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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351636/effectiveness-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-immunoprophylaxis-on-bronchiolitis-hospitalizations-among-high-risk-infants
#1
Pingsheng Wu, Gabriel J Escobar, Tebeb Gebretsadik, Kecia N Carroll, Sherian X Li, Eileen M Walsh, Edward F Mitchel, Chantel Sloan, William D Dupont, Chang Yu, Jeffrey R Horner, Tina V Hartert
We sought to determine the real-world effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) immunoprophylaxis in a population-based cohort to inform policy. The study population included infants born 1996-2008 and enrolled in Kaiser Permanente Northern California. During the RSV season (November-March), RSV immunoprophylaxis administration and the following 30 days were defined as RSV immunoprophylaxis protected period(s), and all other days as unprotected period(s). Bronchiolitis hospitalizations were determined using the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision codes during RSV season...
January 17, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350401/neurodevelopmental-outcome-in-very-preterm-and-very-low-birthweight-infants-born-over-the-past-decade-a-meta-analytic-review
#2
REVIEW
Aurelie Pascal, Paul Govaert, Ann Oostra, Gunnar Naulaers, Els Ortibus, Christine Van den Broeck
AIM: The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an up-to-date global overview of the separate prevalences of motor and cognitive delays and cerebral palsy (CP) in very preterm (VPT) and very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants. METHOD: A comprehensive search was conducted across four databases. Cohort studies reporting the prevalence of CP and motor or cognitive outcome from 18 months corrected age until 6 years of VPT or VLBW infants born after 2006 were included...
January 19, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350247/prolonged-pr-interval-at-birth-predicting-the-high-occurrence-of-fatal-atrioventricular-block-in-hypoplastic-left-heart-syndrome
#3
Eiji Morihana, Kenichiro Yamamura, Yuichiro Sugitani, Hideaki Kado, Yasushi Takahata, Toshihide Nakano, Yasutaka Nakashima, Naoki Fusazaki, Shouichi Ohga
Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) are at high mortality especially when they are associated with bradyarrhythmias. However, the risk factor of developing high-grade atrioventricular block (HAVB) is still unclear. Seventy-three patients with HLHS in our institutions from 2002 to 2011 were enrolled. The survival rate was assessed by the anatomical types, treatments, occurrence of HAVB, severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR), and restrictive atrial septal defect (ASD) along with electrocardiogram findings at birth...
January 19, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349938/improved-regional-disparities-in-neonatal-care-by-government-led-policies-in-korea
#4
In Gyu Song, Seung Han Shin, Han Suk Kim
BACKGROUND: Although the number of high-risk neonates has increased in Korea, hospitals were reluctant to open or maintain neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) due to the low medical cost. Consequently, there were regional disparities in facilities, equipment, and neonatal health outcomes. For these reasons, the Korean government began to invest in neonatal care during the last decade. We identified the status of NICUs in Korea and assessed changes after the government-driven policies...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348122/macrophage-transitions-in-heart-valve-development-and-myxomatous-valve-disease
#5
Alexia Hulin, Lindsey J Anstine, Andrew J Kim, Sarah J Potter, Tony DeFalco, Joy Lincoln, Katherine E Yutzey
OBJECTIVE: Hematopoietic-derived cells have been reported in heart valves but remain poorly characterized. Interestingly, recent studies reveal infiltration of leukocytes and increased macrophages in human myxomatous mitral valves. Nevertheless, timing and contribution of macrophages in normal valves and myxomatous valve disease are still unknown. The objective is to characterize leukocytes during postnatal heart valve maturation and identify macrophage subsets in myxomatous valve disease...
January 18, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346375/how-do-we-reach-the-girls-and-women-who-are-the-hardest-to-reach-inequitable-opportunities-in-reproductive-and-maternal-health-care-services-in-armed-conflict-and-forced-displacement-settings-in-colombia
#6
Juan Carlos Rivillas, Raul Devia Rodriguez, Gloria Song, Andréanne Martel
OBJECTIVES: This paper assesses inequalities in access to reproductive and maternal health services among females affected by forced displacement and sexual and gender-based violence in conflict settings in Colombia. This was accomplished through the following approaches: first, we assessed the gaps and gradients in three selected reproductive and maternal health care services. Second, we analyzed the patterns of inequalities in reproductive and maternal health care services and changes over time...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345159/weighing-in-on-the-risks-and-benefits-of-probiotic-use-in-hiv-infected-and-immunocompromised-populations
#7
A U Happel, S L Barnabas, R Froissart, J S Passmore
Probiotics are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of several conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and colic in infants. Despite the long history of probiotic use in humans, there is still significant debate about their efficacy and safety, particularly in HIV-infected and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we reviewed the safety and adverse event (AE) reporting from clinical trials that have tested probiotics in at risk populations, including HIV-infected individuals, the terminally ill and elderly, and neonates...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341044/antenatal-medical-therapies-to-improve-lung-development-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#8
Aidan Kashyap, Philip DeKoninck, Kelly Crossley, Marta Thio, Graeme Polglase, Francesca Maria Russo, Jan Deprest, Stuart Hooper, Ryan Hodges
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a birth defect characterized by failed closure of the diaphragm, allowing abdominal viscera to herniate into the thoracic cavity and subsequently impair pulmonary and vascular development. Despite improving standardized postnatal management, there remains a population of severe CDH for whom postnatal care falls short. In these severe cases, antenatal surgical intervention (fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion [FETO]) may improve survival; however, FETO increases the risk of preterm delivery, is not widely offered, and still fails in half of cases...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340904/turkish-women-s-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-on-wet-nursing-milk-sharing-and-human-milk-banking
#9
Ahmet Ergin, S Utku Uzun
Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey...
