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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356455/low-salinity-induced-alterations-in-epithelial-ultrastructure-na-k-atpase-immunolocalization-and-enzyme-kinetic-characteristics-in-the-gills-of-the-thinstripe-hermit-crab-clibanarius-vittatus-anomura-diogenidae
#1
Claudia Doi Antunes, Malson Neilson Lucena, Daniela Pereira Garçon, Francisco Assis Leone, John Campbell McNamara
Fresh caught Clibanarius vittatus [SW, 31‰ salinity (S)] were acclimated to a dilute medium (15‰ S) for 10 days, employing silver staining to locate gill ion transporting tissue, immunofluorescence to localize the Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in the lamellae, and electron microscopy to portray ultrastructural changes in the gill epithelia. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was characterized kinetically in a gill microsomal fraction, including synergistic stimulation by NH4+ plus K+. Silver staining revealed that all 26 phyllobranchiate arthro- and pleurobranchiae participate in ion transport...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356407/condition-dependence-of-shared-traits-differs-between-sympatric-anolis-lizards
#2
John David Curlis, Ryan William Davis, Emily Zetkulic, Christian L Cox
In many species, sexually selected combat and display traits can confer dramatic fitness benefits to males by aiding in mate acquisition, so individuals maximally invest energy into their growth and maintenance. Such traits are deemed condition-dependent, as the energy that is available for investment depends on the health and condition of the individual. Condition dependence is present in a wide range of traits across many taxa, but the extent to which condition dependence varies among shared traits in closely related species is poorly understood...
February 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356388/analysis-of-the-moment-arms-and-kinematics-of-ostrich-struthio-camelus-double-patellar-sesamoids
#3
Sophie Regnault, Vivian R Allen, Kyle P Chadwick, John R Hutchinson
The patella ("kneecap") is a biomechanically important feature of the tendinous insertion of the knee extensor muscles, able to alter the moment arm lengths between its input and output tendons, and so modify the mechanical advantage of the knee extensor muscle. However, patellar gearing function is little-explored outside of humans, and the patella is often simplified or ignored in biomechanical models. Here, we investigate patellar gearing and kinematics in the ostrich-frequently used as an animal analogue to human bipedal locomotion and unusual in its possession of two patellae at the knee joint...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356384/demographic-and-temporal-variations-in-immunity-and-condition-of-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus-from-the-southern-beaufort-sea
#4
Lorin A Neuman-Lee, Patricia A Terletzky, Todd C Atwood, Eric M Gese, Geoffrey D Smith, Sydney Greenfield, John Pettit, Susannah S French
Assessing the health and condition of animals in their natural environment can be problematic. Many physiological metrics, including immunity, are highly influenced by specific context and recent events to which researchers may be unaware. Thus, using a multifaceted physiological approach and a context-specific analysis encompassing multiple time scales can be highly informative. Ecoimmunological tools in particular can provide important indications to the health of animals in the wild. We collected blood and hair samples from free-ranging polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in the southern Beaufort Sea and examined the influence of sex, age, and reproductive status on metrics of immunity, stress, and body condition during 2013-2015...
June 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356365/risk-network-approaches-to-locating-undiagnosed-hiv-cases-in-odessa-ukraine
#5
Pavlo Smyrnov, Leslie D Williams, Ania Korobchuk, Yana Sazonova, Georgios K Nikolopoulos, Britt Skaathun, Ethan Morgan, John Schneider, Tetyana I Vasylyeva, Samuel R Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Providing HIV healthcare and Treatment as Prevention both depend on diagnosing HIV cases, preferably soon after initial infection. We hypothesized that tracing risk networks recruits higher proportions of undiagnosed positives than outreach-based testing or respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Odessa, Ukraine. METHODS: The Transmission Reduction Intervention Project (TRIP) used risk network tracing to recruit sexual and injection networks of recently-infected and longer-term infected (LTs) seeds (2013 to 2016)...
January 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356343/metataxonomic-approach-to-decipher-the-polymicrobial-burden-in-diabetic-foot-ulcer-and-its-biofilm-mode-of-infection
#6
Karthika Suryaletha, Joby John, Megha Periyappilly Radhakrishnan, Sanil George, Sabu Thomas
Chronic diabetic foot is a global burden affecting millions of people, and the chronicity of an ulcer is directly linked to the diverse bacterial burden and its biofilm mode of infection. The bacterial diversity of 100 chronic diabetic ulcer samples was profiled via traditional culturing method as well as metagenomic approach by sequencing the 16S rRNA V3 hyper-variable region on Illumina Miseq Platform (Illumina, Inc., San Diego, CA). All the relevant clinical metadata, including duration of diabetes, grade of ulcer, presence of neuropathy, and glycaemic level, were noted and correlated with the microbiota...
