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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441762/replication-and-oncolytic-activity-of-an-avian-orthoreovirus-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#1
Robert A Kozak, Larissa Hattin, Mia J Biondi, Juan C Corredor, Scott Walsh, Max Xue-Zhong, Justin Manuel, Ian D McGilvray, Jason Morgenstern, Evan Lusty, Vera Cherepanov, Betty-Anne McBey, David Leishman, Jordan J Feld, Byram Bridle, Éva Nagy
Oncolytic viruses are cancer therapeutics with promising outcomes in pre-clinical and clinical settings. Animal viruses have the possibility to avoid pre-existing immunity in humans, while being safe and immunostimulatory. We isolated an avian orthoreovirus (ARV-PB1), and tested it against a panel of hepatocellular carcinoma cells. We found that ARV-PB1 replicated well and induced strong cytopathic effects. It was determined that one mechanism of cell death was through syncytia formation, resulting in apoptosis and induction of interferon stimulated genes (ISGs)...
April 24, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441579/geldanamycin-inspired-compounds-induce-direct-trans-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-to-neurons
#2
Srinivas Jogula, Anand Ram Soorneedi, Jagan Gaddam, Srinivas Chamakuri, Girdhar Singh Deora, Ranjith Kumar Indarapu, Murali Krishna Ramgopal, Subhadra Dravida, Prabhat Arya
Inspired from geldanamycin, the synthesis of a new series of 20-membered macrocyclic compounds is developed. The key features in our design are (i) retention of the fragment having the precise chiral functional groups of geldanamycin at C10, C11, C12 and C14, and (ii) replacement of an olefin moiety with the ester group, and the quinoid sub-structure with the triazole ring. The southern fragment needed for the macrocyclic ring formation was obtained from Evans' syn aldol as the key reaction and with the use of D-mannitol as the cheap source of a chiral starting material...
April 18, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441409/a-hypomorphic-piga-gene-mutation-causes-severe-defects-in-neuron-development-and-susceptibility-to-complement-mediated-toxicity-in-a-human-ipsc-model
#3
Xuan Yuan, Zhe Li, Andrea C Baines, Eleni Gavriilaki, Zhaohui Ye, Zhexing Wen, Evan M Braunstein, Leslie G Biesecker, Linzhao Cheng, Xinzhong Dong, Robert A Brodsky
Mutations in genes involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis underlie a group of congenital syndromes characterized by severe neurodevelopmental defects. GPI anchored proteins have diverse roles in cell adhesion, signaling, metabolism and complement regulation. Over 30 enzymes are required for GPI anchor biosynthesis and PIGA is involved in the first step of this process. A hypomorphic mutation in the X-linked PIGA gene (c.1234C>T) causes multiple congenital anomalies hypotonia seizure syndrome 2 (MCAHS2), indicating that even partial reduction of GPI anchored proteins dramatically impairs central nervous system development, but the mechanism is unclear...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441358/comparison-of-a-web-based-24-h-dietary-recall-tool-foodbook24-to-an-interviewer-led-24-h-dietary-recall
#4
Claire M Timon, Katie Evans, Laura Kehoe, Richard J Blain, Albert Flynn, Eileen R Gibney, Janette Walton
Web-based tools have the potential to reduce the cost of dietary assessment; however, it is necessary to establish their performance compared to traditional dietary assessment methods. This study aims to compare nutrient and food intakes derived from Foodbook24 to those obtained from an interview-led 24-h dietary recall (24HDR). Seventy-nine adult participants completed one self-administered 24HDR using Foodbook24 and one interviewer-led 24HDR on the same day. Following a 10 days wash-out period the same process was completed again in opposite order to the previous study visit...
