kainic acid, an analogue of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, can trigger seizures and neurotoxicity in the hippocampus and other limbic structures in a manner that mirrors the neuropathology of human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). However, the underlying mechanisms associated with the neurotoxicity remain unclear. Since amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are critical in the development of Alzheimer's disease, can mediate toxicity by activating glutamatergic NMDA receptors, it is likely that the enhanced glutamatergic transmission that renders hippocampal neurons vulnerable to kainic acid treatment may involve Aβ peptides...
April 17, 2018: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643503/functional-circuit-architecture-underlying-parental-behaviour
#18
Johannes Kohl, Benedicte M Babayan, Nimrod D Rubinstein, Anita E Autry, Brenda Marin-Rodriguez, Vikrant Kapoor, Kazunari Miyamishi, Larry S Zweifel, Liqun Luo, Naoshige Uchida, Catherine Dulac
Parenting is essential for the survival and wellbeing of mammalian offspring. However, we lack a circuit-level understanding of how distinct components of this behaviour are coordinated. Here we investigate how galanin-expressing neurons in the medial preoptic area (MPOAGal ) of the hypothalamus coordinate motor, motivational, hormonal and social aspects of parenting in mice. These neurons integrate inputs from a large number of brain areas and the activation of these inputs depends on the animal's sex and reproductive state...
April 11, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607770/mirror-neurons-and-the-clubhouse-model
#19
Fang-Pei Chen, Hans Oh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 1, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599093/aberrant-within-and-between-network-connectivity-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-network-and-the-mentalizing-network-in-first-episode-psychosis
#20
Eugenie Choe, Tae Young Lee, Minah Kim, Ji-Won Hur, Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Kang-Ik K Cho, Jun Soo Kwon
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that the mentalizing network and the mirror neuron system network support important social cognitive processes that are impaired in schizophrenia. However, the integrity and interaction of these two networks have not been sufficiently studied, and their effects on social cognition in schizophrenia remain unclear. METHODS: Our study included 26 first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients and 26 healthy controls. We utilized resting-state functional connectivity to examine the a priori-defined mirror neuron system network and the mentalizing network and to assess the within- and between-network connectivities of the networks in FEP patients...
March 26, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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