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Epithelial lining fluid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758578/-cf-lung-disease-a-german-s3-guideline-module-2-diagnostics-and-treatment-in-chronic-infection-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
C Schwarz, B Schulte-Hubbert, J Bend, M Abele-Horn, I Baumann, W Bremer, F Brunsmann, D Dieninghoff, O Eickmeier, H Ellemunter, R Fischer, J Grosse-Onnebrink, J Hammermann, H Hebestreit, M Hogardt, C Hügel, M Hug, S Illing, A Jung, B Kahl, A Koitschev, R Mahlberg, J G Mainz, F Mattner, A Mehl, A Möller, C Muche-Borowski, T Nüßlein, M Puderbach, S Renner, E Rietschel, F C Ringshausen, S Schmidt, L Sedlacek, H Sitter, C Smaczny, B Tümmler, R Vonberg, M O Wielpütz, H Wilkens, B Wollschläger, J Zerlik, U Düesberg, S van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common autosomal-recessive genetic disease affecting approximately 8000 people in Germany. The disease is caused by mutations in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene leading to dysfunction of CFTR, a transmembrane chloride channel. This defect causes insufficient hydration of the epithelial lining fluid which leads to chronic inflammation of the airways. Recurrent infections of the airways as well as pulmonary exacerbations aggravate chronic inflammation, lead to pulmonary fibrosis and tissue destruction up to global respiratory insufficiency, which is responsible for the mortality in over 90 % of patients...
May 2018: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746821/lansoprazole-reduces-renal-cyst-in-polycystic-kidney-disease-via-inhibition-of-cell-proliferation-and-fluid-secretion
#2
Jiriporn Nantavishit, Varanuj Chatsudthipong, Sunhapas Soodvilai
Renal cyst development and expansion in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is mediated by abnormal cyst-ling cell proliferation and fluid accumulation. Liver X receptor (LXR)-activating ligands suppresses renal cyst enlargement by modulation of cysticfibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated fluid accumulation. Lansoprazole has been reported as agonist of LXR, and shows an anti-proliferative effect in cancer cells. Here, lansoprazole's pharmacological effect and underlying mechanism on renal cyst development and expansion in in vitro; human ADPKD cyst-lining epithelial cell line and Type I Mardin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, and in vivo models was investigated...
May 7, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740320/amifostine-analog-drde-30-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice
#3
Aastha Arora, Vikas Bhuria, Puja P Hazari, Uma Pathak, Sweta Mathur, Bal G Roy, Rajat Sandhir, Ravi Soni, Bilikere S Dwarakanath, Anant N Bhatt
Bleomycin (BLM) is an effective curative option in the management of several malignancies including pleural effusions; but pulmonary toxicity, comprising of pneumonitis and fibrosis, poses challenge in its use as a front-line chemotherapeutic. Although Amifostine has been found to protect lungs from the toxic effects of radiation and BLM, its application is limited due to associated toxicity and unfavorable route of administration. Therefore, there is a need for selective, potent, and safe anti-fibrotic drugs...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737851/large-scale-label-free-quantitative-mapping-of-the-sputum-proteome
#4
James P R Schofield, Dominic Burg, Joost Brandsma, Doroteya Staykova, Caterina Folisi, Aruna Bansal, Ben Nicholas, Yang Xian, Anthony Rowe, Julie Corfield, Susan Wilson, Jonathan Ward, Rene Lutter, Louise Fleming, Dominick E Shaw, Per S Bakke, Massimo Caruso, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Stephen J Fowler, Simone Hashimoto, Ildiko Horvath, Peter Howarth, Norbert Krug, Paolo Montuschi, Marek Sanak, Thomas Sandstrom, Florian Singer, Kai Sun, Ioannis Pandis, Charles Auffray, Ana R Sousa, Ian M Adcock, Kian Fan Chung, Peter J Sterk, Ratko Djukanovic, Paul J Skipp
Analysis of induced sputum supernatant is a minimally invasive approach to study the epithelial lining fluid and, thereby, provide insight into normal lung biology and the pathobiology of lung diseases. We present here a novel proteomics approach to sputum analysis developed within the U-BIOPRED (Unbiased BIOmarkers Predictive of REspiratory Disease outcomes) international project. We present practical and analytical techniques to optimise the detection of robust biomarkers in proteomic studies. The normal sputum proteome was derived using data-independent HDMSE applied to 40 healthy non-smoking participants, which provides an essential baseline from which to compare modulation of protein expression in respiratory diseases...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720634/blastocyst-like-structures-generated-solely-from-stem-cells