April 25, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441279/congenital-etiology-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-complications-in-adolescents-undergoing-corrective-scoliosis-surgery-comparison-of-in-hospital-comorbidities-using-nationwide-kid-s-inpatient-database
#5
Gregory W Poorman, Cyrus M Jalai, Bassel Diebo, Shaleen Vira, John Buza, Joe Baker, Jared Tishelman, Samantha Horn, Olivia Bono, Kartik Shenoy, Saqib Hasan, Justin Paul, Evan Isaacs, Ian Kaye, Abiola Atanda, Aaron J Buckland, Virginie LaFage, Thomas Errico, Peter G Passias
BACKGROUND: Congenital scoliosis (CS) is associated with more rigid, complex deformities relative to adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) which theoretically increases surgical complications. Despite extensive literature studying AIS patients, few studies have been performed on CS patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate complications associated with spinal fusions for CS and AIS. METHODS: A retrospective review of the Kid's Inpatient Database (KID) years 2000 to 2009 was performed...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440889/a-glucagon-like-peptide-1-analog-liraglutide-improves-visceral-sensation-and-gut-permeability-in-rats
#6
Tsukasa Nozu, Saori Miyagishi, Shima Kumei, Rintaro Nozu, Kaoru Takakusaki, Toshikatsu Okumura
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog, liraglutide, has been reported to block inflammatory somatic pain. We hypothesized that liraglutide attenuates lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and repeated water avoidance stress (WAS)-induced visceral hypersensitivity and tested the hypothesis in rats. METHODS: The threshold of the visceromotor response (VMR) induced by colonic balloon distention was measured to assess visceral sensation. Colonic permeability was determined in vivo by quantifying the absorbed Evans blue spectrophotometrically, which was instilled in the proximal colon for 15 min...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440794/se-sad-serial-femtosecond-crystallography-datasets-from-selenobiotinyl-streptavidin
#7
Chun Hong Yoon, Hasan DeMirci, Raymond G Sierra, E Han Dao, Radman Ahmadi, Fulya Aksit, Andrew L Aquila, Alexander Batyuk, Halilibrahim Ciftci, Serge Guillet, Matt J Hayes, Brandon Hayes, Thomas J Lane, Meng Liang, Ulf Lundström, Jason E Koglin, Paul Mgbam, Yashas Rao, Theodore Rendahl, Evan Rodriguez, Lindsey Zhang, Soichi Wakatsuki, Sébastien Boutet, James M Holton, Mark S Hunter
We provide a detailed description of selenobiotinyl-streptavidin (Se-B SA) co-crystal datasets recorded using the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) for selenium single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (Se-SAD) structure determination. Se-B SA was chosen as the model system for its high affinity between biotin and streptavidin where the sulfur atom in the biotin molecule (C10H16N2O3S) is substituted with selenium. The dataset was collected at three different transmissions (100, 50, and 10%) using a serial sample chamber setup which allows for two sample chambers, a front chamber and a back chamber, to operate simultaneously...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440660/implementation-of-whole-slide-imaging-for-clinical-purposes-issues-to-consider-from-the-perspective-of-early-adopters
#8
Andrew J Evans, Mohamed E Salama, Walter H Henricks, Liron Pantanowitz
CONTEXT: - There is growing interest in the use of digital pathology, especially whole slide imaging, for diagnostic purposes. Many issues need to be considered when incorporating this technology into a clinical laboratory. The College of American Pathologists established a Digital Pathology Committee to support the development of College programs related to digital pathology. One of its many initiatives was a panel discussion entitled "Implementing Whole-Slide Imaging for Clinical Use: What to Do and What to Avoid," given for 3 years at the College's annual meetings starting in 2014...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440211/a-cluster-randomised-trial-cost-effectiveness-analysis-and-psychosocial-evaluation-of-insulin-pump-therapy-compared-with-multiple-injections-during-flexible-intensive-insulin-therapy-for-type-1-diabetes-the-repose-trial
#9
Simon Heller, David White, Ellen Lee, Julia Lawton, Daniel Pollard, Norman Waugh, Stephanie Amiel, Katharine Barnard, Anita Beckwith, Alan Brennan, Michael Campbell, Cindy Cooper, Munyaradzi Dimairo, Simon Dixon, Jackie Elliott, Mark Evans, Fiona Green, Gemma Hackney, Peter Hammond, Nina Hallowell, Alan Jaap, Brian Kennon, Jackie Kirkham, Robert Lindsay, Peter Mansell, Diana Papaioannou, David Rankin, Pamela Royle, W Henry Smithson, Carolin Taylor
BACKGROUND: Insulin is generally administered to people with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using multiple daily injections (MDIs), but can also be delivered using infusion pumps. In the UK, pumps are recommended for patients with the greatest need and adult use is less than in comparable countries. Previous trials have been small, of short duration and have failed to control for training in insulin adjustment. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pump therapy compared with MDI for adults with T1DM, with both groups receiving equivalent structured training in flexible insulin therapy...
