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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151244/identification-of-rare-noncoding-sequence-variants-in-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-a-receptor-alpha-4-subunit-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Anthony J Griswold, Derek Van Booven, Michael L Cuccaro, Jonathan L Haines, John R Gilbert, Margaret A Pericak-Vance
Alterations of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling system has been strongly linked to the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genetic associations of common variants in GABA receptor subunits, in particular GABRA4 on chromosome 4p12, with ASD have been replicated by several studies. Moreover, molecular investigations have identified altered transcriptional and translational levels of this gene and protein in brains of ASD individuals. Since the genotyped common variants are likely not the functional variants contributing to the molecular consequences or underlying ASD phenotype, this study aims to examine rare sequence variants in GABRA4, including those outside the protein coding regions of the gene...
November 18, 2017: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151200/a-closer-look-at-racism-and-heterosexism-in-medical-students-clinical-decision-making-related-to-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-prep-implications-for-prep-education
#2
Sarah K Calabrese, Valerie A Earnshaw, Douglas S Krakower, Kristen Underhill, Wilson Vincent, Manya Magnus, Nathan B Hansen, Trace S Kershaw, Kenneth H Mayer, Joseph R Betancourt, John F Dovidio
Social biases among healthcare providers could limit PrEP access. In this survey study of 115 US medical students, we examined associations between biases (racism and heterosexism) and PrEP clinical decision-making and explored prior PrEP education as a potential buffer. After viewing a vignette about a PrEP-seeking MSM patient, participants reported anticipated patient behavior (condomless sex, extra-relational sex, and adherence), intention to prescribe PrEP to the patient, biases, and background characteristics...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151199/loneliness-in-older-adults-living-with-hiv
#3
Meredith Greene, Nancy A Hessol, Carla Perissinotto, Roland Zepf, Amanda Hutton Parrott, Cameron Foreman, Robert Whirry, Monica Gandhi, Malcolm John
We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-positive adults age ≥ 50 in San Francisco to evaluate the frequency of loneliness, characteristics of those who reported loneliness, and the association of loneliness with functional impairment and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Participants (N = 356) were predominately male (85%); 57% were white; median age was 56. 58% reported any loneliness symptoms with 24% reporting mild, 22% moderate and 12% severe loneliness. Lonely participants were more likely to report depression, alcohol and tobacco use, and have fewer relationships...
November 18, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151192/impact-of-oral-ketamine-augmentation-on-hospital-admissions-in-treatment-resistant-depression-and-ptsd-a-retrospective-study
#4
John Hartberg, Simone Garrett-Walcott, Angelo De Gioannis
RATIONALE: Depressive episodes are the leading cause of mental health-related hospital admissions in Australia, and 44% of those admitted have a previous history of hospitalisations for depression (Admitted patient mental health-related care: (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Aust Hospital Stat 2011-12, 2013). Despite numerous available antidepressant treatments, many patients do not respond to conventional therapy, having what is called 'treatment resistance' (Fava Biol Psychiatry 53:649-659, 2003)...
