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Feline spinal

Maria Teresa Mandara, Luca Motta, Pietro Calò
In cats, lymphoma (lymphosarcoma) is the most common neoplasm affecting the spinal cord and the second most common intracranial tumour. Although lymphoma commonly develops in the spinal cord as a part of a multicentric process, a primary form may occur. Lymphoma can exhibit a wide range of morphological patterns, including intraparenchymal brain mass, lymphomatosis cerebri, intravascular lymphoma, lymphomatous choroiditis and meningitis, extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary lymphoma in the spinal cord, or neurolymphomatosis in the peripheral nerves...
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
W D Roe, S Michael, J Fyfe, E Burrows, S A Hunter, L Howe
CASE HISTORY: A 1-year-old female New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri) was intermittently observed in the Otago region of New Zealand over an 11-month period, always dragging her hind flippers. In December 2012 the sea lion was found dead, after a period of several days being observed to be harassed by male sea lions. PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: At gross postmortem examination the sea lion was in moderate body condition with signs of recent bite wounds and bruising...
September 2, 2016: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
Ye P Man'kovskaya, A V Maznychenko, N O Pil'kevych, V O Maisky, O V Vlasenko, O V Dovgan
The aim of this research was to reveal the changes in the NADPH-d reactivity in the lumbal spinal cord (L6/L7) of cats with unilateral acute myositis of the mm. gastrocnemius-soleus after intramuscular injections of carrageenan. The effect of unilateral muscle inflammation was expressed in a significant increase in the number of NADPH-d-reactive neurons in ipsilateral and contralateral intermediate (lamina VII; 17.62 ± 2.7 and 20.67 ± 13.3) and medial (lamina VIII; 7.3 ± 1.9 and 6.0 ± 2.1 respectively) zones of the ventral horns...
2015: Fiziolohichnyĭ Zhurnal
Féline P B Kroon, Lennart R A van der Burg, Sofia Ramiro, Robert B M Landewé, Rachelle Buchbinder, Louise Falzon, Désirée van der Heijde
BACKGROUND: Axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) comprises ankylosing spondylitis (radiographic axSpA) and non-radiographic (nr-)axSpA and is associated with psoriasis, uveitis and inflammatory bowel disease. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended as first-line drug treatment. OBJECTIVES: To determine the benefits and harms of NSAIDs in axSpA. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and EMBASE to 18 June 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs of NSAIDs versus placebo or any comparator in adults with axSpA and observational cohort studies studying the long term effect (≥ six months) of NSAIDs on radiographic progression or adverse events (AEs)...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
K Bossens, S Bhatti, I Van Soens, I Gielen, L Van Ham
A nine-year-old intact female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for paraparesis, ataxia and severe spinal hyperaesthesia. Neurological examination indicated a T3-L3 spinal cord segment lesion. Computed tomography of the thoracolumbar and lumbosacral vertebral column was performed. This showed contiguous smooth new bone formation ventral and lateral to the vertebrae extending from the cranial thoracic area to the lumbosacral junction and appearing similar to canine diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis...
January 2016: Journal of Small Animal Practice
António J Santos Grácio, Joachim Richter, Anastasia Th Komnenou, Maria Amélia Grácio
Globalization has increased circulation of people, their food, livestock and pets in the world, and changes in the environment, climate and human behaviour have led to the rapid expansion of emerging infections throughout the world. One of the reasons of a new pathogen affecting humans is the passage from an animal to a human being. Onchocerca (O.) lupi, a filarial worm first described in a wolf in 1967, is an emerging pathogen which has been incriminated as the etiological agent for 205 canine, 2 feline and 18 human infections in Europe, Tunisia, Turkey, Iran and the USA...
July 2015: Parasitology Research
Heather L Gray-Edwards, Brandon L Brunson, Merrilee Holland, Adrien-Maxence Hespel, Allison M Bradbury, Victoria J McCurdy, Patricia M Beadlescomb, Ashley N Randle, Nouha Salibi, Thomas S Denney, Ronald J Beyers, Aime K Johnson, Meredith L Voyles, Ronald D Montgomery, Diane U Wilson, Judith A Hudson, Nancy R Cox, Henry J Baker, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Douglas R Martin
Sandhoff disease (SD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the enzyme β-N-acetylhexosaminidase. Children with infantile onset SD develop seizures, loss of motor tone and swallowing problems, eventually reaching a vegetative state with death typically by 4years of age. Other symptoms include vertebral gibbus and cardiac abnormalities strikingly similar to those of the mucopolysaccharidoses. Isolated fibroblasts from SD patients have impaired catabolism of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). To evaluate mucopolysaccharidosis-like features of the feline SD model, we utilized radiography, MRI, echocardiography, histopathology and GAG quantification of both central nervous system and peripheral tissues/fluids...
