Read by QxMD icon Read

Epithelial lining fluid

Abrar K Thabit, Jared L Crandon, David P Nicolau
Increasing antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens has contributed to infection-related morbidity and mortality. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to define the pharmacodynamic profile of delafloxacin against CAP pathogens using a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Five S. pneumoniae, 2 methicillin-susceptible S...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Na-Rae Shin, Hyung-Won Ryu, Je-Won Ko, Ji-Won Park, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Sei-Ryang Oh, Jong-Choon Kim, In-Sik Shin, Kyung-Seop Ahn
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: A standardized bark extract of Pinus pinaster Aiton (Pycnogenol(®); PYC) used as an herbal medicine to treat various diseases in Europe and North America. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study evaluates the ability of PYC to inhibit chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-stimulated human airway epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and in a cigarette smoke (CS) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse model...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Adam M Speen, Hye-Young H Kim, Rebecca N Bauer, Megan Meyer, Kymberly M Gowdy, Michael B Fessler, Kelly E Duncan, Wei Liu, Ned A Porter, Ilona Jaspers
When inhaled, ozone (O3) interacts with cholesterols of airway epithelial cell membranes or the lung lining fluid, generating chemically reactive oxysterols. The mechanism by which O3-derived oxysterols affect molecular function is unknown. Our data show that in vitro exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to O3 results in the formation of oxysterols, epoxycholesterol-α and β (α-EpCh, β-EpCh) and Secosterol A and B (Seco A, SecoB), in cell lysates and apical washes. Similarly, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from human volunteers exposed to O3 contained elevated levels of these oxysterol species...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yohei Funatsu, Sadatomo Tasaka, Takahiro Asami, Ho Namkoong, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Osamu Iketani, Kazuma Yagi, Yoshifumi Kimizuka, Makoto Ishii, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Haruhiko Ogata, Satoshi Iwata, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Some subtypes of influenza virus, such as H5N1 and H7N9, cause severe viral pneumonia, for which the intraluminal concentration of the anti-influenza agent in the airway is critical. However, the pharmacokinetics of peramivir, the only available injectable neuraminidase inhibitor formulation, in the airway epithelial lining fluid (ELF) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine the time course of peramivir in the pharyngeal ELF, bronchial ELF, and plasma of healthy volunteers using bronchoscopic microsampling technique...
October 3, 2016: Antiviral Therapy
S Giguère, A J Burton, L J Berghaus, A D Haspel
The objective of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of minocycline in foals vs. adult horses. Minocycline was administered to six healthy 6- to 9-week-old foals and six adult horses at a dose of 4 mg/kg intragastrically (IG) and 2 mg/kg intravenously (i.v.) in a cross-over design. Five additional oral doses were administered at 12-h intervals in foals. A microbiologic assay was used to measure minocycline concentration in plasma, urine, synovial fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to measure minocycline concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and bronchoalveolar (BAL) cells...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Evangelia Zilelidou, Christina-Vasiliki Karmiri, Georgia Zoumpopoulou, Eleni Mavrogonatou, Dimitris Kletsas, Effie Tsakalidou, Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Eleftherios Drosinos, Panagiotis Skandamis
: Various Listeria monocytogenes strains may contaminate a single food potentially resulting in simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains. However, L. monocytogenes strains isolated from foods by selective enrichment (SE) might not always represent those that can better survive a patient immune system, due to bias in strain recovery. We investigated the effect of co-cultivation in TSB-Y at 10°C for 8 days on i) the detection of L. monocytogenes strains during SE with the ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 protocol and ii) the in vitro virulence of strains towards the human colon epithelial cancer cell line Caco-2 following exposure to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2...