#5
Nicolas C Rivron, Javier Frias-Aldeguer, Erik J Vrij, Jean-Charles Boisset, Jeroen Korving, Judith Vivié, Roman K Truckenmüller, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Clemens A van Blitterswijk, Niels Geijsen
The blastocyst (the early mammalian embryo) forms all embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues, including the placenta. It consists of a spherical thin-walled layer, known as the trophectoderm, that surrounds a fluid-filled cavity sheltering the embryonic cells 1 . From mouse blastocysts, it is possible to derive both trophoblast 2 and embryonic stem-cell lines 3 , which are in vitro analogues of the trophectoderm and embryonic compartments, respectively. Here we report that trophoblast and embryonic stem cells cooperate in vitro to form structures that morphologically and transcriptionally resemble embryonic day 3...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719047/echinococcus-granulosus-cyst-fluid-enhances-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#6
Ahmed A Mohammed, J Allen, M T Rogan
AIMS: Cystic Echinococcosis is characterised by fluid filled hydatid cysts in the liver and lungs. The cysts are surrounded by a host fibrous layer (the pericyst) which acts to isolate the parasite from surrounding tissues. Previous studies in liver cysts have indicated that the parasite may be stimulating fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Hydatid Cyst Fluid (HCF) could influence the potential for fibrosis to occur in lung tissue by stimulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a human lung epithelial cell line...
May 2, 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678545/preparation-of-drug-loaded-small-unilamellar-liposomes-and-evaluation-of-their-potential-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases
#7
Vincenzo De Leo, Silvia Ruscigno, Adriana Trapani, Sante Di Gioia, Francesco Milano, Delia Mandracchia, Roberto Comparelli, Stefano Castellani, Angela Agostiano, Giuseppe Trapani, Lucia Catucci, Massimo Conese
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of liposome formulation on the ability of vesicles to penetrate a pathological mucus model obtained from COPD affected patients in order to assess the potential of such vesicles for the treatment of chronic respiratory diseases by inhalation. Therefore, Small Unilamellar Liposomes (PLAIN-LIPOSOMEs), Pluronic® F127-surface modified liposomes (PF-LIPOSOMEs) and PEG 2000PE-surface modified liposomes (PEG-LIPOSOMEs) were prepared using the micelle-to-vesicle transition (MVT) method and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) as model drug...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663427/surfactant-protein-d-alleviates-eosinophil-mediated-airway-inflammation-and-remodeling-in-patients-with-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#8
Youngwoo Choi, Dong-Hyun Lee, Trinh Hoang Kim Tu, Ga-Young Ban, Hanki Park, Yoo Seob Shin, Seung-Hyun Kim, Hae-Sim Park
BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein D (SPD) is a member of the collectin family that lines the airway epithelial cells with host defense. However, the role of SPD in the pathogenesis of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) is still unclear. METHODS: The serum SPD level was measured in patients with AERD (n=336), those with aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA, n=442), and healthy controls (HC, n=104). Polymorphisms of SFTPD in the study subjects were analyzed. The effect of LTE4 on SPD production through eosinophil infiltration was investigated in BALB/c mice...
April 16, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649906/knockdown-of-lncrna-malat1-contributes-to-the-suppression-of-inflammatory-responses-by-up-regulating-mir-146a-in-lps-induced-acute-lung-injury
#9
Lingling Dai, Guojun Zhang, Zhe Cheng, Xi Wang, Liuqun Jia, Xiaogang Jing, Huan Wang, Rui Zhang, Meng Liu, Tianci Jiang, Yuanjian Yang, Meng Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a type of severe pulmonary inflammatory disease with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Now, an increasing number of studies suggest that lncRNAs may act as key regulators of the inflammatory response and play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Our study firstly explored the function and underlying mechanism of lncRNA metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcription 1 (MALAT1) in regulating the inflammatory response of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in rats...
