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Epithelial lining fluid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645176/efficacy-of-histatin5-in-a-murine-model-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis-caused-by-candida-albicans
#1
Hong Liao, Shanling Liu, He Wang, Hang Su, Zhenjun Liu
Histatin5 (Hst-5) is a member of the histatin family of antimicrobial peptides secreted by human parotid and submandibular glands. With the natural antibacterial activity, it plays an important role in the first-line barrier of oral cave against pathogens, especially for the fungal intrusion. In this study, we explored the utility of Hst-5 in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis, a common condition of women of the childbearing age. we used a synthesized Hst-5 over five consecutive days as the topical treatment in a murine model of vulvovaginal candidiasis...
June 22, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638955/lipopolysaccharide-induced-ccn1-production-enhances-interleukin-6-secretion-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#2
Lin Shi, Nian Dong, Dongxiang Ji, Xiaomin Huang, Zhaojian Ying, Xiangdong Wang, Chengshui Chen
Acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) is a clinical complication caused by primary or secondary lung injury, as well as by systemic inflammation. Researches regarding molecular pathophysiology of ALI/ARDS are immerging with an ultimate aim towards developing prognostic molecular biomarkers and molecule-based therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms concerning ALI/ARDS are still not completely understood. The purpose of the present study was to identify a crucial role of CCN1 in inflammatory microenvironment during ALI/ARDS and focus on a potential communication between CCN1 and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the airway epithelial cells...
June 21, 2017: Cell Biology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616685/endocytic-uptake-transport-and-macromolecular-interactions-of-anionic-pamam-dendrimers-within-lung-tissue
#3
Christopher J Morris, Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Omar Mansour, Peter Griffiths, Mark Gumbleton
PURPOSE: Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are a promising class of nanocarrier with applications in both small and large molecule drug delivery. Here we report a comprehensive evaluation of the uptake and transport pathways that contribute to the lung disposition of dendrimers. METHODS: Anionic PAMAM dendrimers and control dextran probes were applied to an isolated perfused rat lung (IPRL) model and lung epithelial monolayers. Endocytosis pathways were examined in primary alveolar epithelial cultures by confocal microscopy...
June 14, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611113/active-paraoxonase-1-is-synthesised-throughout-the-internal-boar-genital-organs
#4
Isabel Barranco, Cristina Perez-Patiño, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Inmaculada Parrilla, Alejandro Vicente-Carrillo, Manuel Alvarez-Rodriguez, Jose J Ceron, Emilio Martinez, Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez, Jordi Roca
The paraoxonase type 1 (PON1) is an enzyme with antioxidant properties recently identified in the seminal plasma (SP) of several species, including the porcine. The aims of the present study were to (1) describe the inmunohistochemical localization of PON1 in the genital organs of fertile boars and (2) evaluate the relationship among PON1 activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration in fluids of the boar genital organs. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that PON1 was present in testis (specifically in Leydig cells, blood vessels, spermatogonia and elongated spermatids), epididymis (specifically in the cytoplasm of the principal epithelial cells, luminal secretion and in the surrounding smooth muscle) and the lining epithelia of the accessory sexual glands (cytoplasmic location in the prostate and membranous in the seminal vesicle and bulbourethral glands)...
June 13, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609608/voriconazole-concentrations-in-plasma-and-epithelial-lining-fluid-after-inhalation-and-oral-treatment
#5
Charlotte U Andersen, Lene Dahl Sønderskov, Elisabeth Bendstrup, Nina Voldby, Lindsey Cass, John Ayrton, Ole Hilberg
Adverse effects can compromise oral voriconazole treatment of pulmonary aspergillosis. Inhaled low-dose voriconazole may be an alternative treatment. In this study, six patients inhaled 40 mg voriconazole b.i.d. for two days, and six patients ingested 400 and 200 mg orally b.i.d. on day one and two, respectively. Blood samples were collected after the first inhalation, and bronchial alveolar lavage fluids and blood samples were collected for measurements of voriconazole 12 hr after the last administration. The concentration of voriconazole in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) was calculated by the urea dilution method...