January 22, 2018: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356318/standardisation-of-inactivated-influenza-vaccines-learning-from-history
#7
John M Wood, Jerry P Weir
The single radial immunodiffusion assay has been the accepted method for determining the potency of inactivated influenza vaccines since 1978. The world-wide adoption of this assay for vaccine standardisation was facilitated through collaborative studies that demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and its applicability to the different types of influenza vaccine being produced at that time. Clinical evidence indicated the relevance of SRID as a potency assay. Unique features of the SRID assay are likely responsible for its longevity even as newer technologies for vaccine characterization have been developed and refined...
January 21, 2018: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356208/improving-recruitment-to-pharmacological-trials-for-illicit-opioid-use-findings-from-a-qualitative-focus-group-study
#8
Joanne Neale, Charlotte N E Tompkins, Rebecca McDonald, John Strang
AIM: To explore potential study participants' views on willingness to join clinical trials of pharmacological interventions for illicit opioid use to inform and improve future recruitment strategies. DESIGN: Qualitative focus group study (6 groups: oral methadone [2 groups]; buprenorphine tablets [2 groups]; injectable opioid agonist treatment [1 group]; and former opioid agonist treatment [1 group]). SETTINGS: Drug and alcohol services and a peer support recovery service (London, United Kingdom)...
January 22, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356207/mexiletine-or-catheter-ablation-after-amiodarone-failure-in-the-vanish-trial
#9
Marc W Deyell, Christian Steinberg, Steve Doucette, Ratika Parkash, Isabelle Nault, Chris Gray, Vidal Essebag, Martin Gardner, Laurence D Sterns, Jeff S Healey, Tomasz Hruczkowski, Lena Rivard, Peter Leong-Sit, Pablo B Nery, John L Sapp
INTRODUCTION: In patients with ischemic heart disease and ventricular tachycardia (VT) refractory to high dose amiodarone, the two most common therapeutic options are adjunctive mexiletine therapy or catheter ablation. There is little existing data on the efficacy of these strategies. We examined the relative efficacy of adjunctive mexiletine and catheter ablation among patients enrolled in the VANISH trial. METHODS: All subjects enrolled in the VANISH trial who had VT refractory to high dose (≥ 300 mg daily) amiodarone at baseline were included...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356176/tools-of-the-trade-improving-nurses-ability-to-access-and-evaluate-research
#10
Martha R Sleutel, John W Bullion, Ronnie Sullivan
AIM: To evaluate the effect of a manager-required RN competency on staff nurses' perceived knowledge, ability and frequency of information-seeking activities. BACKGROUND: Basing clinical practice on research and standards of care is essential to delivering appropriate care with optimal outcomes. Nurses' information-seeking abilities are critical for acquiring evidence-based answers to aid clinical decision-making, yet nurses under-utilize library resources and report barriers...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356155/metabolic-study-of-dioecy-in-mauritia-flexuosa-nmr-based-and-chemometric-approaches
#11
Deisy Dos Santos Freitas, Glaucia Braz Alcantara
INTRODUCTION: Mauritia flexuosa is a dioecious species native to the Amazon, and the gender identification can currently be determined through the differentiation between female and male flowers in the first flowering. OBJECTIVES: To identify variations in the metabolome profiles of pooled and individual samples of leaves from female and male plants of M. flexuosa in reproductive phase, and the plant in its vegetative phase, using two extraction systems. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Extractions of leaves were separately conducted using deuterated water and methanol...
January 21, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356133/motor-cortex-synchronization-influences-the-rhythm-of-motor-performance-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#12
Elias P Casula, Isabella M S Mayer, Mahalekshmi Desikan, Sarah J Tabrizi, John C Rothwell, Michael Orth
BACKGROUND: In Huntington's disease there is evidence of structural damage in the motor system, but it is still unclear how to link this to the behavioral disorder of movement. One feature of choreic movement is variable timing and coordination between sequences of actions. We postulate this results from desynchronization of neural activity in cortical motor areas. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to explore the ability to synchronize activity in a motor network using transcranial magnetic stimulation and to relate this to timing of motor performance...