September 16, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
M Evans, T Murofushi, H Tsuda, Y Mikami, N Zhao, K Ochiai, T Kurita-Ochiai, M Yamamoto, K Otsuka, N Suzuki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bacteria in the dental biofilm surrounding marginal gingival grooves cause periodontal diseases. Numerous bacteria within the biofilm consume nutrients from the gingival crevicular fluid. Furthermore, some gram-negative bacteria in mature dental biofilms produce butyrate. Thus, gingival epithelial cells in close proximity to mature dental biofilms are at risk of both starvation and exposure to butyrate. In the present study, we determined the combined effects of starvation and butyrate exposure on gingival epithelial cell death and the underlying mechanisms...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
Pascale S J Lakey, Thomas Berkemeier, Haijie Tong, Andrea M Arangio, Kurt Lucas, Ulrich Pöschl, Manabu Shiraiwa
Air pollution can cause oxidative stress and adverse health effects such as asthma and other respiratory diseases, but the underlying chemical processes are not well characterized. Here we present chemical exposure-response relations between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and the production rates and concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the human respiratory tract. In highly polluted environments, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) containing redox-active transition metals, quinones, and secondary organic aerosols can increase ROS concentrations in the ELF to levels characteristic for respiratory diseases...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kengyeh K Chu, Diana Mojahed, Courtney M Fernandez, Yao Li, Linbo Liu, Eric J Wilsterman, Bradford Diephuis, Susan E Birket, Hannah Bowers, G Martin Solomon, Benjamin S Schuster, Justin Hanes, Steven M Rowe, Guillermo J Tearney
Clinical manifestations of cystic fibrosis (CF) result from an increase in the viscosity of the mucus secreted by epithelial cells that line the airways. Particle-tracking microrheology (PTM) is a widely accepted means of determining the viscoelastic properties of CF mucus, providing an improved understanding of this disease as well as an avenue to assess the efficacies of pharmacologic therapies aimed at decreasing mucus viscosity. Among its advantages, PTM allows the measurement of small volumes, which was recently utilized for an in situ study of CF mucus formed by airway cell cultures...
September 6, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Megan M Cartwright, Stefanie C Schmuck, Charlie Corredor, Bingbing Wang, David K Scoville, Claire R Chisholm, Hui-Wen Wilkerson, Zahra Afsharinejad, Theodor K Bammler, Jonathan D Posner, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Donald R Baer, Somenath Mitra, William A Altemeier, Terrance J Kavanagh
Inhalation of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) during their manufacture or incorporation into various commercial products may cause lung inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress in exposed workers. Some workers may be more susceptible to these effects because of differences in their ability to synthesize the major antioxidant and immune system modulator glutathione (GSH). Accordingly, in this study we examined the influence of GSH synthesis and gender on MWCNT-induced lung inflammation in C57BL/6 mice...
August 21, 2016: Redox Biology
Maria Lasalvia, Stefano Castellani, Palma D'Antonio, Giuseppe Perna, Annalucia Carbone, Anna Laura Colia, Angela Bruna Maffione, Vito Capozzi, Massimo Conese
The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease stems from mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, leading to a chronic respiratory disease. Actin cytoskeleton is disorganized in CF airway epithelial cells, likely contributing to the CF-associated basic defects, i.e. defective chloride secretion and sodium/fluid hypersorption. In this work, we aimed to find whether this alteration could be pointed out by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigation, as roughness and Young's elastic module...
October 15, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
Joyce F Liu, Sangeetha Palakurthi, Qing Zeng, Shan Zhou, Elena Ivanova, Wei Huang, Ioannis K Zervantonakis, Laura M Selfors, Yiping Shen, Colin C Pritchard, Mei Zheng, Vilmos Adleff, Eniko Papp, Huiying Piao, Marian Novak, Susan Fotheringham, Gerburg Wulf, Jessie English, Paul T Kirschmeier, Victor E Velculescu, Cloud P Paweletz, Gordon B Mills, David M Livingston, Joan S Brugge, Ursula A Matulonis, Ronny Drapkin
PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the United States, with high rates of recurrence and eventual resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Model systems that allow for accurate and reproducible target discovery and validation are needed to support further drug development in this disease. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Clinically-annotated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were generated from tumor cells isolated from the ascites or pleural fluid of patients undergoing clinical procedures...
August 29, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Priscilla C Petit, David H Fine, Gregory B Vásquez, Lucas Gamero, Mark S Slaughter, Kurt A Dasse
Administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) with existing compressed-gas delivery systems is associated with unavoidable co-delivery of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), an unwanted toxic contaminant that forms when mixed with oxygen. The NO2 is generated when NO is diluted with O2 enriched air prior to delivery to the patient. When NO2 is inhaled by the patient, it oxidizes protective antioxidants within the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) and triggers extracellular damage in the airways. The reaction of NO2 within the ELF triggers oxidative stress (OS), possibly leading to edema, bronchoconstriction, and a reduced FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec)...
August 22, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Vida Kocbek, Giovanni Grandi, Fabian Blank, Carlos Wotzkow, Nick A Bersinger, Michael D Mueller, Satoru Kyo, Brett D McKinnon
STUDY HYPOTHESIS: Can the activity of the IκB kinase (IKKβ) complex in endometriotic cells contribute to endometriotic lesion survival? STUDY ANSWER: There is a constitutive activity of the IKKβ catalytic complex in peritoneal and deeply infiltrating lesions that can influence epithelial, but not stromal cell viability. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Endometriotic lesions exist in an inflammatory microenvironment with higher local concentrations of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)...