June 13, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600524/disruption-of-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cell-properties-under-the-exposure-of-cotinine
#6
Xiao-Yu Zhang, Tsz Kin Ng, Mårten Erik Brelén, Kwok Ping Chan, Di Wu, Jasmine Sum Yee Yung, Di Cao, Yumeng Wang, Shaodan Zhang, Sun On Chan, Chi Pui Pang
Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), in which progressive retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell degeneration is a major pathological change. Nicotine is a major biologically active component in cigarette smoke. It is continuously catabolized into cotinine, which has longer half-life and higher concentration in tissue cells and fluids. Here we hypothesized that continuous exposure of cotinine has more potent effects on human RPE cell properties than nicotine. Human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) was treated continuously with 1-2 µM of nicotine and/or cotinine for 7 days...
June 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588583/hypercapnia-impairs-enac-cell-surface-stability-by-promoting-phosphorylation-polyubiquitination-and-endocytosis-of-%C3%AE-enac-in-a-human-alveolar-epithelial-cell-line
#7
Paulina Gwoździńska, Benno A Buchbinder, Konstantin Mayer, Susanne Herold, Rory E Morty, Werner Seeger, István Vadász
Acute lung injury is associated with formation of pulmonary edema leading to impaired gas exchange. Patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) require mechanical ventilation to improve oxygenation; however, the use of relatively low tidal volumes (to minimize further injury of the lung) often leads to further accumulation of carbon dioxide (hypercapnia). Hypercapnia has been shown to impair alveolar fluid clearance (AFC), thereby causing retention of pulmonary edema, and may lead to worse outcomes; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587343/alteration-of-stomach-microbiota-compositions-in-the-progression-of-gastritis-induces-nitric-oxide-in-gastric-cell
#8
Tianyi Dong, Qiang Feng, Fengyan Liu, Lap Kam Chang, Xiangyu Zhou, Mingyong Han, Xingsong Tian, Ning Zhong, Shili Liu
Atrophic gastritis is considered to be an antecedent to intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer. A previous study identified that Helicobacter pylori was absent at the severe atrophic gastritis stage, and alterations in the gastric microbial composition resembled those in gastric cancer. To explore the role of the bacteria absence of H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis, in the current study, we compared the microbiota of clinically collected H. pylori-free gastric fluids from 30 patients with non-atrophic gastritis (N) and 22 patients with severe atrophic gastritis (S)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575278/pharmacokinetics-of-nebulized-colistin-methanesulfonate-in-critically-ill-patients
#9
Matthieu Boisson, Nicolas Grégoire, Marielle Cormier, Patrice Gobin, Sandrine Marchand, William Couet, Olivier Mimoz
Objectives: Optimal dosing for nebulized colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), the prodrug of colistin, is unknown. We describe the pulmonary and systemic pharmacokinetics of CMS and colistin following nebulization of 0.5 million IU (MIU) of CMS in ventilated patients. Methods: Twelve critically ill patients received 0.5 MIU of CMS administered every 8 h as 30 min nebulizations. Blood samples were collected immediately before and until 8 h after first nebulization; mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) was performed at 1 and 5 h or 3 and 8 h (six patients each) post-dose...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574335/toxicity-of-orally-inhaled-drug-formulations-at-the-alveolar-barrier-parameters-for-initial-biological-screening
#10
Eleonore Fröhlich
Oral delivery is the most common mode of systemic drug application. Inhalation is mainly used for local therapy of lung diseases but may also be a promising route for systemic delivery of drugs that have poor oral bioavailability. The thin alveolar barrier enables fast and efficient uptake of many molecules and could deliver small molecules and proteins, which are susceptible to degradation and show poor absorption by oral application. The low rate of biotransformation and proteolytic degradation increases bioavailability of drugs but accumulation of not absorbed material may impair normal lung function...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560698/a-biocompatible-synthetic-lung-fluid-based-on-human-respiratory-tract-lining-fluid-composition
#11
Abhinav Kumar, Wachirun Terakosolphan, Mireille Hassoun, Kalliopi-Kelli Vandera, Astrid Novicky, Richard Harvey, Paul G Royall, Elif Melis Bicer, Jonny Eriksson, Katarina Edwards, Dirk Valkenborg, Inge Nelissen, Dave Hassall, Ian S Mudway, Ben Forbes
PURPOSE: To characterise a biorelevant simulated lung fluid (SLF) based on the composition of human respiratory tract lining fluid. SLF was compared to other media which have been utilized as lung fluid simulants in terms of fluid structure, biocompatibility and performance in inhalation biopharmaceutical assays. METHODS: The structure of SLF was investigated using cryo-transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy and Langmuir isotherms. Biocompatibility with A549 alveolar epithelial cells was determined by MTT assay, morphometric observations and transcriptomic analysis...