January 16, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335812/sperm-telomere-length-in-donor-samples-is-not-related-to-icsi-outcome
#10
Marc Torra-Massana, Montserrat Barragán, Emanuela Bellu, Rafael Oliva, Amelia Rodríguez, Rita Vassena
PURPOSE: Variations in sperm telomere length (STL) have been associated with altered sperm parameters, poor embryo quality, and lower pregnancy rates, but for normozoospermic men, STL relevance in IVF/ICSI is still uncertain. Moreover, in all studies reported so far, each man's STL was linked to the corresponding female partner characteristics. Here, we study STL in sperm donor samples, each used for up to 12 women, in order to isolate and determine the relationship between STL and reproductive outcomes...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334866/follow-up-of-an-age-period-cohort-analysis-on-alcohol-related-mortality-trends-in-sweden-1970-2015-with-predictions-to-2025
#11
Måns Rosén, Bengt Haglund
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several studies have indicated that birth cohorts are important in explaining trends in alcohol-related mortality. An earlier study from Sweden with data up to 2002 showed that birth cohorts that grew up under periods of more liberal alcohol policies had higher alcohol-related mortality than those cohorts growing up under more restrictive time periods. In spite of increasing alcohol consumption, predictions in 2002 also indicated lower alcohol-related mortality in the future...
January 1, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333811/neonatal-mortality-and-associated-factors-in-newborn-infants-admitted-to-a-neonatal-care-unit
#12
Juan C Lona Reyes, René O Pérez Ramírez, Leonardo Llamas Ramos, Larissa M Gómez Ruiz, Edith A Benítez Vázquez, Virginia Rodríguez Patino
INTRODUCTION: The increasing survival rate of preterm infants has altered the epidemiology of neonatal diseases; however, neonatal mortality is still the main component of child mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate neonatal mortality and associated factors in newborn infants admitted to a neonatal care unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort study conducted between January 2016 and January 2017 at Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Dr. Juan I...
February 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331326/cryptorchidism-in-sweden-a-nationwide-study-of-prevalence-operative-management-and-complications
#13
Susanna Bergbrant, Erik Omling, Jonas Björk, Lars Hagander
OBJECTIVES: To review the cumulative prevalence, operative management, and complications of treatment for cryptorchidism in Sweden. STUDY DESIGN: A nationwide observational study from longitudinal register data of all Swedish-born boys 0-18 years of age, diagnosed with cryptorchidism from 2001 to 2014. Primary outcomes were occurrence and age at primary surgery. Secondary outcomes included type of procedure and surgical site infection. RESULTS: Of 20 375 boys diagnosed with cryptorchidism in 2001-2014, 12 766 were surgically treated...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331020/human-phenotypes-caused-by-piezo1-mutations-one-gene-two-overlapping-phenotypes
#14
Silvia Martin-Almedina, Sahar Mansour, Pia Ostergaard
PIEZO1 is a large mechanosensitive ion channel protein. Diseases associated with PIEZO1 include autosomal recessive Generalised Lymphatic Dysplasia of Fotiou (GLDF) and autosomal dominant Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis with or without pseudohyperkalemia and/or perinatal oedema (DHS). The two disorders show overlapping features, fetal hydrops/perinatal oedema have been reported in both. Electrophysiological studies suggest opposite mechanisms of action, the mutations identified in GLDF patients cause a loss-of-function mechanism of disease and mutations in DHS patients cause gain-of-function...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329932/development-of-the-human-fetal-kidney-from-mid-to-late-gestation-in-male-and-female-infants
#15
Danica Ryan, Megan R Sutherland, Tracey J Flores, Alison L Kent, Jane E Dahlstrom, Victor G Puelles, John F Bertram, Andrew P McMahon, Melissa H Little, Lynette Moore, Mary Jane Black
BACKGROUND: During normal human kidney development, nephrogenesis (the formation of nephrons) is complete by term birth, with the majority of nephrons formed late in gestation. The aim of this study was to morphologically examine nephrogenesis in fetal human kidneys from 20 to 41weeks of gestation. METHODS: Kidney samples were obtained at autopsy from 71 infants that died acutely in utero or within 24h after birth. Using image analysis, nephrogenic zone width, the number of glomerular generations, renal corpuscle cross-sectional area and the cellular composition of glomeruli were examined...
