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diet in diabetes

Taulant Muka, Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Joshua R Lewis, Richar L Prince, Nicole S Erler, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jessica C Kiefte-de Jong
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study whether dietary fat composition (n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio (PUFAs) and PUFAs and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) ratio) is associated with total body fat (TF) and body fat distribution and whether this association was modified by the presence of chronic disease in middle-aged and elderly women in two population-based cohorts in the Netherlands and Australia. METHODS: The study was performed in the Rotterdam Study (RS), a prospective cohort study among subjects aged 55 years and older (N = 1182 women) and the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome Study (CAIFOS), a 5-year randomized controlled trial among women age 70+ (N = 891)...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Ra-Yeong Choi, Ju Ri Ham, Mi-Kyung Lee
This study investigated the effects and mechanism of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) on non-alcoholic fatty liver in diabetic mice fed high-fat diet (HFD). The diabetic mice model was induced by injection of streptozotocin, after which they were fed HFD diet with or without esculetin for 11 weeks. Non-diabetic mice were provided a normal diet. Diabetes induced hepatic hypertrophy, lipid accumulation and droplets; however, esculetin reversed these changes. Esculetin treatment in diabetic mice fed HFD significantly down-regulated expression of lipid synthesis genes (Fasn, Dgat2 and Pap) and inflammation genes (Tlr4, Myd88, Nfkb, Tnfα and Il6)...
October 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Maria das Graças Coelho de Souza, Luiz Guilherme Kraemer-Aguiar, Eliete Bouskela
Obesity is a crescent epidemic in the world, affecting more than half a billion of adults worldwide. Obesity is associated to main cardiovascular risk factors, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure and dyslipidemia. The excessive adiposity causes a dysregulation of adipokines secretion by adipose tissue, upregulating the expression of pro-inflammatory adipokines and downregulating the anti-inflammatory ones. This scenario contributes for the appearance of atherosclerosis...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Peter J Meikle, Scott A Summers
Obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease form a metabolic disease continuum that has seen a dramatic increase in prevalence in developed and developing countries over the past two decades. Dyslipidaemia resulting from hypercaloric diets is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of metabolic disease, and lipid-lowering therapies are the main therapeutic option for this group of disorders. However, the fact that dysfunctional lipid metabolism extends far beyond cholesterol and triglycerides is becoming increasingly clear...
October 21, 2016: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Kay D Mann, Mark S Pearce, Chris J Seal
Observational evidence suggests that increased whole grain (WG) intake reduces the risks of many non-communicable diseases, such as CVD, type 2 diabetes, obesity and certain cancers. More recently, studies have shown that WG intake lowers all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Much of the reported evidence on risk reduction is from US and Scandinavian populations, where there are tangible WG dietary recommendations. At present there is no quantity-specific WG dietary recommendation in the UK, instead we are advised to choose WG or higher fibre versions...
October 21, 2016: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
Moira S Lewitt, Emma Strage, David Church
BACKGROUND: Achieving insulin independence is emerging as a realistic therapeutic goal in the management of feline diabetes mellitus. CASE PRESENTATION: The management of an 11-year-old spayed female Burmese cat presenting with diabetes mellitus after corticosteroid administration is described. Remission was achieved after the frequency of insulin administration was increased to four times a day, and supported by intensive home blood glucose monitoring and a high protein, low carbohydrate diet...
October 20, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Yaeko Fukushima, Satoshi Kurose, Hiromi Shinno, Ha Cao Thi Thu, Nana Takao, Hiromi Tsutsumi, Takaaki Hasegawa, Toshiaki Nakajima, Yutaka Kimura
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a myokine implicated in lipid and glucose metabolism. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of a body weight reduction on the serum irisin level and physical indicators in obese Japanese patients without diabetes. METHODS: The subjects were 22 patients (male/female, 5/17; age, 46.1±16.0 years; body mass index [BMI], 36.9±5.0 kg/m(2)) who completed a 6-month body weight reduction program at our clinic. The program included diet, exercise therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy...
