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Epithelial lining fluid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735671/choroid-plexus-cyst-in-a-neonatal-burmeister-s-porpoise-phocoena-spinipinnis
#1
J Díaz-Delgado, K R Groch, M W Wiegand, E R Secchi, R Réssio, F C C Natália, J L Catão-Dias
Neuroectodermal developmental anomalies are reported rarely in cetaceans and central nervous system cysts are not described. We describe the gross, microscopical, histochemical and immunohistochemical features of a neuraxial myelencephalic cyst in a stranded neonatal Burmeister's porpoise (Phocoena spinipinnis). Grossly, a subdural, extra-axial, well-demarcated, yellow fluid-filled cystic structure (1.9 × 1.6 × 1 cm) expanded the left foramen of Luschka, the left caudolateral cerebellar recess and the left cranioventral myelencephalon...
July 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732179/kgf-enhances-oral-epithelial-adhesion-and-rete-peg-elongation-via-integrins
#2
G L Sa, X P Xiong, J G Ren, J Y Wang, H F Xia, Z K Liu, S G He, Y F Zhao
Oral epithelial adhesion to the lamina propria underlies the physiologic function of the oral mucosa and contributes to resisting bacterial invasion, preventing body fluid loss, and maintaining routine chewing; thus, understanding the factors that positively influence oral epithelial adhesion is a research topic of great interest. Rete pegs contribute to oral epithelial adhesion by enlarging the contact areas, whereas integrins are the major molecules that mediate epithelial cell adhesion to the basement membrane...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729052/tedizolid-inhibits-muc5ac-production-induced-by-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-human-airway-epithelial-cells
#3
Kazuaki Takeda, Norihito Kaku, Yoshitomo Morinaga, Kosuke Kosai, Naoki Uno, Yoshifumi Imamura, Hiroo Hasegawa, Taiga Miyazaki, Koichi Izumikawa, Hiroshi Mukae, Katsunori Yanagihara
The innate immune system plays an important role in early immunity against respiratory tract infection. Although airway epithelial cells produce mucus to eliminate pathogens and irritants, hypersecretion of mucus is harmful for the host as it may cause airway obstruction and inhibit influx of antimicrobial agents. It has been reported that several antimicrobial agents have an immunomodulatory effect in vitro and in vivo, but little is known about whether tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone, can modulate immune responses...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724639/production-of-reactive-persulfide-species-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#4
Tadahisa Numakura, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Takaaki Akaike, Tomoaki Ida, Shigemoto Fujii, Akira Koarai, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Katsuhiro Onodera, Yuichiro Hashimoto, Rie Tanaka, Kei Sato, Yutaka Shishikura, Taizou Hirano, Satoru Yanagisawa, Naoya Fujino, Tatsuma Okazaki, Tsutomu Tamada, Yasushi Hoshikawa, Yoshinori Okada, Masakazu Ichinose
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is a major aetiological factor driving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Recently recognised as potent antioxidants, reactive persulfide and polysulfide species are biosynthesised by cystathionine β-synthase and cystathionine γ-lyase. The production of reactive persulfide and polysulfide species in the lungs of patients with COPD remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the production of reactive persulfides and polysulfides, such as glutathione persulfide (GSSH), cysteine persulfide (CysSSH) and glutathione trisulfide (GSSSH), in lung-resident cells and epithelial lining fluid (ELF) obtained from patients with mild to moderate COPD...
July 19, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716705/pathobiology-of-biliary-epithelia
#5
REVIEW
Angela C Cheung, Maria J Lorenzo Pisarello, Nicholas F LaRusso
Cholangiocytes are epithelial cells that line the intra- and extrahepatic biliary tree. They serve predominantly to mediate the content of luminal biliary fluid, which is controlled via numerous signaling pathways influenced by endogenous (e.g., bile acids, nucleotides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc.) and exogenous (microbes/microbial products, drugs etc.) molecules. When injured, cholangiocytes undergo apoptosis/lysis, repair and proliferation. They also become senescent, a form of cell cycle arrest, which may prevent propagation of injury and/or malignant transformation...
July 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708889/a-new-index-for-characterizing-micro-bead-motion-in-a-flow-induced-by-ciliary-beating-part-i-experimental-analysis
#6
Mathieu Bottier, Sylvain Blanchon, Gabriel Pelle, Emilie Bequignon, Daniel Isabey, André Coste, Estelle Escudier, James B Grotberg, Jean-François Papon, Marcel Filoche, Bruno Louis
Mucociliary clearance is one of the major lines of defense of the respiratory system. The mucus layer coating the pulmonary airways is moved along and out of the lung by the activity of motile cilia, thus expelling the particles trapped in it. Here we compare ex vivo measurements of a Newtonian flow induced by cilia beating (using micro-beads as tracers) and a mathematical model of this fluid flow, presented in greater detail in a second companion article. Samples of nasal epithelial cells placed in water are recorded by high-speed video-microscopy and ciliary beat pattern is inferred...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708417/association-of-antibiotics-airway-microbiome-and-inflammation-in-infants-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
Jessica E Pittman, Kristine M Wylie, Kathryn Akers, Gregory A Storch, Joseph Hatch, Jane Quante, Katherine B Frayman, Nadeene Clarke, Miriam Davis, Stephen M Stick, Graham L Hall, Gregory Montgomery, Sarath Ranganathan, Stephanie D Davis, Thomas W Ferkol
RATIONALE: The underlying defect in the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway leads to defective mucociliary clearance and impaired bacterial killing, resulting in endobronchial infection and inflammation that contributes to progressive lung disease. Little is known about the respiratory microbiota in the early CF airway and its relationship to inflammation. OBJECTIVES: To examine the bacterial microbiota and inflammatory profiles in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and oropharyngeal secretions in infants with CF...