December 20, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327941/infection-is-not-required-for-mucoinflammatory-lung-disease-in-cftr-knockout-ferrets
#16
Bradley H Rosen, T Idil Apak Evans, Shashanna R Moll, Jaimie S Gray, Bo Liang, Xingshen Sun, Yulong Zhang, Chandler W Jensen-Cody, Anthony M Swatek, Weihong Zhou, Nan He, Pavana G Rotti, Scott R Tyler, Nicholas W Keiser, Preston J Anderson, Leonard Brooks, Yalan Li, R Marshall Pope, Maheen Rajput, Eric A Hoffman, Kai Wang, J Kirk Harris, Kalpaj R Parekh, Katherine N Gibson-Corley, John F Engelhardt
RATIONALE: Classical interpretation of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease pathogenesis suggests that infection initiates disease progression, leading to an exuberant inflammatory response, excessive mucus, and ultimately bronchiectasis. While symptomatic antibiotic treatment controls lung infections early in disease, life-long bacterial residence typically ensues. Processes that control the establishment of persistent bacteria in the CF lung, and the contribution of non-infectious components to disease pathogenesis, are poorly understood...
January 12, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323764/integrative-neuro-humoral-regulation-of-oxytocin-neuron-activity-in-pregnancy-and-lactation
#17
REVIEW
Rachael A Augustine, Alexander J Seymour, Rebecca E Campbell, David R Grattan, Colin H Brown
Oxytocin is required for normal birth and lactation. Oxytocin is synthesised by hypothalamic supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei neurons and is released into the circulation from the posterior pituitary gland. Under basal conditions, circulating oxytocin levels are relatively constant but during birth and lactation, pulsatile oxytocin release triggers rhythmic contraction of the uterus during birth and milk ejection during suckling. Oxytocin levels are principally determined by the pattern of action potential firing that is, in turn, determined by the interplay between the intrinsic properties of the oxytocin neurons, regulation of their excitability by surrounding glia as well as by synaptic drive from their afferent inputs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321667/the-management-of-retinoblastoma
#18
REVIEW
Ido D Fabian, Zerrin Onadim, Esin Karaa, Catriona Duncan, Tanzina Chowdhury, Irene Scheimberg, Shin-Ichi Ohnuma, M Ashwin Reddy, Mandeep S Sagoo
Retinoblastoma (Rb) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy of childhood, but an uncommon paediatric cancer, with a constant incidence worldwide of 1:15,000-1:20,000 live births. Despite its rarity, Rb has served as a cornerstone in the field of oncology in many of the aspects that comprise cancer management, including classification schemes, treatment modalities, genetic testing and screening. Until just over half a century ago, the major treatment for Rb was eye removal, and prognosis was poor with outcome fatal for most children...
January 11, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321127/effectiveness-of-a-technology-based-supportive-educational-parenting-program-on-parental-outcomes-in-singapore-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Shefaly Shorey, Yvonne Peng Mei Ng, An Ling Siew, Joanne Yoong, Evalotte Mörelius
BACKGROUND: Supportive educational programs during the perinatal period are scarce in Singapore. There is no continuity of care available in terms of support from community care nurses in Singapore. Parents are left on their own most of the time, which results in a stressful transition to parenthood. There is a need for easily accessible technology-based educational programs that can support parents during this crucial perinatal period. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial on a technology-based supportive educational parenting program...
January 10, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320556/care-seeking-patterns-among-families-that-experienced-under-five-child-mortality-in-rural-rwanda
#20
Daniel M Kagabo, Catherine M Kirk, Benjamin Bakundukize, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier, Neil Gupta, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Willy C Ingabire, Dominique Rouleau, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Catherine Mugeni, Felix Sayinzoga, Cheryl L Amoroso
BACKGROUND: Over half of under-five deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and appropriate, timely, quality care is critical for saving children's lives. This study describes the context surrounding children's deaths from the time the illness was first noticed, through the care-seeking patterns leading up to the child's death, and identifies factors associated with care-seeking for these children in rural Rwanda. METHODS: Secondary analysis of a verbal and social autopsy study of caregivers who reported the death of a child between March 2013 to February 2014 that occurred after discharge from the child's birth facility in southern Kayonza and Kirehe districts in Rwanda...
2018: PloS One
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