October 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Mariya Markova, Olga Pivovarova, Silke Hornemann, Stephanie Sucher, Turid Frahnow, Katrin Wegner, Jürgen Machann, Klaus Jürgen Petzke, Johannes Hierholzer, Ralf Lichtinghagen, Christian Herder, Maren Carstensen-Kirberg, Michael Roden, Natalia Rudovich, Susanne Klaus, Ralph Thomann, Rosemarie Schneeweiss, Sascha Rohn, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased risk of hepatic, cardiovascular, and metabolic diseases. High-protein diets, rich in methionine and branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), apparently reduce liver fat but may induce insulin resistance. We investigated the effects of diets high in animal protein vs plant protein, which differ in levels of methionine and BCAA, in subjects with type 2 diabetes and NAFLD. We examined levels of liver fat, lipogenic indices, markers of inflammation, serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and activation of signaling pathways in adipose tissue...
October 17, 2016: Gastroenterology
Cynthia Formosa, Ryan Muscat
BACKGROUND: This study sought to identify the nature and extent of diabetes-related knowledge and self-care practices in people living with type 2 diabetes who attend primary-care clinics and to determine whether a correlation between the two exists. METHODS: In a nonexperimental prospective study, the Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire and the Summary of Diabetes Self-care Activities were used to assess knowledge and self-management in 50 patients. RESULTS: The mean diabetes knowledge score was 14...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Zephon Lister, Colwick Wilson, Curtis Fox, R Patricia Herring, Cheryl Simpson, Lucretia Smith, Lincoln Edwards
Introduction: Expressed emotion has been consistently shown to be a significant predictor of relapse and poor disease management across numerous physical and mental health conditions, however very little research has been conducted on its relationship to the management practices of individuals living with Type 2 diabetes. This study examines the relationship between expressed emotion (EE) and diabetes management among couples where 1 spouse has Type 2 diabetes. Methods: The authors surveyed 106 couples where 1 partner was diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes...
October 20, 2016: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
M Henze, H Alfonso, L Flicker, J George, S A Paul Chubb, G J Hankey, O P Almeida, J Golledge, P E Norman, B B Yeap
AIMS: To investigate behavioural, physical and biochemical characteristics associated with diabetes in the oldest age group of elderly men. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of community-dwelling men aged 79-97 years from Perth, Western Australia. Lifestyle behaviours, self-rated health, physical function, and fasting glucose and HbA1c levels were assessed. RESULTS: Of 1426 men, 315 had diabetes (22%). Men with diabetes were of similar age to men without (84...
October 20, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
FangFang, Hongyan Li, Tingting Qin, Min Li, Shiping Ma
The impaired insulin signaling has been recognized as a common pathogenetic mechanism between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the progression of AD, brain is characterized by defective insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and increased oxidative stress. Thymol, a monoterpene phenol isolated from medicinal herbs, has exhibited robust neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect of thymol on HFD-induced cognitive deficits, and explore the possible mechanisms...
October 20, 2016: Metabolic Brain Disease
Karina Friis, Benedicte Donslund Vind, Rebecca K Simmons, Helle Terkildsen Maindal
Background. People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet) in people with diabetes. Methods. The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes (n = 1685). Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: "understand health information" and "actively engage with healthcare providers...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
X H Sun, M S Yin, Y L Mu
Objective: To investigate the alterations of mTOR signaling pathway and autophagy in the development of type 2 diabetes and early diabetic cardiomyopathy and to study their roles in pathogenesis of diabetic myocardium. Methods: A type 2 diabetes rat model was established by injection of streptozocin after five-week of high fat diet. The rats were randomly divided into control group, experiment group of 2 weeks and experiment group of 4 weeks. Alterations of mTOR, p-mTOR, S6K1, Beclin-1 and LC3-Ⅱ expression in myocardium were determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry...