July 14, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696233/comparison-of-omadacycline-and-tigecycline-pharmacokinetics-in-the-plasma-epithelial-lining-fluid-and-alveolar-cells-in-healthy-adult-subjects
#8
Mark H Gotfried, Karolyn Horn, Lynne Garrity-Ryan, Stephen Villano, Evan Tzanis, Surya Chitra, Amy Manley, S Ken Tanaka, Keith A Rodvold
The steady-state concentrations of omadacycline and tigecycline in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar cells (AC) concentrations were obtained in 58 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were administered either omadacycline as 100 mg intravenously (IV) every 12 hours for two doses followed by 100 mg IV every 24 hours for three doses or tigecycline as an initial dose of 100 mg IV followed by 50 mg IV every 12 hours for six doses. A bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage were performed once in each subject following the start of the fifth dose of omadacycline at 0...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696231/comparison-of-plasma-and-intrapulmonary-concentrations-of-nafithromycin-wck-4873-in-healthy-adult-subjects
#9
Keith A Rodvold, Mark H Gotfried, Rakesh Chugh, Mugdha Gupta, H David Friedland, Ashima Bhatia
Nafithromycin concentrations in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophage (AM) of 37 healthy adult subjects were measured following repeated dosing of oral nafithromycin 800 mg once daily for three days. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters were determined from serial plasma samples collected over a 24-hour interval following the first and third oral doses. Each subject underwent one standardized bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at 3, 6, 9, 12, 24 or 48 hours after the third dose of nafithromycin...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691145/the-effect-of-saliva-on-the-fate-of-nanoparticles
#10
Birgit J Teubl, Biljana Stojkovic, Dominic Docter, Elisabeth Pritz, Gerd Leitinger, Igor Poberaj, Ruth Prassl, Roland H Stauber, Eleonore Fröhlich, Johannes G Khinast, Eva Roblegg
OBJECTIVES: The design of nanocarriers for local drug administration to the lining mucosa requires a sound knowledge of how nanoparticles (NPs) interact with saliva. This contact determines whether NPs agglomerate and become immobile due to size- and interaction-filtering effects or adsorb on the cell surface and are internalized by epithelial cells. The aim of this study was to examine the behavior of NPs in saliva considering physicochemical NP properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The salivary pore-size distribution was determined, and the viscosity of the fluid inside of the pores was studied with optical tweezers...
July 9, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684364/polyarginine-nanocapsules-a-versatile-nanocarrier-with-potential-in-transmucosal-drug-delivery
#11
Ana Gonzalez-Paredes, Dolores Torres, María José Alonso
The objective of this work was to investigate the potential utility of nanocapsules composed of an oily core decorated with a single polyarginine (PARG), or double PARG/polyacrylic acid (PAA) layer as oral peptide delivery carrier. A step-by-step formulation optimization process was designed, which involved the study of the influence of the surfactants, oils and polymer shells (PARG of different molecular weight and PAA) on the nanocapsules physicochemical properties, peptide loading efficiency, stability in simulated intestinal fluids (SIF) and capacity to enhance the permeability of the intestinal epithelium...
