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muscle invasive urothelial bladder cancer

Rafael Morales-Barrera, Cristina Suárez, Ana Martínez de Castro, Fabricio Racca, Claudia Valverde, Xavier Maldonado, Juan Maria Bastaros, Juan Morote, Joan Carles
Bladder cancer is one of the leading causes of death in Europe and the United States. About 25% of patients with bladder cancer have advanced disease (muscle-invasive or metastatic disease) at presentation and are candidates for systemic chemotherapy. In the setting of metastatic disease, use of cisplatin-based regimens improves survival. However, despite initial high response rates, the responses are typically not durable leading to recurrence and death in the vast majority of these patients with median overall survival of 15months and a 5-year survival rate of ⩽10%...
October 1, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Robert Rosenblatt, Markus Johansson, Farhood Alamdari, Alexander Sidiki, Benny Holmström, Johan Hansson, Janos Vasko, Per Marits, Susanne Gabrielsson, Katrine Riklund, Ola Winqvist, Amir Sherif
PURPOSE: To determine whether sentinel node detection (SNd) in muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (MIBC) can be performed in patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and determine whether SNd is feasible in all pT stages, including pT0. BACKGROUND: Previous published series of SNd in MIBC have not included patients undergoing NAC, and systematic reports of pT0 patients w/wo NAC were absent. Translational immunological tumor research on MIBC focusing on SNd, in the era of NAC, requires technical feasibility...
October 13, 2016: World Journal of Urology
Laura-Maria Krabbe, Solomon L Woldu, Shahrokh F Shariat, Yair Lotan
The high recurrence rates associated with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer requires close surveillance with cystoscopy, an invasive and expensive procedure with risk of missing cancer. Finding an accurate urinary biomarker that can detect recurrent disease would represent a significant advancement in management. Areas covered: This review summarizes the commercially-available urinary biomarkers including cytology, UroVysion, BTA, NMP22, uCyt+, and CxBladder assays. Additionally, we review recent investigational urinary biomarkers that hold promise in bladder cancer surveillance...
October 4, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
Jovana Golijanin, Ali Amin, Anna Moshnikova, Joseph M Brito, Timothy Y Tran, Ramona-Cosmina Adochite, Gregory O Andreev, Troy Crawford, Donald M Engelman, Oleg A Andreev, Yana K Reshetnyak, Dragan Golijanin
Bladder cancer is the fifth most common in incidence and one of the most expensive cancers to treat. Early detection greatly improves the chances of survival and bladder preservation. The pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP) conjugated with a near-infrared fluorescent dye [indocyanine green (ICG)] targets low extracellular pH, allowing visualization of malignant lesions in human bladder carcinoma ex vivo. Cystectomy specimens obtained after radical surgery were immediately irrigated with nonbuffered saline and instilled with a solution of the ICG pHLIP construct, incubated, and rinsed...
September 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stefan Vallo, Martin Michaelis, Kilian M Gust, Peter C Black, Florian Rothweiler, Hans-Michael Kvasnicka, Roman A Blaheta, Maximilian P Brandt, Felix Wezel, Axel Haferkamp, Jindrich Cinatl
BACKGROUND: Systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine and cisplatin is standard of care for patients with metastatic urothelial bladder cancer. However, resistance formation is common after initial response. The protein Src is known as a proto-oncogene, which is overexpressed in various human cancers. Since there are controversial reports about the role of Src in bladder cancer, we evaluated the efficacy of the Src kinase inhibitor dasatinib in the urothelial bladder cancer cell line RT112 and its gemcitabine-resistant sub-line RT112(r)GEMCI(20) in vitro and in vivo...
September 27, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Marco Guidi, Cesare Fusetti, Stefano Lucchina
Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) metastases to skeletal muscle are extremely rare and usually found in patients with advanced stage cancer. The most common sites of bladder cancer metastases are lymph nodes, lung, liver, and bones. Muscle is an unusual site of metastases from a distant primary cancer, due to several protective factors. We present a rare case of 76-year-old patient with metastases in the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) and flexor digitorum profundus (FDP) muscles, 2 years after a radical cystectomy for invasive UCC of the bladder...
