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Epithelial lining fluid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098306/effective-viscosity-and-dynamics-of-spreading-epithelia-a-solvable-model
#1
C Blanch-Mercader, R Vincent, E Bazellières, X Serra-Picamal, X Trepat, J Casademunt
Collective cell migration in spreading epithelia in controlled environments has become a landmark in our current understanding of fundamental biophysical processes in development, regeneration, wound healing or cancer. Epithelial monolayers are treated as thin layers of a viscous fluid that exert active traction forces on the substrate. The model is exactly solvable and shows a broad range of applicabilities for the quantitative analysis and interpretation of force microscopy data of monolayers from a variety of experiments and cell lines...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095918/anti-staphylococcal-activity-resulting-from-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-concentrations-of-amikacin-inhale-administered-via-the-pulmonary-drug-delivery-system
#2
Islam M Ghazi, Mordechai Grupper, David P Nicolau
BACKGROUND: Amikacin inhale (BAY41-6551), a unique drug-device combination of a specially formulated drug solution and a pulmonary drug delivery system device (AMK-I) is currently under phase III study as an adjunctive therapy to IV antibiotics for the treatment of Gram-negative pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients. While the epidemiology of nosocomial pneumonia is predominated by Gram-negative pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus is increasingly recognized as a pathogen of concern for these pulmonary based infections...
January 17, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087941/interplay-between-myeloid-cells-and-humoral-innate-immunity
#3
Sébastien Jaillon, Eduardo Bonavita, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani
The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against pathogens and comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs), which include collectins, ficolins, and pentraxins, are key components of the humoral arm of innate immunity and are expressed by a variety of cells, including myeloid, epithelial, and endothelial cells, mainly in response to infectious and inflammatory conditions. Soluble PRMs share basic multifunctional properties including activation and regulation of the complement cascade, opsonization of pathogens and apoptotic cells, regulation of leukocyte extravasation, and fine-tuning of inflammation...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063154/pharmacological-indices-and-pulmonary-distribution-of-rifampicin-after-repeated-oral-administration-in-healthy-foals
#4
S Berlin, A Kirschbaum, L Spieckermann, S Oswald, M Keiser, M Grube, M Venner, W Siegmund
BACKGROUND: The treatment of equine lung infections by R. equi with rifampicin is empirically based because pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices and pivotal clinical outcome data are not available. OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of pharmacokinetics and pulmonary distribution into epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and bronchoalveolar lavage cells (BALC) to predict antimicrobial activity in the lung using PK/PD-indices. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled, randomised, two-period, crossover, repeated-dose study with an initial arm to measure disposition after intravenous administration...
January 7, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061018/bronchopulmonary-pharmacokinetics-of-r-salbutamol-and-s-salbutamol-enantiomers-in-pulmonary-epithelial-lining-fluid-and-lung-tissue-of-horses
#5
Glenn A Jacobson, Sharanne Raidal, Kate Robson, Christian K Narkowicz, David S Nichols, E Haydn Walters
AIMS: Salbutamol is usually administered as a racemic mixture but little is known about the enantioselectivity of salbutamol pharmacokinetics in the lung. This study was designed to investigate enantiomer concentrations in lung tissue after inhaled dosing. METHODS: Horses (n = 12) received racemic (rac-) salbutamol 1000 microgram via inhalation. Enantioselective UPLC-MS/MS was used to determine salbutamol concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) sampled 2, 5, 10 and 15 min after administration, in central lung (endoscopic bronchial biopsy) and peripheral lung (percutaneous pulmonary biopsy) tissues (at 20 and 25 minutes respectively), and in plasma samples...
January 6, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043889/emt-induced-by-egf-and-wounding-activates-hyaluronan-synthesis-machinery-and-ev-shedding-in-rat-primary-mesothelial-cells
#6
Ville Koistinen, Kai Härkönen, Riikka Kärnä, Uma Thanigai Arasu, Sanna Oikari, Kirsi Rilla
The mesothelium is a membrane that forms the lining of several body cavities. It is composed of simple squamous mesothelial cells that secrete a glycosaminoglycan-rich lubricating fluid between inner organs. One of the most abundant glycosaminoglycans of those fluids is hyaluronan, which is synthesized on a plasma membrane and especially on apical filopodia of cultured cells. Our recent study showed that similar hyaluronan-rich protrusions are found in mesothelial lining in vivo, which suggests that hyaluronan synthesis in plasma membrane protrusions is a general process...
December 30, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031207/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-of-pulmonary-delivery-of-colistin-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-mouse-lung-infection-model
#7
Yu-Wei Lin, Qi Tony Zhou, Soon-Ee Cheah, Jinxin Zhao, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Hak-Kim Chan, Jian Li
Colistin is often administered by inhalation and/or parenteral route for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa However, limited pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data are available to guide the optimization of dosage regimens of inhaled colistin. In the present study, PK of colistin in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and plasma was determined following intra-tracheal delivery of a single dose of colistin solution in neutropenic lung-infected mice...