April 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440082/metro-commuter-exposures-to-particulate-air-pollution-and-pm2-5-associated-elements-in-three-canadian-cities-the-urban-transportation-exposure-study
#10
Keith Van Ryswyk, Angelos T Anastasopolos, Greg Evans, Liu Sun, Kelly Sabaliauskas, Ryan Kulka, Lance Wallace, Scott Weichenthal
System-representative commuter air pollution exposure data were collected for the metro systems of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, Canada. Pollutants measured included PM2.5 (PM = particulate matter), PM10, ultrafine particles, black carbon, and the elemental composition of PM2.5. Sampling over three weeks was conducted in summer and winter for each city and covered each system on a daily basis. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to identify system features related to particulate exposures. Ambient levels of PM2...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439788/therapist-and-organizational-factors-associated-with-participation-in-evidence-based-practice-initiatives-in-a-large-urban-publicly-funded-mental-health-system
#11
Laura C Skriner, Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Rebecca E Stewart, Danielle R Adams, Ronnie M Rubin, Arthur C Evans, Rinad S Beidas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439591/targeting-secondary-protein-complexes-in-drug-discovery-studying-the-druggability-and-chemical-biology-of-the-hsp70-bag1-complex
#12
Lindsay E Evans, Keith Jones, Matthew D Cheeseman
Proteins typically carry out their biological functions as multi-protein complexes, which can significantly affect the affinity of small-molecule inhibitors. HSP70 is an important target in oncology, so to study its chemical biology and the drug discovery potential of the HSP70/BAG1 complex, we designed a high-affinity non-nucleotide fluorescence polarisation probe.
April 25, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439394/seasonal-variation-in-effects-of-herbivory-on-foliar-nitrogen-of-a-threatened-conifer
#13
Robert N Schaeffer, Nicole E Soltis, Jennifer L Martin, Aden L Brown, Sara Gómez, Evan L Preisser, Colin M Orians
Invasive herbivores can dramatically impact the nitrogen (N) economy of native hosts. In deciduous species, most N is stored in stem tissues, while in evergreen conifer species N is stored in needles, making them potentially more vulnerable to herbivory. In eastern forests of the USA, the long-lived, foundational conifer eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is under the threat of extirpation by the invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA: Adelges tsugae). We assessed the impact of HWA infestation on the patterns of seasonal foliar N availability in hemlock planted in a deciduous forest understory...
March 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439228/from-engrams-to-pathologies-of-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
Christine A Denny, Evan Lebois, Steve Ramirez
Memories are the experiential threads that tie our past to the present. The biological realization of a memory is termed an engram-the enduring biochemical and physiological processes that enable learning and retrieval. The past decade has witnessed an explosion of engram research that suggests we are closing in on boundary conditions for what qualifies as the physical manifestation of memory. In this review, we provide a brief history of engram research, followed by an overview of the many rodent models available to probe memory with intersectional strategies that have yielded unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution over defined sets of cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439068/limited-genomic-consequences-of-hybridization-between-two-african-clawed-frogs-xenopus-gilli-and-x-laevis-anura-pipidae
#15
Benjamin L S Furman, Caroline M S Cauret, Graham A Colby, G John Measey, Ben J Evans
The Cape platanna, Xenopus gilli, an endangered frog, hybridizes with the African clawed frog, X. laevis, in South Africa. Estimates of the extent of gene flow between these species range from pervasive to rare. Efforts have been made in the last 30 years to minimize hybridization between these two species in the west population of X. gilli, but not the east populations. To further explore the impact of hybridization and the efforts to minimize it, we examined molecular variation in one mitochondrial and 13 nuclear genes in genetic samples collected recently (2013) and also over two decades ago (1994)...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438924/analysis-of-the-effects-on-the-qt-interval-of-a-gatifloxacin-containing-regimen-versus-standard-treatment-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#16