2016: Case Reports in Urology
Aaron Brant, Max Kates, Meera R Chappidi, Hiten D Patel, Nikolai A Sopko, George J Netto, Alex S Baras, Noah M Hahn, Phillip M Pierorazio, Trinity J Bivalacqua
PURPOSE: We estimated the proportion of patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer whose tumors were downstaged by transurethral resection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified patients with cT2 N0 urothelial carcinoma who underwent cystectomy at our institution from 2005 to 2014-overall, 139 underwent transurethral resection without chemotherapy, and 146 underwent transurethral resection with chemotherapy. Pathologic response was defined as<pT2 N0...
September 14, 2016: Urologic Oncology
Jinghai Hu, Fei Ye, Miao Cui, Peng Lee, Chengguo Wei, Yuanyuan Hao, Xiaoqing Wang, Yanbo Wang, Zhihua Lu, Matthew Galsky, Russell McBride, Li Wang, Dongwen Wang, Carlos Cordon-Cardo, Chunxi Wang, David Y Zhang
This study aimed to detect protein changes that can assist to understand the underlying biology of bladder cancer. The data showed forty five proteins were found to be differentially expressed comparing tumors vs non-tumor tissues, of which EGFR and cdc2p34 were correlated with muscle invasion and histological grade. Ten proteins (ß-catenin, HSP70, autotaxin, Notch4, PSTPIP1, DPYD, ODC, cyclinB1, calretinin and EPO) were able to classify muscle invasive BCa (MIBC) into 2 distinct groups, with group 2 associated with poorer survival...
2016: PloS One
Minal Garg
Urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder is characterized by high recurrence rate where a subset of these cells undergoes transition to deadly muscle invasive disease and later metastasizes. Urothelial cancer stem cells (UroCSCs), a tumor subpopulation derived from transformation of urothelial stem cells, are responsible for heterogeneous tumor formation and resistance to systemic treatment in UC of the bladder. Although the precise reason for pathophysiologic spread of tumor is not clear, transcriptome analysis of microdissected cancer cells expressing multiple progenitor/stem cell markers validates the upregulation of genes that derive epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition...
August 26, 2016: World Journal of Stem Cells
Rinni Singh, Jamal A Ansari, Niharika Maurya, Anil Mandhani, Vinita Agrawal, Minal Garg
INTRODUCTION: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a dynamic process in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer. Despite significant advancements in its diagnosis and treatment, the outcomes have more or less remained the same. In the present study, the expression of EMT markers was investigated to evaluate its prognostic significance in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was undertaken to examine the expression of EMT markers, including E-cadherin, N-cadherin, vimentin, Snail, Twist, Zeb, and Slug, on 28 bladder tumor tissues (15 cases of NMIBC and 13 of MIBC) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
August 9, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Frances Burge, Roger Kockelbergh
INTRODUCTION: Despite recent attention, there are no gender specific guidelines to address the disparity in bladder cancer survival between the sexes. The focus of this review was to identify areas of clinical practice that may influence bladder cancer outcomes and to provide evidence-based recommendations to improve bladder cancer survival in women. METHOD: A systematic search of MEDLINE was conducted to identify studies related to referral, diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of patients with bladder cancer with particular reference to gender differences...
September 6, 2016: Urologia Internationalis
Mariah Z Leivo, Paul J Elson, David E Tacha, Brett Delahunt, Donna E Hansel
Recently developed antibodies against uroplakin II and ΔNp63 (p40) show utility in diagnosing primary bladder urothelial carcinoma, although application in metastatic bladder cancer and patient outcomes has been less well defined. We evaluated these antibodies by immunostain intensity and H-score, in conjunction with GATA-3 immunoreactivity, in 89 patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma and 35 paired metastasis. The maintenance of immunoreactivity in metastatic lesions and the association to disease recurrence and survival was assessed...