September 2015: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Hannah E Rockwell, Victoria J McCurdy, Samuel C Eaton, Diane U Wilson, Aime K Johnson, Ashley N Randle, Allison M Bradbury, Heather L Gray-Edwards, Henry J Baker, Judith A Hudson, Nancy R Cox, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Thomas N Seyfried, Douglas R Martin
Sandhoff disease (SD) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex), resulting in the inability to catabolize ganglioside GM2 within the lysosomes. SD presents with an accumulation of GM2 and its asialo derivative GA2, primarily in the central nervous system. Myelin-enriched glycolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, are also decreased in SD corresponding with dysmyelination. At present, no treatment exists for SD. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic benefit of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene therapy in the treatment of SD in murine and feline models...
March 2015: ASN Neuro
R Timothy Bentley, Hock Gan Heng, Craig Thompson, Chun-Sheng Lee, Robert A Kroll, Michael E Roy, Lauren Marini, Jin Heo, William L Wigle
Little published information is available to guide therapy for canine and feline patients with Coccidioides infections involving the central nervous system (CNS). The purpose of this cross-sectional retrospective study was to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and outcome for a group of dogs and cats with solitary CNS Coccidiodes granulomas. Nine canine and two feline cases met inclusion criteria; four diagnosed and treated with surgery and fluconazole and seven diagnosed by serology or cytology and treated medically...
September 2015: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Laura J Hammond, Silke Hecht
The T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo sequence is a sensitive means to detect blood degradation products. While not a routine sequence in magnetic resonance imaging of the spine in small animals, it can provide additional valuable information in select cases. The goal of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe findings when acquiring this sequence during magnetic resonance imaging examination of the spine in small animals. The University of Tennessee's veterinary radiology database was searched for dogs and cats that underwent magnetic resonance imaging for suspect spinal disease in which a T2*-weighted gradient recalled echo sequence was acquired and susceptibility artifact was identified...
July 2015: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
E D Schomburg, H Steffens, A I Pilyavskii, V A Maisky, W Brück, P Dibaj, T A Sears
Chronic muscular limb pain requires the adoption of motor patterns distinct from the classic ipsilateral flexion, crossed extension and corresponding reciprocal inhibitions to acute exteroceptive stimulation. Using selective chemical activation of group III/IV afferents in gastrocnemius-soleus (GS) muscles we investigated bilaterally their reflex responses conditioned by (a) acute 'myositis' induced by intramuscular carrageenan; and (b) sub-acute 'myositis' induced by infusion of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)...
June 2015: Neuroscience Research
Rachel E Pollard, Amanda L Koehne, Carlyn B Peterson, Leslie A Lyons
Several cat breeds are defined by morphological variation of the tail. The Japanese Bobtail is a breed that has been accepted for registration only within the past 50 years; however, the congenital kinked tail variants defining this breed were documented in the Far East centuries ago and the cats are considered 'good luck' in several Asian cultures. The recent discovery of the mutation for the tailless Manx phenotype has demonstrated that the Japanese Bobtail does not have a causative mutation in the same gene (T-Box)...
August 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Christian Hinderer, Peter Bell, Brittney L Gurda, Qiang Wang, Jean-Pierre Louboutin, Yanqing Zhu, Jessica Bagel, Patricia O'Donnell, Tracey Sikora, Therese Ruane, Ping Wang, Mark E Haskins, James M Wilson
Enzyme replacement therapy has revolutionized the treatment of the somatic manifestations of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD), although it has been ineffective in treating central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of these disorders. The development of neurotrophic vectors based on novel serotypes of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) such as AAV9 provides a potential platform for stable and efficient delivery of enzymes to the CNS. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of intrathecal delivery of AAV9 expressing α-l-iduronidase (IDUA) in a previously described feline model of mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I)...