November 18, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151152/a-maize-inbred-exhibits-resistance-against-western-corn-rootwoorm-diabrotica-virgifera-virgifera
#5
Lina Castano-Duque, Kenneth W Loades, John F Tooker, Kathleen M Brown, W Paul Williams, Dawn S Luthe
Insect resistance against root herbivores like the western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is not well understood in non-transgenic maize. We studied the responses of two American maize inbreds, Mp708 and Tx601, to WCR infestation using biomechanical, molecular, biochemical analyses, and laser ablation tomography. Previous studies performed on several inbreds indicated that these two maize genotypes differed in resistance to pests including fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and WCR. Our data confirmed that Mp708 shows resistance against WCR, and demonstrates that the resistance mechanism is based in a multi-trait phenotype that includes increased resistance to cutting in nodal roots, stable root growth during insect infestation, constitutive and induced expression of known herbivore-defense genes, including ribosomal inhibitor protein 2 (rip2), terpene synthase 23 (tps23) and maize insect resistance cysteine protease-1 (mir1), as well high constitutive levels of jasmonic acid and production of (E)-β-caryophyllene...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151098/the-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome
#6
Douglas J Lanska, John R Lanska
In 1955, English psychiatrist John Todd defined the Alice-in-Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) as self-experienced paroxysmal body-image illusions involving distortions of the size, mass, or shape of the patient's own body or its position in space, often accompanied by depersonalization and/or derealization. AIWS had been described by American Neurologist Caro Lippman in 1952, but Todd's report was the most influential. Todd named the syndrome for the perceptual disorder of altered body image experienced by the protagonist in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson)...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151097/the-dancing-manias-psychogenic-illness-as-a-social-phenomenon
#7
Douglas J Lanska
The dancing mania erupted in the 14th century in the wake of the Black Death, and recurred for centuries in central Europe - particularly Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium - finally abating in the early 17th century. The term "dancing mania" was derived from "choreomania," a concatenation of choros (dance) and mania (madness). A variant, tarantism, was prevalent in southern Italy from the 15th to the 17th centuries, and was attributed at the time to bites from the tarantula spider. Affected individuals participated in continuous, prolonged, erratic, often frenzied and sometimes erotic, dancing...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151055/exploring-the-effects-of-transfers-and-readmissions-on-trends-in-population-counts-of-hospital-admissions-for-coronary-heart-disease-a-western-australian-data-linkage-study
#8
Derrick Lopez, Lee Nedkoff, Matthew Knuiman, Michael S T Hobbs, Thomas G Briffa, David B Preen, Joseph Hung, John Beilby, Sushma Mathur, Anna Reynolds, Frank M Sanfilippo
OBJECTIVES: To develop a method for categorising coronary heart disease (CHD) subtype in linked data accounting for different CHD diagnoses across records, and to compare hospital admission numbers and ratios of unlinked versus linked data for each CHD subtype over time, and across age groups and sex. DESIGN: Cohort study. DATA SOURCE: Person-linked hospital administrative data covering all admissions for CHD in Western Australia from 1988 to 2013...
November 17, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151015/diffuse-idiopathic-skeletal-hyperostosis-dish-as-a-cause-of-failure-following-distal-clavicle-excision-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
John Begly, Vineet Tyagi, Eric Strauss
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is common spinal condition characterized by increased calcification and ossification of ligaments and entheses, typically in the anterior aspect of the spine. However, extraspinal manifestations of the disease can occur and depending on the degree and location of involvement, may become symptomatic. We present the case of a 63-year-old male with a history of DISH, who failed initial open distal clavicle excision due to the postoperative development of heterotopic bone bridging across the acromioclavicular joint...
December 2017: Bulletin of the Hospital for Joint Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150982/visualization-within-the-ventricles-of-the-brain-a-micro-focus-x-ray-study
#10
Edwin John de Jager, André Francois du Plessis, Jakobus Willem Hoffman, Anna Catherina Oettlé, Marius Casparus Bosman
Conceptualization of the ventricular system of the brain by macroscopic studies is complicated by the lack of physical structure of these interconnected cavities. Dissection procedures designed to display the structures in the walls of the ventricles are destructive and not conducive for the appreciation of the ventricular system in its entirety. The application of Micro-focus X-ray tomography affords the possibility to appreciate hidden structures in a non-destructive manner. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using micro-focus X-ray tomography in the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the ventricular system as well as the various neuroanatomical structures within its walls for educational purposes...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150979/anterior-thalamic-nuclei-lesions-have-a-greater-impact-than-mammillothalamic-tract-lesions-on-the-extended-hippocampal-system
#11
Brook A L Perry, Stephanie A Mercer, Sophie C Barnett, Jungah Lee, John C Dalrymple-Alford
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN), mammillary bodies and their interconnecting fiber tract, the mammillothalamic tract (MTT), are important components of an extended hippocampal circuit for episodic memory. In humans, damage to the MTT or ATN in many disorders is associated with severe anterograde amnesia and it is assumed that their influence on memory is functionally equivalent. The relative influence of these two structures on memory has not, however, been assessed explicitly. Here, a direct comparison found that only ATN lesions impaired spatial reference memory in rats...