December 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012206/uptake-and-efflux-kinetics-and-intracellular-activity-of-voriconazole-against-a-fumigatus-in-human-pulmonary-epithelial-cells-a-new-application-for-the-prophylaxis-and-early-treatment-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#8
Taotao Wang, Qianting Yang, Lu Chen, Ying Li, Ti Meng, Yan Wang, Tao Zhang, Jin'e Lei, Jianfeng Xing, Yalin Dong
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA), most caused by A. fumigatus, is a serious life-threating infection in immunocompromised patients. Voriconazole is used to prevent and treat IPA. However, little is known about the pharmacological characteristics of voriconazole in pulmonary epithelial cells, which are the target site for the prophylaxis and early treatment of IPA. The aim of the study was to evaluate the kinetics and activity of voriconazole against A. fumigatus in A549 cells. High-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and time-kill method was used to study the cellular pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of voriconazole...
December 23, 2016: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011618/novel-applications-for-a-non-invasive-sampling-method-of-the-nasal-mucosa
#9
Meghan E Rebuli, Adam M Speen, Phillip W Clapp, Ilona Jaspers
Reliable methods for sampling the nasal mucosa provide clinical researchers with key information regarding respiratory biomarkers of exposure and disease. For quick and non-invasive sampling of the nasal mucosa, nasal lavage (NL) collection has been widely used as a clinical tool, however, limitations including volume variability, sample dilution, and storage prevent NL collection from being used in non-laboratory settings and in the analysis of low abundance biomarkers. In this study, we optimize and validate a novel methodology using absorbent Leukosorb® paper cut to fit the nasal passage in order to extract epithelial lining fluid (ELF) from the nasal mucosa...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999047/efficacy-and-pharmacokinetics-of-me1100-a-novel-optimized-formulation-of-arbekacin-for-inhalation-compared-with-amikacin-in-a-murine-model-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Norihito Kaku, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Kazuaki Takeda, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
BACKGROUND: Arbekacin is an aminoglycoside that shows strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA, as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa The therapeutic effectiveness of arbekacin is directly related to Cmax at the infection site. To maximize drug delivery to the respiratory tract and minimize the systemic toxicity, arbekacin optimized for inhalation, ME1100, is under development. In this study, we investigated the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of ME1100 in a murine model of ventilator-associated pneumonia caused by P...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995132/distal-airway-dysfunction-identifies-pulmonary-inflammation-in-asymptomatic-smokers
#11
Kenneth I Berger, Deepak R Pradhan, Roberta M Goldring, Beno W Oppenheimer, William N Rom, Leopoldo N Segal
Smoking induced inflammation leads to distal airway destruction. However, the relationship between distal airway dysfunction and inflammation remains unclear, particularly in smokers prior to the development of airway obstruction. Seven normal controls and 16 smokers without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were studied. Respiratory function was assessed using the forced oscillation technique (FOT). Abnormal FOT was defined as elevated resistance at 5 Hz (R5). Parameters reflecting distal lung function included frequency dependence of resistance (R5-20) and dynamic elastance (X5)...
October 2016: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992235/effects-of-baicalin-on-alveolar-fluid-clearance-and-%C3%AE-enac-expression-in-rats-with-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#12
Jia Deng, Dao-Xin Wang, Ai-Ling Liang, Jing Tang, Da-Kai Xiang
Baicalin has been reported to attenuate lung edema in the process of lung injury. However, the effect of baicalin on alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) expression has not been tested. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and intratracheally injected with either 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline vehicle. Baicalin with various concentrations (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before administration of LPS. Then lungs were isolated for measurement of AFC, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level, and cellular localization of α-ENaC...
August 31, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988921/serial-epithelial-lining-fluid-collection-using-bronchoscopic-microsampling-in-a-canine-lung-transplantation-model
#13
Kana Oiwa, Mitsutomo Kohno, Ryo Hashimoto, Tomoki Nakagawa, Ryota Masuda, Noboru Nishiumi, Kichizo Kaga, Masayuki Iwazaki
OBJECTIVES: As a less invasive alternative to bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), bronchoscopic microsampling (BMS) was developed to identify molecules present in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the distal airways. Here, we evaluated the utility of BMS for serial collection of ELF in a canine lung transplant model. METHODS: ELF was collected hourly by BMS up to 5 hours after reperfusion in a canine left lung transplant model. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels in ELF were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and were compared with those in BAL fluid...
December 20, 2016: Tokai Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986226/glutathione-conjugation-dose-dependently-increases-brain-specific-liposomal-drug-delivery-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
REVIEW
David Maussang, Jaap Rip, Joan van Kregten, Angelique van den Heuvel, Susanne van der Pol, Burt van der Boom, Arie Reijerkerk, Linda Chen, Marco de Boer, Pieter Gaillard, Helga de Vries
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) represents a major obstacle for the delivery and development of drugs curing brain pathologies. However, this biological barrier presents numerous endogenous specialized transport systems that can be exploited by engineered nanoparticles to enable drug delivery to the brain. In particular, conjugation of glutathione (GSH) onto PEGylated liposomes (G-Technology(®)) showed to safely enhance delivery of encapsulated drugs to the brain. Yet, understanding of the mechanism of action remains limited and full mechanistic understanding will aid in the further optimization of the technology...
