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diet in diabetes

Hanan A Alfawaz, Kaiser Wani, Abdullah M Alnaami, Yousef Al-Saleh, Naji J Aljohani, Omar S Al-Attas, Majed S Alokail, Sudhesh Kumar, Nasser M Al-Daghri
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L) were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Ramoji Kosuru, Vidya Kandula, Uddipak Rai, Swati Prakash, Zhengyuan Xia, Sanjay Singh
PURPOSE: Oxidative stress has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of diabetes-associated cardiovascular problems, which has remained a primary cause of the increased morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. It is of paramount importance to prevent the diabetes-associated cardiac complications by reducing oxidative stress with the help of nutritional or pharmacological agents. Pterostilbene (PT), the primary antioxidant in blueberries, has recently gained attention for its promising health benefits in metabolic and cardiac diseases...
March 20, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Kristina H Jackson, William S Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fatty acid (FA) profiles in different blood compartments are reflections of both diet and metabolism, and some FA levels are related to disease risk. RECENT FINDINGS: Perhaps the most studied FA-disease relationship is between long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids [eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Despite null results from recent large omega-3 FA supplementation trials, new research continues to support past studies showing that blood levels of EPA + DHA are inversely related to risk for total mortality and fatal CVD events...
March 20, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Anan S Jarab, Tareq L Mukattash, Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Maher Khdour
Background: Diabetes is increasingly becoming a major health problem in Jordan and glycemic goals are often not achieved. Objective: To explore the patients' perspectives regarding type 2 diabetes and its management in order to "fine-tune" future pharmaceutical care intervention programs. Method: Focus groups method was used to explore views from individuals with type 2 diabetes attending outpatient diabetes clinic at the Royal Medical Services Hospital...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Wang Chengji, Fan Xianjin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biological mechanism of the effect of different intensity exercises on diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS: 87 male SPF 6-wks old male S-D rats, after 6 weeks high fat diet, diabetic model was established, randomly selected 43 divided into diabetic control group (DCG, n=10), low intensity group (LIG, n=11), moderate intensity group (MIG, n=11), and high-intensity group (HIG, n=11).The rats in LIG were forced to run on a motorized treadmill, the exercise load consisted of running at a speed of 10 meters/min, MIG were running 15 meters/min, HIG were running 20 meters/min, one hour a day for 6 weeks...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Francesca Pistollato, Ruben Calderón Iglesias, Roberto Ruiz, Silvia Aparicio, Jorge Crespo, Luis Dzul Lopez, Piera Pia Manna, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino
Ample epidemiological evidence suggests a strong correlation among diet, lifestyle factors and the onset and consolidation of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been demonstrated that AD, diabetes, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease are strongly interconnected pathologies. Preventive strategies and nutritional interventions seem to be promising approaches to delay neurocognitive decline and reduce the risk of AD and other non-psychiatric co-morbidities. In this regard, healthy dietary patterns, characterized by high intake of plant-based foods, probiotics, antioxidants, soy beans, nuts, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a low intake of saturated fats, animal-derived proteins, and refined sugars, have been shown to decrease the risk of neurocognitive impairments and eventually the onset of AD...
March 16, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Benjamin W Chrisinger, Michael J Kallan, Eliza D Whiteman, Amy Hillier
Food shopping decisions are pathways between food environment, diet and health outcomes, including chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. The choices of where to shop and what to buy are interrelated, though a better understanding of this dynamic is needed. The U.S. Department of Agriculture's nationally representative Food Acquisitions and Purchase Survey food-at-home dataset was joined with other databases of retailer characteristics and Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI) of purchases. We used linear regression models with general estimating equations to assess relationships between trip, store, and shopper characteristics with trip HEI scores...
March 16, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Jacqueline H Parilla, Rebecca L Hull, Sakeneh Zraika
Neprilysin (NEP) is an endopeptidase known to modulate nervous, cardiovascular, and immune systems via inactivation of regulatory peptides. In addition, it may also contribute to impaired glucose homeostasis as observed in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Specifically, we and others have shown that NEP is upregulated under conditions associated with T2D, whereas NEP deficiency and/or inhibition improves glucose homeostasis via enhanced glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β-cell function. Whether increased β-cell mass also occurs with lack of NEP activity is unknown...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
Nobuhisa Morimoto, Chikako Kasuga, Airi Tanaka, Keiko Kamachi, Masumi Ai, Kevin Y Urayama, Akira Tanaka
An easily understandable index that measures the quality of carbohydrate may aid people in adopting dietary habits that improve their glucose tolerance. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between a ratio of dietary fibre to carbohydrate intakes (fibre:carbohydrate ratio (F:C-R)) and glucose tolerance cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Subjects were 190 Japanese men and women without type 2 diabetes (mean age 55·4 years) who participated in a 5-month diet and exercise programme. We compared baseline anthropometric, dietary and metabolic profiles between those with higher F:C-R and those with lower ratios...
March 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
N W Badri, S W Flatt, H S Barkai, B Pakiz, D D Heath, C L Rock
Background: Fasting glucose and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are important measures of the risk for metabolic syndrome and diabetes. Weight loss interventions are considered part of the first line of therapy for those who develop disease states associated with insulin resistance, such as pre-diabetes, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome. Sex differences in insulin resistance have been extensively reported, but sex differences in the ability to improve insulin sensitivity are not well-established...