May 30, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559256/aerosolized-polymyxin-b-for-treatment-of-respiratory-tract-infections-determination-of-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-indices-for-aerosolized-polymyxin-b-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-mouse-lung-infection-model
#12
Yu-Wei Lin, Qi Tony Zhou, Nikolas J Onufrak, Veronika Wirth, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Alan Forrest, Hak-Kim Chan, Jian Li
Pulmonary administration of polymyxins is increasingly used for the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, such as those in patients with cystic fibrosis. However, there is a lack of pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and toxicity data of aerosolized polymyxin B to inform rational dosage selection. The PK and PD of polymyxin B following pulmonary and intravenous dosing were conducted in neutropenic infected mice and the data were analyzed by a population PK model...
May 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534973/role-of-x%C3%A2-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis%C3%A2-associated-factor%C3%A2-1-in-vasculogenic-mimicry-in-ovarian-cancer
#13
Yunxia Wang, Peishu Liu, Xietong Wang, Hongluan Mao
X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis‑associated factor 1 (XAF1) was identified as a novel X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) binding partner that may reverse the anti‑apoptotic effect of XIAP. Previous studies have revealed that XAF1 serves an important role in cancer angiogenesis. Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) describes the formation of fluid‑conducting channels by highly invasive and genetically dysregulated tumor cells. VM is critical for tumor blood supply and is associated with aggressive actions and metastasis...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532939/guiding-flying-spot-laser-transepithelial-phototherapeutic-keratectomy-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#14
REVIEW
Yan Li, Hideaki Yokogawa, Maolong Tang, Winston Chamberlain, Xinbo Zhang, David Huang
PURPOSE: To analyze transepithelial phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) results using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and develop a model to guide the laser dioptric and depth settings. SETTING: Casey Eye Institute, Portland, Oregon, USA. DESIGN: Prospective nonrandomized case series. METHODS: Patients with superficial corneal opacities and irregularities had transepithelial PTK with a flying-spot excimer laser by combining wide-zone myopic and hyperopic astigmatic ablations...
April 2017: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500065/loss-of-mpdz-impairs-ependymal-cell-integrity-leading-to-perinatal-onset-hydrocephalus-in-mice
#15
Anja Feldner, M Gordian Adam, Fabian Tetzlaff, Iris Moll, Dorde Komljenovic, Felix Sahm, Tobias Bäuerle, Hiroshi Ishikawa, Horst Schroten, Thomas Korff, Ilse Hofmann, Hartwig Wolburg, Andreas von Deimling, Andreas Fischer
Hydrocephalus is a common congenital anomaly. LCAM1 and MPDZ (MUPP1) are the only known human gene loci associated with non-syndromic hydrocephalus. To investigate functions of the tight junction-associated protein Mpdz, we generated mouse models. Global Mpdz gene deletion or conditional inactivation in Nestin-positive cells led to formation of supratentorial hydrocephalus in the early postnatal period. Blood vessels, epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, and cilia on ependymal cells, which line the ventricular system, remained morphologically intact in Mpdz-deficient brains...