August 19, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
Kamlesh Gidwani, Kaisa Huhtinen, Henna Kekki, Sandra van Vliet, Johanna Hynninen, Niina Koivuviita, Antti Perheentupa, Matti Poutanen, Annika Auranen, Seija Grenman, Urpo Lamminmäki, Olli Carpen, Yvette van Kooyk, Kim Pettersson
BACKGROUND: Measurement of serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125) is the standard approach for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) diagnostics and follow-up. However, the clinical specificity is not optimal because increased values are also detected in healthy controls and in benign diseases. CA125 is known to be differentially glycosylated in EOC, potentially offering a way to construct CA125 assays with improved cancer specificity. Our goal was to identify carbohydrate-reactive lectins for discriminating between CA125 originating from EOC and noncancerous sources...
October 2016: Clinical Chemistry
Marisa C Gaspar, Nicolas Grégoire, João J S Sousa, Alberto A C C Pais, Isabelle Lamarche, Patrice Gobin, Jean-Christophe Olivier, Sandrine Marchand, William Couet
A comparative pharmacokinetic study was conducted in rats after intratracheal aerosolization of levofloxacin, as a solution, as immediate-release chitosan microspheres or as sustained-release PLGA microspheres. A pharmacokinetic model was constructed to model levofloxacin concentrations both in plasma and in the lung epithelial lining fluid (ELF). The plasma and ELF experimental concentration profiles versus time were similar for the intravenous and intratracheal levofloxacin solutions and for the intratracheal levofloxacin-loaded chitosan microsphere dry powder, indicating that levofloxacin diffused almost instantaneously through the broncho-alveolar barrier and that the chitosan microspheres released levofloxacin very rapidly, as anticipated from in vitro release studies...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Stephen B Vickery, David McClain, Kurt A Wargo
Ceftolozane-tazobactam, a novel β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of complicated urinary tract and intraabdominal infections, as monotherapy and in combination with metronidazole, respectively. Ceftolozane-tazobactam exhibits a wide spectrum of activity against both gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria including multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and some anaerobic bacteria. Although not currently approved for any pulmonary indication, studies have demonstrated excellent distribution to epithelial lining fluid, indicating that it may be an alternative agent to use in the treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by MDRP...
October 2016: Pharmacotherapy
Amanda J Lee, Noemi Polgar, Josephine A Napoli, Vanessa H Lui, Kadee-Kalia Tamashiro, Brent A Fujimoto, Karen S Thompson, Ben Fogelgren
Congenital obstructive nephropathy (CON) is the most prevalent cause of pediatric chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease. The ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) region, where the renal pelvis transitions to the ureter, is the most commonly obstructed site in CON. The underlying causes of congenital UPJ obstructions remain poorly understood, especially when they occur in utero, in part due to the lack of genetic animal models. We previously showed that conditional inactivation of Sec10, a central subunit of the exocyst complex, in the epithelial cells of the ureter and renal collecting system resulted in late gestational bilateral UPJ obstructions with neonatal anuria and death...
2016: Scientific Reports
Suman Pal, Vadde Ramu, Nandaraj Taye, Devraj G Mogare, Amar M Yeware, Dhiman Sarkar, D Srinivasa Reddy, Samit Chattopadhyay, Amitava Das
Fluoroquinolones are third-generation broad spectrum bactericidal antibiotics and work against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Levofloxacin (L), a fluoroquinolone, is widely used in anti-infective chemotherapy and treatment of urinary tract infection and pneumonia. The main pathogen for urinary tract infections is Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for pneumonia, predominantly a lower respiratory tract infection. Poor permeability of L leads to the use of higher dose of this drug and excess drug in the outer cellular fluid leads to central nervous system (CNS) abnormality...
September 21, 2016: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Rosangela Salerno-Goncalves, Alessio Fasano, Marcelo B Sztein
Because cells growing in a three-dimensional (3-D) environment have the potential to bridge many gaps of cell cultivation in 2-D environments (e.g., flasks or dishes). In fact, it is widely recognized that cells grown in flasks or dishes tend to de-differentiate and lose specialized features of the tissues from which they were derived. Currently, there are mainly two types of 3-D culture systems where the cells are seeded into scaffolds mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM): (a) static models and (b) models using bioreactors...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"