2018: Journal of Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Thomas Laeger, Teresa Castaño-Martinez, Martin W Werno, Lukasz Japtok, Christian Baumeier, Wenke Jonas, Burkhard Kleuser, Annette Schürmann
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Low-protein diets are well known to improve glucose tolerance and increase energy expenditure. Increases in circulating fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) have been implicated as a potential underlying mechanism. METHODS: We aimed to test whether low-protein diets in the context of a high-carbohydrate or high-fat regimen would also protect against type 2 diabetes in New Zealand Obese (NZO) mice used as a model of polygenetic obesity and type 2 diabetes...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Sarang Kim, Mitchell McMaster, Susan Torres, Kay L Cox, Nicola Lautenschlager, George W Rebok, Dimity Pond, Catherine D'Este, Ian McRae, Nicolas Cherbuin, Kaarin J Anstey
INTRODUCTION: It has been estimated that a 10%-25% reduction in seven key risk factors could potentially prevent 1.1-3.0 million Alzheimer's disease cases globally. In addition, as dementia is preceded by more subtle cognitive deficits which have substantial social and economic impact, effective preventative interventions would likely have more extensive benefits. The current study evaluates in primary care a multidomain risk-reduction intervention targeting adults with high risk of developing dementia...
March 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Alba Bosquet, Josefa Girona, Sandra Guaita-Esteruelas, Mercedes Heras, Paula Saavedra-García, Neus Martínez-Micaelo, Lluís Masana, Ricardo Rodríguez-Calvo
AIMS: Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) inhibitors have been proposed as potential therapeutic approaches against insulin resistance-related inflammation and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these molecules drive these effects in skeletal muscle remain unknown. Here, we assessed whether the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403 prevented lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated inflammation in skeletal muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The BMS309403 treatment was assessed both in the skeletal muscle of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and in palmitate-stimulated C2C12 myotubes...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Jinpeng Li, Megumi Kanasaki, Ling Xu, Munehiro Kitada, Kenji Nagao, Yusuke Adachi, Hiroko Jinzu, Yasushi Noguchi, Miyuki Kohno, Keizo Kanasaki, Daisuke Koya
Muscle biology is important topic in diabetes research. We have reported that a diet with ketogenic amino acids rich replacement (KAAR) ameliorated high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatosteatosis via activation of the autophagy system. Here, we found that a KAAR ameliorated the mitochondrial morphological alterations and associated mitochondrial dysfunction induced by an HFD through induction of the AKT/4EBP1 and autophagy signaling pathways in both fast and slow muscles. The mice were fed with a standard HFD (30% fat in food) or an HFD with KAAR (HFDKAAR )...
March 14, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Sherly X Li, Fumiaki Imamura, Matthias B Schulze, Jusheng Zheng, Zheng Ye, Antonio Agudo, Eva Ardanaz, Dagfinn Aune, Heiner Boeing, Miren Dorronsoro, Courtney Dow, Guy Fagherazzi, Sara Grioni, Marc J Gunter, José María Huerta, Daniel B Ibsen, Marianne Uhre Jakobsen, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Kay-Tee Khaw, Cecilie Kyrø, Francesca Romana Mancini, Elena Molina-Portillo, Neil Murphy, Peter M Nilsson, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Domenico Palli, Salvatore Panico, Alaitz Poveda, J Ramón Quirós, Fulvio Ricceri, Ivonne Sluijs, Annemieke M W Spijkerman, Anne Tjonneland, Rosario Tumino, Anna Winkvist, Claudia Langenberg, Stephen J Sharp, Elio Riboli, Robert A Scott, Nita G Forouhi, Nicholas J Wareham
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gene-macronutrient interactions may contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes but research evidence to date is inconclusive. We aimed to increase our understanding of the aetiology of type 2 diabetes by investigating potential interactions between genes and macronutrient intake and their association with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We investigated the influence of interactions between genetic risk scores (GRSs) for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and BMI and macronutrient intake on the development of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a prospective case-cohort study across eight European countries (N = 21,900 with 9742 incident type 2 diabetes cases)...
March 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Hayley E Billingsley, Salvatore Carbone
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading global cause of death. Diet is known to be important in the prevention of CVD. The PREDIMED trial tested a relatively low-fat diet versus a high-fat Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) for the primary prevention of CVD. The resulting reduction of the CV composite outcome resulted in a paradigm shift in CV nutrition. Though many dietary factors likely contributed to this effect, this review focuses on the influence of the MedDiet on endogenous antioxidant systems and the effect of dietary polyphenols...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Audrey M Neyrinck, Sophie Hiel, Caroline Bouzin, Vicenta Garcia Campayo, Patrice D Cani, Laure B Bindels, Nathalie M Delzenne
BACKGROUND: Non-digestible carbohydrates present in cereals such as fructans and arabinoxylans represent promising prebiotic nutrients to prevent the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN:  The aim of this study was to determine the corrective effects of wheat bran-derived arabinoxylan oligosaccharides in obese mice fed a western diet (WD). WD was given for 4 weeks before wheat bran extract (WBE) supplementation (5%) for an additional 4 weeks, whereas a control group received the standard diet...
March 7, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
Heather R Gilbertson, Kristen Reed, Sarah Clark, Kate L Francis, Fergus J Cameron
To understand what children with type 1 diabetes in a representative tertiary hospital clinic are eating compared to their peers and explore dietary intake impact on HbA1c outcome. An open cross-sectional dietary audit of children and adolescents with diabetes aged 2-17 years attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne was conducted using an age-appropriate validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Total energy, macronutrient intake and diet quality were calculated and compared to dietary advice provided and national intake data...
March 9, 2018: Nutrition & Diabetes
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