January 22, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356068/could-echocardiography-determine-whether-spontaneous-coronary-dissection-is-occasionally-associated-with-takotsubo-syndrome
#13
John E Madias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356060/utilizing-transesophageal-echocardiography-for-placement-of-pulmonary-artery-catheters
#14
John Baer, Matthew M Wyatt, Kenneth R Kreisler
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary artery catheters (PACs) have routinely been positioned by wedging into the pulmonary artery before pulling back 1-2 centimeters or advancing the PAC several centimeters after achieving a pulmonary artery waveform. A rare, major complication is pulmonary artery rupture. This study presents transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for PAC placement by leaving the catheter tip at the one o'clock position, upper window short-axis view of the ascending aorta at the bifurcation of the pulmonary artery (TEE distance)...
January 22, 2018: Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356049/charl%C3%A3-s-l-l-samarasinghe-g-eds-2016-family-therapy-in-global-humanitarian-contexts-voices-and-issues-from-the-field-new-york-ny-springer-138-pp-54-99
#15
REVIEW
John K Miller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356046/a-large-scale-analysis-of-variance-in-written-language
#16
Brendan T Johns, Randall K Jamieson
The collection of very large text sources has revolutionized the study of natural language, leading to the development of several models of language learning and distributional semantics that extract sophisticated semantic representations of words based on the statistical redundancies contained within natural language (e.g., Griffiths, Steyvers, & Tenenbaum, ; Jones & Mewhort, ; Landauer & Dumais, ; Mikolov, Sutskever, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, ). The models treat knowledge as an interaction of processing mechanisms and the structure of language experience...
January 22, 2018: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355972/high-intraspecific-genome-diversity-in-the-model-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiont-rhizophagus-irregularis
#17
Eric C H Chen, Emmanuelle Morin, Denis Beaudet, Jessica Noel, Gokalp Yildirir, Steve Ndikumana, Philippe Charron, Camille St-Onge, John Giorgi, Manuela Krüger, Timea Marton, Jeanne Ropars, Igor V Grigoriev, Matthieu Hainaut, Bernard Henrissat, Christophe Roux, Francis Martin, Nicolas Corradi
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to improve plant fitness through the establishment of mycorrhizal symbioses. Genetic and phenotypic variations among closely related AMF isolates can significantly affect plant growth, but the genomic changes underlying this variability are unclear. To address this issue, we improved the genome assembly and gene annotation of the model strain Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM197198, and compared its gene content with five isolates of R. irregularis sampled in the same field...
January 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355905/hidradenitis-suppurativa-a-review-of-pathogenesis-associations-and-management-part-1
#18
REVIEW
Dunja Ana Vekic, John Frew, Geoffrey David Cains
Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, painful, autoinflammatory condition resulting in nodules, abscesses and sinus tracts. We present an evidence-based review providing new understanding of the pathogenesis of hidradenitis suppurativa and associated comorbidities. By the nature of their speciality, dermatologists are uniquely positioned to investigate and treat patients with this condition. Data collected from a subspecialty hidradenitis suppurativa clinic (N = 106) and experiences thereof are discussed in this review...
January 21, 2018: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355893/cranial-measures-and-ancient-dna-both-show-greater-similarity-of-neandertals-to-recent-modern-eurasians-than-to-recent-modern-sub-saharan-africans
#19
John H Relethford, Fred H Smith
OBJECTIVES: Ancient DNA analysis has shown that present-day humans of Eurasian ancestry are more similar to Neandertals than are present-day humans of sub-Saharan African ancestry, reflecting interbreeding after modern humans first left Africa. We use craniometric data to test the hypothesis that the crania of recent modern humans show the same pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We computed Mahalanobis squared distances between a published Neandertal centroid based on 37 craniometric traits and each of 2,413 recent modern humans from the Howells global data set (N = 373 sub-Saharan Africans, N = 2,040 individuals of Eurasian descent)...
January 22, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355886/antidepressants-for-depression-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#20
REVIEW
Ingrid Eshun-Wilson, Nandi Siegfried, Dickens H Akena, Dan J Stein, Ekwaro A Obuku, John A Joska
BACKGROUND: Rates of major depression among people living with HIV (PLWH) are substantially higher than those seen in the general population and this may adversely affect antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Several unique clinical and psychosocial factors may contribute to the development and persistence of depression in PLWH. Given these influences, it is unclear if antidepressant therapy is as effective for PLWH as the general population. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of antidepressant therapy for treatment of depression in PLWH...
January 22, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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