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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092739/an-emg-driven-biomechanical-model-of-the-canine-cervical-spine
#1
M Alizadeh, G G Knapik, J S Dufour, C Zindl, M J Allen, J Bertran, N Fitzpatrick, W S Marras
Due to the frequency of cervical spine injuries in canines, the purpose of this effort was to develop an EMG-driven dynamic model of the canine cervical spine to assess a biomechanical understanding that enables one to investigate the risk of neck disorders. A canine subject was recruited in this investigation in order to collect subject specific data. Reflective markers and a motion capture system were used for kinematic measurement; surface electrodes were used to record electromyography signals, and with the aid of force plate kinetics were recorded...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074710/canine-spinal-cord-glioma
#2
Daniel R Rissi, Renee Barber, Annabelle Burnum, Andrew D Miller
Spinal cord glioma is uncommonly reported in dogs. We describe the clinicopathologic and diagnostic features of 7 cases of canine spinal cord glioma and briefly review the veterinary literature on this topic. The median age at presentation was 7.2 y. Six females and 1 male were affected and 4 dogs were brachycephalic. The clinical course lasted from 3 d to 12 wk, and clinical signs were progressive and associated with multiple suspected neuroanatomic locations in the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging of 6 cases revealed T2-weighted hyperintense lesions with variable contrast enhancement in the spinal cord...
January 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069688/up-regulation-of-cb2-receptors-in-reactive-astrocytes-in-canine-degenerative-myelopathy-a-disease-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#3
María Fernández-Trapero, Francisco Espejo-Porras, Carmen Rodríguez-Cueto, Joan R Coates, Carmen Pérez-Díaz, Eva de Lago, Javier Fernández-Ruiz
Targeting the CB2 receptor afforded neuroprotection in SOD1(G93A) mutant mice, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The neuroprotective effects of CB2 receptors were facilitated by their up-regulation in the spinal cord in SOD1(G93A) mutant mice. Herein, we have investigated whether a similar CB2 receptor up-regulation, as well as parallel changes in other endocannabinoid elements, are evident in the spinal cord of dogs with degenerative myelopathy (DM), caused from mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1)...
January 9, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067245/effect-of-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-hydrogel-in-regeneration-of-spinal-cord-injury-demonstrated-by-tractography-a-pilot-study
#4
Zhenxia Zhang, Shenglian Yao, Sheng Xie, Xiumei Wang, Feiyan Chang, Jie Luo, Jingming Wang, Jun Fu
Some studies have reported that scaffold or cell-based transplantation may improve functional recovery following SCI, but no imaging information regarding regeneration has been provided to date. This study used tractography to show the regenerating process induced by a new biomaterial-aligned fibrin hydrogel (AFG). A total of eight canines subjected to SCI procedures were assigned to the control or the AFG group. AFG was implanted into the SCI lesion immediately after injury in 5 canines. A follow-up was performed at 12 weeks to evaluate the therapeutic effect including the hindlimb functional recovery, anisotropy and continuity of fibers on tractography...