July 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680052/hyperosmolarity-induced-aqp5-upregulation-promotes-inflammation-and-cell-death-via-jnk1-2-activation-in-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#12
Yueping Ren, Huihui Lu, Peter S Reinach, Qinxiang Zheng, Jinyang Li, Qiufan Tan, Hanlei Zhu, Wei Chen
Tear film hyperosmolarity and anterior ocular inflammation are two clinical signs that may be indicative of dry eye disease (DED). This condition can cause pathological and functional changes to the anterior ocular surface tissues. A contributing factor may be dysfunctional aquaporin 5 (AQP5) water channels as they are the AQP subtype that expressed in the corneal epithelium and contribute to fluid efflux needed for corneal function. We determined if described hyperosmolarity-induced increases in proinflammatory cytokine expression and cell death are mediated through AQP5 upregulation and JNK1/2 MAPK signaling activation in both primary human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs), and in a HCEC line...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679080/renal-cystic-adenocarcinoma-in-a-flowerhorn-fish-with-metastatic-involvement-of-the-spleen
#13
Hooman Rahmati-Holasoo, Sara Shokrpoor, Majid Masoudifard, HosseinAli Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Ali Haddadi, Amir Tavakkoli
A 480 g flowerhorn fish hybrid cichlid with severe bilateral abdominal swelling, bulla-like structures on the skin, bilateral exophthalmia and prolapsed intestine was presented. Radiographs showed a compression of the posterior part of swim bladder and abdominal distention. Ultrasonography of visceral organs showed a heterogenous mass with hypo to anechoic polycystic parenchyma and free fluid in abdominal cavity. At necropsy free fluid in the abdominal cavity and a large polycystic mass, originating from the posterior kidney, was observed...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674181/lung-epithelial-cell-derived-microvesicles-regulate-macrophage-migration-via-microrna-17-221-induced-integrin-%C3%AE-1-recycling
#14
Heedoo Lee, Duo Zhang, Jingxuan Wu, Leo E Otterbein, Yang Jin
Robust lung inflammation is one of the prominent features in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Macrophage migration and recruitment are often seen at the early stage of lung inflammatory responses to noxious stimuli. Using an acid inhalation-induced lung injury model, we explored the mechanisms by which acid exposure initiates macrophage recruitment and migration during development of ALI. The lung epithelium comprises a large surface area and functions as a first-line defense against noxious insults...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668353/salsa-a-dance-on-a-slippery-floor-with-changing-partners
#15
M P Reichhardt, U Holmskov, S Meri
It is becoming increasingly clear that the connections between our immune system and the microbiota colonizing us have a tremendous impact on human health. A number of innate molecular defence mechanisms cooperate to selectively target unwanted microorganisms at the mucosal surfaces. Amongst others these include the complement system, IgA and the SALSA molecule. The salivary scavenger and agglutinin (SALSA), also known as deleted in malignant brain tumors 1 (DMBT1), salivary agglutinin (SAG) or gp340 is a multifunctional molecule with important functions in innate immunity, inflammation and epithelial homeostasis...
June 28, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657777/epithelial-deletion-of-sulf2-exacerbates-bleomycin-induced-lung-injury-inflammation-and-mortality
#16
Xinping Yue
Epithelial injury has been proposed to be the initiating factor in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have shown previously that heparan sulfate (HS) 6-O-endosulfatase 2 (Sulf2) is overexpressed in the hyperplastic type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) in the IPF lungs. By removing 6-O-sulfates from specific HS intra-chain sites, Sulf2 modulates the functions of many growth factors and cytokines. In this study we hypothesized that Sulf2 plays a regulatory role in alveolar epithelial injury and repair, using the murine bleomycin model...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649123/extraovarian-primary-peritoneal-carcinomatosis-a-case-report
#17
Gregory Nicolas, Tony Kfoury, Hassan Fawaz, Mahdi Issa
BACKGROUND Extraovarian primary peritoneal carcinoma (EOPPC) is a rare malignant epithelial tumor with an age-adjusted incidence rate of 6.78 per million, which arises from the peritoneal lining with minimal or no ovarian involvement. EOPPC is a diagnosis of exclusion with the absence of other identifiable primary sites and after surgical assessment and consideration of the histological report to evaluate the extent of ovarian invasion. CASE REPORT A 66-year-old woman complained of mild postprandial epigastric pain...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645176/efficacy-of-histatin5-in-a-murine-model-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-caused-by-candida-albicans
#18
Hong Liao, Shanling Liu, He Wang, Hang Su, Zhenjun Liu
Histatin5 (Hst-5) is a member of the histatin family of antimicrobial peptides secreted by human parotid and submandibular glands. With the natural antibacterial activity, it plays an important role in the first-line barrier of oral cave against pathogens, especially for the fungal intrusion. In this study, we explored the utility of Hst-5 in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, a common condition of women of the childbearing age. we used a synthesized Hst-5 over five consecutive days as the topical treatment in a murine model of vulvovaginal candidiasis...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638955/lipopolysaccharide-induced-ccn1-production-enhances-interleukin-6-secretion-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#19
Lin Shi, Nian Dong, Dongxiang Ji, Xiaomin Huang, Zhaojian Ying, Xiangdong Wang, Chengshui Chen
Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a clinical complication caused by primary or secondary lung injury, as well as by systemic inflammation. Researches regarding molecular pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS are immerging with an ultimate aim towards developing prognostic molecular biomarkers and molecule-based therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms concerning ALI/ARDS are still not completely understood. The purpose of the present study was to identify a crucial role of CCN1 in inflammatory microenvironment during ALI/ARDS and focus on a potential communication between CCN1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the airway epithelial cells...
June 21, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634955/human-lung-small-airway-on-a-chip-protocol
#20
Kambez H Benam, Marc Mazur, Youngjae Choe, Thomas C Ferrante, Richard Novak, Donald E Ingber
Organs-on-chips are microfluidic cell culture devices created using microchip manufacturing techniques that contain hollow microchannels lined by living cells, which recreate specialized tissue-tissue interfaces, physical microenvironments, and vascular perfusion necessary to recapitulate organ-level physiology in vitro. Here we describe a protocol for fabrication, culture, and operation of a human lung "small airway-on-a-chip," which contains a differentiated, mucociliary bronchiolar epithelium exposed to air and an underlying microvascular endothelium that experiences fluid flow...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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