April 13, 2018: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649411/the-in-vitro-differentiation-of-gdnf-gene-engineered-amniotic-fluid-derived-stem-cells-into-renal-tubular-epithelial-like-cells
#10
Ying Lu, Zhuojun Wang, Lu Chen, Jia Wang, Shulin Li, Caixia Liu, Dong Sun
Amniotic fluid is an alternative source of stem cells, and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) obtained from a small amount of amniotic fluid collected during the second trimester represent a novel source for use in regenerative medicine. These AFSCs are characterized by lower diversity, a higher proliferation rate and a wider differentiation capability than adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). AFSCs are selected based on the cell surface marker c-kit receptor (CD117) using immunomagnetic sorting...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587761/evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-therapeutic-applications-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Alessandro G Fois, Panagiotis Paliogiannis, Salvatore Sotgia, Arduino A Mangoni, Elisabetta Zinellu, Pietro Pirina, Ciriaco Carru, Angelo Zinellu
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a fatal lung disease of unknown origin, is characterized by chronic and progressive fibrosing interstitial pneumonia which progressively impairs lung function. Oxidative stress is one of the main pathogenic pathways in IPF. The aim of this systematic review was to describe the type of markers of oxidative stress identified in different biological specimens and the effects of antioxidant therapies in patients with IPF. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of publications listed in electronic databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar) from inception to October 2017...
March 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584451/epithelial-heparan-sulfate-contributes-to-alveolar-barrier-function-and-is-shed-during-lung-injury
#12
Sarah M Haeger, Xinyue Liu, Xiaorui Han, J Brennan McNeil, Kaori Oshima, Sarah A McMurtry, Yimu Yang, Yilan Ouyang, Fuming Zhang, Eva Nozik-Grayck, Rachel L Zemans, Rubin M Tuder, Julie A Bastarache, Robert J Linhardt, Eric P Schmidt
The lung epithelial glycocalyx is a carbohydrate-enriched layer lining the pulmonary epithelial surface. Although epithelial glycocalyx visualization has been reported, its composition and function remain unknown. Using immunofluorescence and mass spectrometry we identified heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) within the lung epithelial glycocalyx. In vivo selective enzymatic degradation of epithelial HS, but not CS, increased lung permeability. Using mass spectrometry and gel electrophoresis approaches to determine the fate of epithelial HS during lung injury, we detected shedding of ≥ 20 saccharide-long HS into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in intratracheal LPS-treated mice...
March 27, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563577/inhibition-of-hedgehog-signaling-suppresses-proliferation-and-microcyst-formation-of-human-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-cells
#13
Luciane M Silva, Damon T Jacobs, Bailey A Allard, Timothy A Fields, Madhulika Sharma, Darren P Wallace, Pamela V Tran
Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) is caused by mutation of PKD1 or PKD2, which encode polycystin 1 and 2, respectively. The polycystins localize to primary cilia and the functional loss of the polycystin complex leads to the formation and progressive growth of fluid-filled cysts in the kidney. The pathogenesis of ADPKD is complex and molecular mechanisms connecting ciliary dysfunction to renal cystogenesis are unclear. Primary cilia mediate Hedgehog signaling, which modulates cell proliferation and differentiation in a tissue-dependent manner...
March 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563144/guanylate-cyclase-c-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-gastrointestinal-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Scott A Waldman, Michael Camilleri
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) and IBDs are two of the most prevalent disorders of the GI tract and consume a significant proportion of healthcare resources. Recent studies have shown that membrane-bound guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) receptors lining the GI tract may serve as novel therapeutic targets in the treatment of FGIDs and IBDs. GC-C receptor activation by its endogenous paracrine hormones uroguanylin and guanylin, and the resulting intracellular production of its downstream effector cyclic GMP, occurs in a pH-dependent manner and modulates key physiological functions...