January 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033318/a-point-mutation-in-a-lincrna-upstream-of-gdnf-is-associated-to-a-canine-insensitivity-to-pain-a-spontaneous-model-for-human-sensory-neuropathies
#5
Jocelyn Plassais, Laetitia Lagoutte, Solenne Correard, Manon Paradis, Eric Guaguère, Benoit Hédan, Alix Pommier, Nadine Botherel, Marie-Christine Cadiergues, Philippe Pilorge, David Silversides, Maud Bizot, Mark Samuels, Carme Arnan, Rory Johnson, Christophe Hitte, Gilles Salbert, Agnès Méreau, Pascale Quignon, Thomas Derrien, Catherine André
Human Hereditary Sensory Autonomic Neuropathies (HSANs) are characterized by insensitivity to pain, sometimes combined with self-mutilation. Strikingly, several sporting dog breeds are particularly affected by such neuropathies. Clinical signs appear in young puppies and consist of acral analgesia, with or without sudden intense licking, biting and severe self-mutilation of the feet, whereas proprioception, motor abilities and spinal reflexes remain intact. Through a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 24 affected and 30 unaffected sporting dogs using the Canine HD 170K SNP array (Illumina), we identified a 1...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029610/impact-of-local-injection-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-expressing-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-mscs-combined-with-intravenous-msc-delivery-in-a-canine-model-of-chronic-spinal-cord-injury
#6
Seung Hoon Lee, Yongsun Kim, Daeun Rhew, Ahyoung Kim, Kwang Rae Jo, Yongseok Yoon, Kyeung Uk Choi, Taeseong Jung, Wan Hee Kim, Oh-Kyeong Kweon
BACKGROUND AIMS: The microenvironment of the chronically injured spinal cord does not allow for axonal regeneration due to glial scarring. To ameliorate this, several therapeutic strategies have been used. We investigated whether combined transplantation of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) genetically modified to secrete brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with intravenous (IV) administration of MSCs can promote recovery of hindlimb function after chronic spinal cord injury (SCI)...
October 28, 2016: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024876/neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-ncl-is-caused-by-the-entire-deletion-of-cln8-in-the-alpenl%C3%A3-ndische-dachsbracke-dog
#7
M Hirz, M Drögemüller, A Schänzer, V Jagannathan, E Dietschi, H H Goebel, W Hecht, S Laubner, M J Schmidt, F Steffen, M Hilbe, K Köhler, C Drögemüller, C Herden
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCLs) are inherited lysosomal storage diseases that have been described in a variety of dog breeds, where they are caused by different mutations in different genes. However, the causative gene defect in the breed Alpenländische Dachsbracke remained unknown so far. Here we present two confirmed cases of NCL in Alpenländische Dachsbracke dogs from different litters of the same sire with a different dam harboring the same underlying novel mutation in the CLN8 gene. Case 1, a 2-year-old male Alpenländische Dachsbracke was presented with neurological signs including disorientation, character changes including anxiety states and aggressiveness, sudden blindness and reduction of food intake...
December 19, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941298/degenerative-myelopathy-in-the-collie-breed-a-retrospective-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-superoxide-dismutase-1-in-an-affected-rough-collie-and-a-molecular-epidemiological-survey-of-the-sod1-c-118g-a-mutation-in-japan
#8
Moeko Kohyama, Masato Kitagawa, Hiroaki Kamishina, Yui Kobatake, Akira Yabuki, Mariko Sawa, Shusaku Kakita, Osamu Yamato
Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is an adult-onset, progressive neurodegenerative disease that occurs in multiple dog breeds. A DM-associated mutation of the canine superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, designated as c.118G>A (p.E40K), has been implicated as one of pathogenetic determinants of the disease in many breeds, but it remains to be determined whether the c.118G>A mutation is responsible for development or progression of DM in Collies. Previously, a Rough Collie was diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as having DM in Japan, suggesting the possibility that the Collie breed may be predisposed to DM due to the high frequency of c...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862599/effects-of-image-plane-patient-positioning-and-foraminal-zone-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-measurements-of-canine-lumbosacral-intervertebral-foramina
#9
Claudia Zindl, Russell L Tucker, Jelena Jovanovik, Constanza Gomez Alvarez, David Price, Noel Fitzpatrick
Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis has been suspected to have a dynamic component, especially regarding encroachment of the L7 nerve roots exiting the lumbosacral foramina. Angled cross-sectional imaging of the neuroforamina has been found improve the accuracy of the diagnosis of stenosis in humans. In this anatomic study, foraminal apertures were evaluated by MRI at the entry, middle, and exit zones of the nerve roots in 30 dogs that were clinically affected by lumbosacral disease. Standard vs. oblique planar orientation and neutral vs...