October 2016: Pathology
Shunta Hori, Makito Miyake, Sayuri Onishi, Yoshihiro Tatsumi, Yosuke Morizawa, Yasushi Nakai, Satoshi Anai, Nobumichi Tanaka, Kiyohide Fujimoto
Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) accounts for ~70% of all bladder cancers. One of the serious clinical issues related to the management of NMIBC is that it has significant potential to progress to muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) after initial treatments. α‑Klotho (KLα), originally identified as an anti‑aging gene, has recently been reported to have antitumor effects in various malignancies. In contrast, β‑Klotho (KLβ) has been reported to have protumoral functions. However, the associations between KLα/KLβ and the biological behavior of urothelial carcinoma remain unclear...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
Marinos Tsiatas, Petros Grivas
Immunotherapy has traditionally been a critical component of the cancer treatment armamentarium in genitourinary (GU) cancers. It has an established role in the management of carefully selected patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) [e.g., high dose interleukin-2 (IL-2)] and non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) [e.g., intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)]. In 2010, the sipuleucel-T vaccine was approved by the FDA for the management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), based on a phase III trial showing overall survival (OS) benefit compared to placebo...
July 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Damien Pouessel, Sylvie Bastuji-Garin, Nadine Houédé, Dimitri Vordos, Yohann Loriot, Christine Chevreau, Emmanuel Sevin, Philippe Beuzeboc, Alexandre de la Taille, Aurélie Le Thuaut, Yves Allory, Stéphane Culine
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) after radical cystectomy (RC) was preferred worldwide for patients with muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer. In this study we aimed to determine the outcome of patients who received AC and evaluated prognostic factors associated with survival. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 226 consecutive patients treated in 6 academic hospitals between 2000 and 2009. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for center to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals were used...
July 21, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Anna Kołodziej, Wojciech Krajewski, Michał Matuszewski, Krzysztof Tupikowski
INTRODUCTION: Urinary bladder urothelial cell carcinoma is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in Europe. After prostate, lung and colon cancers, bladder cancer rates as the fourth most common cancer in men in the world. Urinary bladder cancer detection, treatment, and staging have traditionally been based on an endoscopic examination - cystoscopy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A Medline, and Web of Science database search was performed on September 2015 without setting time limits, using the terms 'bladder cancer' in conjunction with 'cystoscopy', 'diagnosis', 'detection', 'fluorescence', 'blue-light', 'PDD', 'narrow band imaging', 'molecular imaging', 'optical coherence tomography' or 'confocal laser endomicroscopy'...
2016: Central European Journal of Urology
Matthew D Galsky, Josep Domingo-Domenech, John P Sfakianos, Bart S Ferket
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Manish N Patel, Ashok K Hemal
Optical imaging is a relatively inexpensive, fast, and sensitive addition to a surgeon's arsenal for the non-invasive detection of malignant dissemination. Optical cameras in the near infrared spectrum are able to successfully identify injected indocyanine green in lymphatic channels and sentinel lymph nodes. The use of this technology is now being used in the operating room to help with lymph node dissection and improve the prognosis of patients diagnosed with muscle invasive bladder cancer. Indocyanine green has the potential for many more applications due to its versatility...
October 2016: Current Urology Reports
Michelle R Downes, Berber Weening, Bas W G van Rhijn, Cherry L Have, Kilian M Treurniet, Theodorus H van der Kwast
AIMS: The dual pathway model of urothelial carcinogenesis does not fully explain grade and stage progression in patients with initial low grade, non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinomas. FGFR3 mutations are a hallmark of the low grade pathway, with subsequent progression to muscle invasion occurring when FGFR3 mutant tumours exhibit a homozygous CDKN2A deletion. We hypothesized that grade heterogeneity represents the morphologic manifestation of molecular changes associated with disease progression...
August 17, 2016: Histopathology
Theodore G Gabig, Wayne C Waltzer, Terry Whyard, Victor Romanov
The current intravesical treatment of bladder cancer (BC) is limited to a few chemotherapeutics that show imperfect effectiveness and are associated with some serious complications. Thus, there is an urgent need for alternative therapies, especially for patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive (NMIBC). Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), cytolytic protein binds to its receptors: claudin 3 and 4 that are expressed in epithelial cells. This binding is followed by rapid cell death. Claudin 4 is present in several epithelial tissue including bladder urothelium and its expression is elevated in some forms of BC...
September 16, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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