June 2016: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978530/aquaporin-water-channels-and-hydrocephalus
#15
Alan S Verkman, Lukmanee Tradtrantip, Alex J Smith, Xiaoming Yao
The aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of water-transporting proteins that are broadly expressed in mammalian cells. Two AQPs in the central nervous system, AQP1 and AQP4, might play a role in hydrocephalus and are thus potential drug targets. AQP1 is expressed in the ventricular-facing membrane of choroid plexus epithelial cells, where it facilitates the secretion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). AQP4 is expressed in astrocyte foot processes and ependymal cells lining ventricles, where it appears to facilitate the transport of excess water out of the brain...
December 16, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925202/calprotectin-induces-il-6-and-mcp-1-production-via-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-in-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#16
Yasufumi Nishikawa, Yukari Kajiura, Jung Hwan Lew, Jun-Ichi Kido, Toshihiko Nagata, Koji Naruishi
Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 molecules, is associated with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease. We have reported that calprotectin levels in gingival crevicular fluids of periodontitis patients are significantly higher than in healthy subjects. However, the functions of calprotectin in pathophysiology of periodontitis are still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of calprotectin on the productivity of inflammatory cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs)...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881708/il-35-suppresses-lipopolysaccharide-induced-airway-eosinophilia-in-ebi3-deficient-mice
#17
Kyosuke Kanai, Ah-Mee Park, Hiroki Yoshida, Ikuo Tsunoda, Osamu Yoshie
EBI3 functions as the subunit of immune-regulatory cytokines, such as IL-27 and IL-35, by pairing with p28 and p35, respectively. We treated wild-type and EBI3-deficient mice with intratracheal administration of LPS and obtained bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) 24 h later. Although neutrophils were the predominant cells in BALF from both groups of mice, eosinophils were highly enriched and there was increased production of eosinophil-attracting chemokines CCL11 and CCL24 in BALF of EBI3-deficient mice. The bronchial epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages were the major producers of CCL11 and CCL24...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825650/development-of-a-multi-matrix-lc-ms-ms-method-for-urea-quantitation-and-its-application-in-human-respiratory-disease-studies
#18
Jianshuang Wang, Yang Gao, Drew W Dorshorst, Fang Cai, Meire Bremer, Dennis Milanowski, Tracy L Staton, Stephanie S Cape, Brian Dean, Xiao Ding
In human respiratory disease studies, liquid samples such as nasal secretion (NS), lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF), or upper airway mucosal lining fluid (MLF) are frequently collected, but their volumes often remain unknown. The lack of volume information makes it hard to estimate the actual concentration of recovered active pharmaceutical ingredient or biomarkers. Urea has been proposed to serve as a sample volume marker because it can freely diffuse through most body compartments and is less affected by disease states...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821445/substantial-targeting-advantage-achieved-by-pulmonary-administration-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-in-a-large-animal-model
#19
Cornelia B Landersdorfer, Tri-Hung Nguyen, Linh Thuy Lieu, Gary Nguyen, Robert J Bischof, Els N Meeusen, Jian Li, Roger L Nation, Michelle P McIntosh
Colistin, administered as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), is often used in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pulmonary infections. The CMS and colistin pharmacokinetics in plasma and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous and pulmonary dosing have not been evaluated in a large-animal model with pulmonary architecture similar to that of humans. Six merino sheep (34 to 43 kg body weight) received an intravenous or pulmonary dose of 4 to 8 mg/kg CMS (sodium) or 2 to 3 mg/kg colistin (sulfate) in a 4-way crossover study...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799201/efficacy-of-high-dose-meropenem-six-grams-per-day-in-treatment-of-experimental-murine-pneumonia-induced-by-meropenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Kazuhiro Oshima, Shigeki Nakamura, Naoki Iwanaga, Koji Takemoto, Taiga Miyazaki, Kastunori Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu Miyazaki, Hiroshi Mukae, Shigeru Kohno, Koichi Izumikawa
High-dose meropenem (MEPM; 6 g/day) has been approved as a treatment for purulent meningitis; however, little is known regarding its in vivo efficacy in refractory lower respiratory tract infections. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of MEPM at 6 g/day in a murine model of severe pneumonia caused by MEPM-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa Experimental pneumonia induced by MEPM-resistant P. aeruginosa was treated with normal-dose MEPM (150 mg/kg of body weight, simulating a 3-g/day regimen in humans) or high-dose MEPM (500 mg/kg, simulating a 6-g/day regimen in humans)...
January 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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