Piero L Olliaro, Corinne Merle, Thuli Mthiyane, Boubacar Bah, Ferdinand Kassa, Evans Amukoye, Alimatou N' Diaye, Christian Perronne, Christian Lienhardt, Helen Mcilleron, Katherine Fielding
Background: The effects on ventricular repolarisation - recorded on the ECG as lengthening of the QT interval - of acute tuberculosis and those of standard and alternative anti-tuberculosis regimens are under-documented. A correction factor (QTc) is introduced to make the QT independent of the heart rate, translating into the slope of the regression line between QT and heart rate being close to zero.Methods: ECGs were performed pre- and 1-5 hours post-dosing (month 1, 2, end of treatment) around drugs' peak concentration time in tuberculosis patients treated with either the standard 6-month treatment (rifampicin and isoniazid for 6 months, pyrazinamide and ethambutol for 2 months; "control") or a test regimen with gatifloxacin, rifampicin and isoniazid given for 4 months (pyrazinamide for the first 2 months) as part of the OFLOTUB study, a randomized controlled trial conducted in five African countries...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438832/a-photoconversion-model-for-full-spectral-programming-and-multiplexing-of-optogenetic%C3%A2-systems
#17
Evan J Olson, Constantine N Tzouanas, Jeffrey J Tabor
Optogenetics combines externally applied light signals and genetically engineered photoreceptors to control cellular processes with unmatched precision. Here, we develop a mathematical model of wavelength- and intensity-dependent photoconversion, signaling, and output gene expression for our two previously engineered light-sensing Escherichia coli two-component systems. To parameterize the model, we develop a simple set of spectral and dynamical calibration experiments using our recent open-source "Light Plate Apparatus" device...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438696/altered-temporal-lobe-white-matter-lipid-ion-profiles-in-an-experimental-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Ming Tong, Raiane Leão, Gina V Vimbela, Emine B Yalcin, Jared Kay, Alexander Krotow, Suzanne M de la Monte
BACKGROUND: White matter is an early and important yet under-evaluated target of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metabolic impairments due to insulin and insulin-like growth factor resistance contribute to white matter degeneration because corresponding signal transduction pathways maintain oligodendrocyte function and survival. METHODS: This study utilized a model of sporadic AD in which adult Long Evans rats administered intracerebral streptozotocin (i.c. STZ) developed AD-type neurodegeneration...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438417/comparing-hospital-outcomes-between-open-and-closed-tibia-fractures-treated-with-intramedullary-fixation
#19
Evan J Smith, Xiangyu Kuang, Rajeev Pandarinath
INTRODUCTION: Tibial shaft fractures comprise a large portion of operatively treated long bone fractures, and present with the highest rate of open injuries. Intramedullary fixation has become the standard of care for both open and closed injuries. The rates of short term complications and hospital length of stay for open and closed fractures treated with intramedullary fixation is not fully known. Previous series on tibia fractures were performed at high volume centers, and data were not generalizable, further they did not report on length of stay and the impact of preoperative variables on infections, complications and reoperation...
March 30, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438206/exogenous-gene-transfer-of-rab-3-8-small-gtpase-ameliorates-aberrant-lung-surfactant-homeostasis-in-ruby-rats
#20
Kazuhiro Osanai, Keisuke Nakase, Takashi Sakuma, Kazuaki Nishiki, Masafumi Nojiri, Ryo Kato, Masatoshi Saito, Yuki Fujimoto, Shiro Mizuno, Hirohisa Toga
BACKGROUND: Rab(3)8 small GTPase regulates intracellular transport in melanocytes and alveolar type II epithelial cells. Ruby rats carrying Rab(3)8 and other gene mutations exhibit oculocutaneous albinism, bleeding diathesis, and hence, are a rat model of human Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS). We previously showed that Long Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, one strain of the Ruby rats, developed aberrant lung surfactant homeostasis with remarkably enlarged lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells...
April 24, 2017: Respiratory Research
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