November 18, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150937/cgmp-production-and-analysis-of-bg505-sosip-664-an-extensively-glycosylated-trimeric-hiv-1-envelope-glycoprotein-vaccine-candidate
#12
Antu K Dey, Albert Cupo, Gabriel Ozorowski, Vaneet K Sharma, Anna-Janina Behrens, Eden P Go, Thomas J Ketas, Anila Yasmeen, Per J Klasse, Eddy Sayeed, Heather Desaire, Max Crispin, Ian A Wilson, Rogier W Sanders, Thomas Hassell, Andrew Ward, John P Moore
We describe the properties of BG505 SOSIP.664 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimers produced under current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) conditions. These proteins are the first of a new generation of native-like trimers that are the basis for many structure-guided immunogen development programs aimed at devising how to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 by vaccination. The successful translation of this prototype demonstrates the feasibility of producing similar immunogens on an appropriate scale and of an acceptable quality for Phase I experimental medicine clinical trials...
November 18, 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150884/directional-local-field-potentials-a-tool-to-optimize-deep-brain-stimulation
#13
Gerd Tinkhauser, Alek Pogosyan, Ines Debove, Andreas Nowacki, Syed Ahmar Shah, Kathleen Seidel, Huiling Tan, John-Stuart Brittain, Katrin Petermann, Lazzaro di Biase, Markus Oertel, Claudio Pollo, Peter Brown, Michael Schuepbach
BACKGROUND: Although recently introduced directional DBS leads provide control of the stimulation field, programing is time-consuming. OBJECTIVES: Here, we validate local field potentials recorded from directional contacts as a predictor of the most efficient contacts for stimulation in patients with PD. METHODS: Intraoperative local field potentials were recorded from directional contacts in the STN of 12 patients and beta activity compared with the results of the clinical contact review performed after 4 to 7 months...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150828/vectors-hosts-and-control-measures-for-zika-virus-in-the-americas
#14
REVIEW
Sarah J Thompson, John M Pearce, Andrew M Ramey
We examine Zika virus (ZIKV) from an ecological perspective and with a focus on the Americas. We assess (1) the role of wildlife in ZIKV disease ecology, (2) how mosquito behavior and biology influence disease dynamics, and (3) how nontarget species and ecosystems may be impacted by vector control programs. Our review suggests that free-ranging, non-human primates may be involved in ZIKV transmission in the Old World; however, other wildlife species likely play a limited role in maintaining or transmitting ZIKV...
November 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150773/overexpression-of-a-cellobiose-glucose-halotolerant-endoglucanase-from-scytalidium-thermophilum
#15
Luana Parras Meleiro, Sibeli Carli, Raquel Fonseca-Maldonado, Marcela da Silva Torricillas, Ana Lucia Ribeiro Latorre Zimbardi, Richard John Ward, João Atílio Jorge, Rosa Prazeres Melo Furriel
Enzyme reaction products and by-products from pretreatment steps can inhibit endoglucanases and are major factors limiting the efficiency of enzymatic lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. The gene encoding the endoglucanase from Scytalidium thermophilum (egst) was cloned and expressed as a soluble protein in Pichia pastoris GS115. The recombinant enzyme (Egst) was monomeric (66 kDa) and showed an estimated carbohydrate content of 53.3% (w/w). The optimum temperature and pH of catalysis were 60-70 °C and pH of 5...