November 16, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858587/the-feasibility-study-of-extradural-nerve-anastomosis-technique-for-canine-bladder-reinnervation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Jian Tang, Jun Ma, Lei Yang, Xinpeng Huang, Yingbin Ge, Tao Sui, Zhongqing Wei, Xiaojian Cao
OBJECTIVE: Intradural nerve anastomosis for bladder innervation has been demonstrated to be useful. However, its clinical application remains limited because of the complex surgery, its complications and extensive bony destruction. The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the feasibility of extradural spinal root anastomosis for bladder innervation in canines. METHODS: Ten beagle dogs were used. The length of the extradural segment of the nerve root, upper nerve root outlet (the point at which it emerges from the spinal dura mater) to S2 (dS2), the S3 (dS3) nerve root outlet distance, and the diameters of the extradural spinal roots were measured...
November 2016: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834287/naphthoquine-induced-central-nervous-system-and-hepatic-vasculocentric-toxicity-in-the-beagle-dog
#11
Jean-Rene Galarneau, Emily K Meseck, Robert L Hall, Wenkui Li, Margaret L Weaver
Naphthoquine phosphate (NP) was considered as a partner drug with a promising antimalarial drug candidate. Here we report unexpected adverse clinical signs and microscopic findings in a canine pilot toxicology study with NP. Male and female dogs were dosed daily by oral gavage with NP at 2, 10, or 50 mg/kg/day for a maximum of 14 days. NP was not tolerated at ≥10 mg/kg/day; several animals were sacrificed in moribund condition and marked neurological clinical signs were noted at 50 mg/kg/day. The main microscopic observation was central nervous system vasculocentric inflammation (mainly lymphocytes and macrophages) in the white and gray matter of various regions of the brain at ≥2 mg/kg/day and at lower incidence in the spinal cord at ≥10 mg/kg/day...
November 9, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755493/mutation-of-the-planar-cell-polarity-gene-vangl1-in-adolescent-idiopathic-scoliosis
#12
Malene Rask Andersen, Muhammad Farooq, Karen Koefoed, Klaus W Kjaer, Ane Simony, Sren Tvorup Christensen, Lars Allan Larsen
STUDY DESIGN: Mutation analysis of a candidate disease gene in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). OBJECTIVE: To investigate if damaging mutations in the planar cell polarity gene VANGL1 could be identified in AIS patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: AIS is a spinal deformity which occurs in 1-3% of the population. The cause of AIS is often unknown, but genetic factors are important in the etiology...
October 17, 2016: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723239/spinal-mast-cell-tumors-in-dogs-imaging-features-and-clinical-outcome-of-four-cases
#13
Trevor W Moore, R Timothy Bentley, Sarah A Moore, Michele Provencher, Emma E Warry, Rebecca Kohnken, Hock Gan Heng
Published information regarding canine vertebral column mast cell tumors (MCTs) is limited. The objectives of this study were to report clinical and advanced imaging findings for a group of dogs with confirmed spinal MCT. Inclusion criteria for this retrospective case series were dogs with spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans and a histological diagnosis of spinal MCT. Clinical, imaging, treatment, and outcome data were recorded. Four dogs met inclusion criteria. One dog had primary spinal MCT and three dogs had metastatic spinal MCT...
October 9, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708448/diagnostic-value-of-creatine-kinase-activity-in-canine-cerebrospinal-fluid
#14
Alexandra Ferreira
This study aimed to determine whether creatine kinase (CK) activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has diagnostic value for various groups of neurological conditions or for different anatomical areas of the nervous system (NS). The age, breed, results of CSF analysis, and diagnosis of 578 canine patients presenting with various neurological conditions between January 2009 and February 2015 were retrospectively collected. The cases were divided according to anatomical areas of the nervous system, i.e., brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nervous system, and into groups according to the nature of the condition diagnosed: vascular, immune/inflammatory/infectious, traumatic, toxic, anomalous, metabolic, idiopathic, neoplastic, and degenerative...