March 21, 2018: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562340/pharmacodynamics-of-inhaled-amikacin-bay-41-6551-studied-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-model-of-infection
#15
Karen E Bowker, Alan R Noel, Sharon Tomaselli, Marie Attwood, Alasdair P MacGowan
Background: The pharmacodynamics of inhaled antimicrobials are poorly studied. Amikacin is being developed for inhalational therapy as BAY 41-6551. Objectives: We employed an in vitro pharmacokinetic model to study the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of amikacin. Methods: A dose-ranging design was used to establish fAUC/MIC and fCmax/MIC targets for static, -1 log drop and -2 log drop effects for strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551860/antimicrobial-peptides-the-miraculous-biological-molecules
#16
REVIEW
Siddharth Mallapragada, Ananya Wadhwa, Pallavi Agrawal
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are biological molecules bridging the innate and acquired immune systems of the defense mechanism. They have been found to be effective against not only Gram-positive and -negative bacterial species but also fungi and viruses with their broad spectrum of activity. Among the various niches where they are found in the human body, in the oral cavity, the AMPs are secreted by the epithelial cells, defense cells, crevicular fluid, and in the salivary secretions and form the first line of defense against bacterial invasion...
November 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544104/salmeterol-undergoes-enantioselective-bronchopulmonary-distribution-with-receptor-localisation-a-likely-determinant-of-duration-of-action
#17
Glenn A Jacobson, Sharanne Raidal, Kate Robson, Christian K Narkowicz, David S Nichols, E Haydn Walters
BACKGROUND: Salmeterol (a long acting beta2-agonist) is a chiral molecule. (RR)-salmeterol is responsible for pharmacological effect, but basic knowledge of enantioselective pulmonary pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol remains unknown. There are safety concerns with (S)-enantiomers of beta2-agonists, with suggestions that these enantiomers may increase bronchial hyperresponsivneness in asthma patients. METHODOLOGY: Horses (n = 12) received racemic (rac-) salmeterol 250 μg via inhalation...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541061/characteristics-of-the-epididymal-luminal-environment-responsible-for-sperm-maturation-and-storage
#18
REVIEW
Wei Zhou, Geoffry N De Iuliis, Matthew D Dun, Brett Nixon
The testicular spermatozoa of all mammalian species are considered functionally immature owing to their inability to swim in a progressive manner and engage in productive interactions with the cumulus-oocyte complex. The ability to express these key functional attributes develops progressively during the cells' descent through the epididymis, a highly specialized ductal system that forms an integral part of the male reproductive tract. The functional maturation of the spermatozoon is achieved via continuous interactions with the epididymal luminal microenvironment and remarkably, occurs in the complete absence of de novo gene transcription or protein translation...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524592/evaluation-of-drug-permeation-under-fed-state-conditions-using-mucus-covered-caco-2-cell-epithelium
#19
Ditlev Birch, Ragna G Diedrichsen, Philip C Christophersen, Huiling Mu, Hanne M Nielsen
The absence of a surface-lining mucus layer is a major pitfall for the Caco-2 epithelial model. However, this limitation can be alleviated by applying biosimilar mucus (BM) to the apical surface of the cell monolayer, thereby constructing a mucosa mimicking in vivo conditions. This study aims to elucidate the influence of BM as a barrier towards exogenic compounds such as permeation enhancers, and components of fed state simulated intestinal fluid (FeSSIF). Caco-2 cell monolayers surface-lined with BM were exposed to several compounds with distinct physicochemical properties, and the cell viability and permeability of the cell monolayer was compared to that of cell monolayers without BM and well-established mucus-secreting epithelial models (HT29-MTX-E12 cell monolayers and HT29-MTX-E12/Caco-2 cell co-culture monolayers)...
June 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499737/comparison-of-benign-peritoneal-fluid-and-ovarian-cancer-ascites-derived-extracellular-vesicle-rna-biomarkers
#20
Cindy M Yamamoto, Melanie L Oakes, Taku Murakami, Michael G Muto, Ross S Berkowitz, Shu-Wing Ng
BACKGROUND: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are considered as a new class of resources for potential biomarkers. We analyzed expression of specific mRNA and miRNA in EVs derived from ovarian cancer ascites and the ideal controls, peritoneal fluids from benign patients for potential early detection and prognostic biomarkers. METHODS: Fluids were collected from subjects with benign cysts or endometrioma (n = 10), or low/high grade serous ovarian carcinoma (n = 8)...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
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