November 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150766/spinobot-an-mri-guided-needle-positioning-system-for-spinal-cellular-therapeutics
#16
Alexander Squires, John N Oshinski, Nicholas M Boulis, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) results in the death of motor neurons in voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS and few available treatments. In studies with small animal models, injection of cellular therapeutics into the anterior horn of the spinal cord has been shown to inhibit the progression of ALS. It was hypothesized that spinal injection could be made faster and less invasive with the aid of a robot. The robotic system presented-SpinoBot-uses MRI guidance to position a needle for percutaneous injection into the spinal cord...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150711/epidemiology-of-peritonitis-following-maintenance-peritoneal-dialysis-catheter-placement-during-infancy-a-report-of-the-scope-collaborative
#17
Joshua Jacob Zaritsky, Coral Hanevold, Raymond Quigley, Troy Richardson, Cynthia Wong, Jennifer Ehrlich, John Lawlor, Jonathan Rodean, Alicia Neu, Bradley A Warady
BACKGROUND: Maintenance peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the dialysis modality of choice for infants and young children. However, there are limited outcome data for those who undergo PD catheter insertion and initiate maintenance PD within the first year of life. METHODS: Using data from the Children's Hospital Association's Standardizing Care to Improve Outcomes in Pediatric End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Collaborative (SCOPE), we examined peritonitis rates and patient survival in 156 infants from 29 North American pediatric dialysis centers who had a chronic PD catheter placed prior to their first birthday...
November 17, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150642/rescue-of-pfos-induced-human-sertoli-cell-injury-by-overexpressing-a-p-fak-y407e-phosphomimetic-mutant
#18
Haiqi Chen, Ying Gao, Dolores D Mruk, Xiang Xiao, Constance M John, Paul J Turek, Wing-Yee Lui, Will M Lee, Bruno Silvestrini, C Yan Cheng
PFOS induces Sertoli cell injury using testicular cells isolated from rodent testes, but it remains unknown if PFOS has similar effects in humans. Herein, we maintained human Sertoli cells in a mitotically active state in vitro, thus enabling transfection experiments that altered gene expression to explore the molecular mechanism(s) underlying toxicant-induced cell injury. Human Sertoli cells obtained from men at ages 15, 23, 36 and 40 were cultured in vitro. These differentiated Sertoli cells remained mitotically active when cultured in the presence of 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum), with a replication time of ~1-3 weeks...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150633/ketamine-s-antidepressant-effect-is-mediated-by-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidant-defense-system
#19
Katja Weckmann, Michael J Deery, Julie A Howard, Renata Feret, John M Asara, Frederik Dethloff, Michaela D Filiou, Jamie Iannace, Christiana Labermaier, Giuseppina Maccarrone, Christian Webhofer, Larysa Teplytska, Kathryn Lilley, Marianne B Müller, Christoph W Turck
Fewer than 50% of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with currently available antidepressants (ADs) show full remission. Moreover, about one third of the patients suffering from MDD does not respond to conventional ADs and develop treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Ketamine, a non-competitive, voltage-dependent N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, has been shown to have a rapid antidepressant effect, especially in patients suffering from TRD. Hippocampi of ketamine-treated mice were analysed by metabolome and proteome profiling to delineate ketamine treatment-affected molecular pathways and biosignatures...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150611/uplift-of-the-central-transantarctic-mountains
#20
Phil Wannamaker, Graham Hill, John Stodt, Virginie Maris, Yasuo Ogawa, Kate Selway, Goran Boren, Edward Bertrand, Daniel Uhlmann, Bridget Ayling, A Marie Green, Daniel Feucht
The Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) are the world's longest rift shoulder but the source of their high elevation is enigmatic. To discriminate the importance of mechanical vs. thermal sources of support, a 550 km-long transect of magnetotelluric geophysical soundings spanning the central TAM was acquired. These data reveal a lithosphere of high electrical resistivity to at least 150 km depth, implying a cold stable state well into the upper mantle. Here we find that the central TAM most likely are elevated by a non-thermal, flexural cantilever mechanism which is perhaps the most clearly expressed example anywhere...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
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