October 2016: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27614113/distribution-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-hucb-mscs-in-canines-after-intracerebroventricular-injection
#15
Sang Eon Park, Na-Yeon Jung, Na Kyung Lee, Jeongmin Lee, Brian Hyung, Su Hyeon Myeong, Hyeong Seop Kim, Yeon-Lim Suh, Jung-Il Lee, Kyung Rae Cho, Do Hyung Kim, Soo Jin Choi, Jong Wook Chang, Duk L Na
In this study, we investigated the distribution of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) administered via intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection in a canine model. Ten beagles (11-13 kg per beagle) each received an injection of 1 × 10(6) cells into the right lateral ventricle and were sacrificed 7 days after administration. Based on immunohistochemical analysis, hUCB-MSCs were observed in the brain parenchyma, especially along the lateral ventricular walls. Detected as far as 3...
August 12, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586469/effect-of-canine-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-overexpressing-heme-oxygenase-1-in-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Seung Hoon Lee, Yongsun Kim, Daeun Rhew, Ahyoung Kim, Kwang Rae Jo, Yongseok Yoon, Kyeung Uk Choi, Taeseong Jung, Wan Hee Kim, Oh-Kyeong Kweon
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-responsive enzyme that modulate immune response and oxidative stress associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). This study aimed to investigate neuronal regeneration by transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) overexpressing HO-1. Canine MSCs overexpressing HO-1 were generated using a lentivirus packaging protocol. Eight beagle dogs with experimentally-induced SCI were GFP-labeled MSCs (MSC-GFP) and HO-1 overexpressed MSCs (MSC-HO-1) groups. MSCs (1 × 107 cells) were transplanted at 1 week after SCI...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586197/strategies-in-regenerative-medicine-for-intervertebral-disc-repair-using-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-bioscaffolds
#17
James Melrose
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is a major weight bearing structure that undergoes degenerative changes with aging limiting its ability to dissipate axial spinal loading in an efficient manner resulting in the generation of low back pain. Low back pain is a number one global musculoskeletal disorder with massive socioeconomic impact. The WHO has nominated development of mesenchymal stem cells and bioscaffolds to promote IVD repair as primary research objectives. There is a clear imperative for the development of strategies to effectively treat IVD defects...
October 2016: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465316/single-institution-variability-in-intensity-modulated-radiation-target-delineation-for-canine-nasal-neoplasia
#18
Neil I Christensen, Lisa J Forrest, Pamela J White, Margaret Henzler, Michelle M Turek
Contouring variability is a significant barrier to the accurate delivery and reporting of radiation therapy. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the variation in contouring radiation targets and organs at risk by participants within our institution. Further, we also aimed to determine if all individuals contoured the same normal tissues. Two canine nasal tumor datasets were selected and contoured by two ACVR-certified radiation oncologists and two radiation oncology residents from the same institution...
July 28, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27433936/alfaxalone-anaesthesia-facilitates-electrophysiological-recordings-of-nociceptive-withdrawal-reflexes-in-dogs-canis-familiaris
#19
James Hunt, Jo Murrell, David Knazovicky, John Harris, Sara Kelly, Toby G Knowles, B Duncan X Lascelles
Naturally occurring canine osteoarthritis represents a welfare issue for affected dogs (Canis familiaris), but is also considered very similar to human osteoarthritis and has therefore been proposed as a model of disease in humans. Central sensitisation is recognized in human osteoarthritis sufferers but identification in dogs is challenging. Electromyographic measurement of responses to nociceptive stimulation represents a potential means of investigating alterations in central nociceptive processing, and has been evaluated in conscious experimental dogs, but is likely to be aversive...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423610/canine-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-from-the-olfactory-mucosa-can-be-engineered-to-produce-active-chondroitinase-abc
#20
Darren Carwardine, Liang-Fong Wong, James W Fawcett, Elizabeth M Muir, Nicolas Granger
A multitude of factors must be overcome following spinal cord injury (SCI) in order to achieve clinical improvement in patients. It is thought that by combining promising therapies these diverse factors could be combatted with the aim of producing an overall improvement in function. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) present in the glial scar that forms following SCI present a significant block to axon regeneration. Digestion of CSPGs by chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) leads to axon regeneration, neuronal plasticity and functional improvement in preclinical models of SCI...
August 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
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