December 2014: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Féline Kroon, Margaret Staples, Peter R Ebeling, John D Wark, Richard H Osborne, Peter J Mitchell, Chris H R Wriedt, Rachelle Buchbinder
We previously reported the results of a randomized controlled trial that found no benefit of vertebroplasty over a sham procedure for acute osteoporotic vertebral fractures up to 6 months. We report here the 12-month and 24-month clinical outcomes of this trial. Eligible participants (n = 78) were randomly assigned to receive either vertebroplasty (n = 38) or a sham procedure (n = 40). Randomization was stratified by treatment center, sex, and symptom duration (<6 weeks or ≥6 weeks). Participants, investigators (except the treating radiologists), and outcome assessors were blinded to group assignments...
June 2014: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Marcin Bączyk, Lars-Gunnar Pettersson, Elzbieta Jankowska
Ipsilateral actions of pyramidal tract (PT) neurons are weak but may, if strengthened, compensate for deficient crossed PT actions following brain damage. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can strengthen ipsilateral PT (iPT) actions; in particular, those relayed by reticulospinal neurons co-excited by axon collaterals of fibres descending in the iPT and contralateral PT (coPT) and of reticulospinal neurons descending in the medial longitudinal fascicle (MLF)...
August 2014: European Journal of Neuroscience
James J Hammond, Alexander deLahunta, Eric N Glass, Marc Kent, Brian A Summers, Andrew D Miller
Intraparenchymal spinal cord tumors in the cat are rarely reported and often as single case reports. In the current study, the clinical, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), histologic, and immunohistochemical features of 7 cases of intraparenchymal spinal cord tumors in the cat are described. All cats were domestic breed, ranged from 4 to 12 years of age (median 8 years), and included spayed females (5/7) and neutered males (2/7). The duration of clinical signs ranged from 2 weeks to 3 months. MRI revealed lesions that were hyperintense on T2-weighted images with variable contrast enhancement...
May 12, 2014: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Mizue Ogawa, Kazuyuki Uchida, Kyoko Isobe, Miyoko Saito, Tomoyuki Harada, James K Chambers, Hiroyuki Nakayama
A male Japanese domestic cat developed progressive limb paralysis from 4 months of age. The cat showed visual disorder, trismus and cognitive impairment and died at 9 months of age. At necropsy, significant discoloration of the white matter was observed throughout the brain and spinal cord. Histologically, severe myelin loss and gliosis were observed, especially in the internal capsule and cerebellum.In the lesions, severe infiltration of macrophages with broad cytoplasm filled with PAS-positive and nonmetachromatic granules (globoid cells) was evident...
April 2014: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
R Vallefuoco, M Manassero, D Leperlier, S Scotti, V Viateau, P Moissonnier
OBJECTIVE: To report our clinical experience in the surgical treatment of feline thoraco-lumbar vertebral fracture-luxations using optimal safe implantation corridors as previously described in vitro. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records and radiographs of cats with vertebral fracture-luxations stabilized by screws and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using optimal safe implantation corridors between 2009 and 2011 were reviewed...
2014: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
Lee E Fisher, Christopher A Ayers, Mattia Ciollaro, Valérie Ventura, Douglas J Weber, Robert A Gaunt
OBJECTIVE: This study describes results of primary afferent neural microstimulation experiments using microelectrode arrays implanted chronically in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of four cats. The goal was to test the stability and selectivity of these microelectrode arrays as a potential interface for restoration of somatosensory feedback after damage to the nervous system such as amputation. APPROACH: A five-contact nerve-cuff electrode implanted on the sciatic nerve was used to record the antidromic compound action potential response to DRG microstimulation (2-15 µA biphasic pulses, 200 µs cathodal pulse width), and the threshold for eliciting a response was tracked over time...
June 2014: Journal of Neural Engineering
Victoria J McCurdy, Aime K Johnson, Heather L Gray-Edwards, Ashley N Randle, Brandon L Brunson, Nancy E Morrison, Nouha Salibi, Jacob A Johnson, Misako Hwang, Ronald J Beyers, Stanley G Leroy, Stacy Maitland, Thomas S Denney, Nancy R Cox, Henry J Baker, Miguel Sena-Esteves, Douglas R Martin
Progressive debilitating neurological defects characterize feline G(M1) gangliosidosis, a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of lysosomal β-galactosidase. No effective therapy exists for affected children, who often die before age 5 years. An adeno-associated viral vector carrying the therapeutic gene was injected bilaterally into two brain targets (thalamus and deep cerebellar nuclei) of a feline model of G(M1) gangliosidosis. Gene therapy normalized β-galactosidase activity and storage throughout the brain and spinal cord...
April 9, 2014: Science Translational Medicine
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