October 8, 2016: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
Jerrold J Heindel, Bruce Blumberg, Mathew Cave, Ronit Machtinger, Alberto Mantovani, Michelle A Mendez, Angel Nadal, Paola Palanza, Giancarlo Panzica, Robert Sargis, Laura N Vandenberg, Frederick Vom Saal
The recent epidemics of metabolic diseases, obesity, type 2 diabetes(T2D), liver lipid disorders and metabolic syndrome have largely been attributed to genetic background and changes in diet, exercise and aging. However, there is now considerable evidence that other environmental factors may contribute to the rapid increase in the incidence of these metabolic diseases. This review will examine changes to the incidence of obesity, T2D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the contribution of genetics to these disorders and describe the role of the endocrine system in these metabolic disorders...
October 16, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Max C Petersen, Anila K Madiraju, Brandon M Gassaway, Michael Marcel, Ali R Nasiri, Gina Butrico, Melissa J Marcucci, Dongyan Zhang, Abudukadier Abulizi, Xian-Man Zhang, William Philbrick, Stevan R Hubbard, Michael J Jurczak, Varman T Samuel, Jesse Rinehart, Gerald I Shulman
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but whether NAFLD plays a causal role in the pathogenesis of T2D is uncertain. One proposed mechanism linking NAFLD to hepatic insulin resistance involves diacylglycerol-mediated (DAG-mediated) activation of protein kinase C-ε (PKCε) and the consequent inhibition of insulin receptor (INSR) kinase activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PKCε inhibition of INSR kinase activity is unknown. Here, we used mass spectrometry to identify the phosphorylation site Thr1160 as a PKCε substrate in the functionally critical INSR kinase activation loop...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Josseanne Maria Teixeira, Maria do Carmo De Carvalho Martins, Luanne Fortes Monte Soares, Ana Lina De Carvalho Cunha Sales, Daiane Cristina Ferreira Damasceno, Francisco Valmor Macedo Cunha, Regina Célia De Assis, José Carlos Santos Júnior, Nivea Maria Da Costa Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Food and dietetic components have received considerable attention as auxiliary feeding resources on controlling of chronic non-transmissible diseases, among them diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of supplementary diet with multimixture based on linseed, sesame, oats and sunflower seeds on the hepatic function and antioxidant activity of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male rats were distributed on groups of seven animals: diabetic control (DC), diabetics subject to multimixture diet (DM), diabetic with insulin (DI), and normal control (NC)...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Flávia Cristina Zanchetta, Danilo Donizetti Trevisan, Priscila Peruzzo Apolinario, Juliana Bastoni da Silva, Maria Helena de Melo Lima
Objective: To evaluate the relation between diabetes-related distress and the clinical and sociodemographic characteristics of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study based on a secondary analysis of data collected at a specialized care outpatient center in Brazil. Participants completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics and the Brazilian version of the Diabetes Distress Scale (B-DDS). Results: About 31% of the 130 eligible patients reported diabetes distress, and the mean B-DDS score was 2...
July 2016: Einstein
Mengjing Wang, Jason Chou, Yongen Chang, Wei L Lau, Uttam Reddy, Connie M Rhee, Jing Chen, Chuanming Hao, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
In the management of patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), a low-protein diet usually refers to a diet with protein intake of 0.6 to 0.8 grams per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day) and should include at least 50% high-biologic-value protein. It may be supplemented with essential acids or nitrogen- free ketoanalogues if <0.6 g/kg/d. Low-protein diet can reduce proteinuria especially in non-diabetic CKD patients. In hypoalbuminemic patients it may lead to an increase in serum albumin level...
October 19, 2016: Panminerva Medica
Rajkumar Bharatia, Manoj Chitale, Ganesh Narain Saxena, Raman Ganesh Kumar, Chikkalingaiah, Abhijit Trailokya, Kalpesh Dalvi, Suhas Talele
INTRODUCTION: Hypertension (HTN), being a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), is an important issue of medical and public health. High blood pressure (BP) is ranked as the third most important risk factor for attributable burden of disease in south Asia (2010). Hypertension (HTN) exerts a substantial public health burden on cardiovascular health status and healthcare systems in India. Uncontrolled hypertension among adults with hypertension is associated with increased mortality...
July 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
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