May 12, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458673/inflammatory-responses-regulating-alveolar-ion-transport-during-pulmonary-infections
#16
REVIEW
Christin Peteranderl, Jacob I Sznajder, Susanne Herold, Emilia Lecuona
The respiratory epithelium is lined by a tightly balanced fluid layer that allows normal O2 and CO2 exchange and maintains surface tension and host defense. To maintain alveolar fluid homeostasis, both the integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and the expression of epithelial ion channels and pumps are necessary to establish a vectorial ion gradient. However, during pulmonary infection, auto- and/or paracrine-acting mediators induce pathophysiological changes of the alveolar-capillary barrier, altered expression of epithelial Na,K-ATPase and of epithelial ion channels including epithelial sodium channel and cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator, leading to the accumulation of edema and impaired alveolar fluid clearance...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457009/comparison-of-direct-sampling-and-brochoalveolar-lavage-for-determining-active-drug-concentrations-in-the-pulmonary-epithelial-lining-fluid-of-calves-injected-with-enrofloxacin-or-tilmicosin
#17
D M Foster, H J Sylvester, M G Papich
Antibiotic distribution to interstitial fluid (ISF) and pulmonary epithelial fluid (PELF) was measured and compared to plasma drug concentrations in eight healthy calves. Enrofloxacin (Baytril(®) 100) was administered at a dose of 12.5 mg/kg subcutaneously (SC), and tilmicosin (Micotil(®) 300) was administered at a dose of 20 mg/kg SC. PELF, sampled by two different methods-bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and direct sampling (DS)-plasma, and ISF were collected from each calf and measured for tilmicosin, enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin by HPLC...
April 29, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416551/comparative-pharmacodynamics-of-telavancin-and-vancomycin-in-the-neutropenic-murine-thigh-and-lung-infection-models-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Alexander J Lepak, Miao Zhao, David R Andes
The pharmacodynamics of telavancin and vancomycin were compared using neutropenic murine thigh and lung infection models. Four S. aureus strains were included. The telavancin MIC ranged from 0.06 - 0.25 mg/L and vancomycin MIC from 1 - 4 mg/L. Plasma pharmacokinetics of escalating doses (1.25, 5, 20 and 80 mg/kg) of telavancin and vancomycin were linear over the dose range. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) pharmacokinetics for each drug revealed penetration into the ELF mirrored the percent free fraction (not protein bound) in plasma for each drug...
April 17, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386087/delivery-of-enac-sirna-to-epithelial-cells-mediated-by-a-targeted-nanocomplex-a-therapeutic-strategy-for-cystic-fibrosis
#19
Maria D I Manunta, Aristides D Tagalakis, Martin Attwood, Ahmad M Aldossary, Josephine L Barnes, Mustafa M Munye, Alexander Weng, Robin J McAnulty, Stephen L Hart
The inhibition of ENaC may have therapeutic potential in CF airways by reducing sodium hyperabsorption, restoring lung epithelial surface fluid levels, airway hydration and mucociliary function. The challenge has been to deliver siRNA to the lung with sufficient efficacy for a sustained therapeutic effect. We have developed a self-assembling nanocomplex formulation for siRNA delivery to the airways that consists of a liposome (DOTMA/DOPE; L), an epithelial targeting peptide (P) and siRNA (R). LPR formulations were assessed for their ability to silence expression of the transcript of the gene encoding the α-subunit of the sodium channel ENaC in cell lines and primary epithelial cells, in submerged cultures or grown in air-liquid interface conditions...
April 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321372/treatment-outcomes-of-rathke-s-cleft-cysts-managed-with-marsupialization
#20
Edward C Kuan, Frederick Yoo, Jennifer Chyu, Marvin Bergsneider, Marilene B Wang
Objectives Rathke's cleft cysts (RCC) are benign cystic lesions of the sella resulting from incomplete obliteration of Rathke's cleft. Symptomatic lesions often require surgical decompression, which is often amenable to a transnasal, transsphenoidal (TNTS) approach. We report our experience with marsupialization of RCC and describe a novel technique to promote re-epithelization of the cyst cavity. Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary academic medical center. Participants Patients who underwent TNTS for RCC between 2007 and 2015...
April 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
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